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Lourdes Valadez-Carmona, Rosa María Cortez-García, Carla Patricia Plazola-Jacinto, Hugo Necoechea-Mondragón, Alicia Ortiz-Moreno
The coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) husk is basically composed by fiber and pith material and remained under-utilized. This is an important source of phenolic compounds that could be used as functional ingredients. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of: oven-drying (OD) and microwave drying (MD), on the water activity, color, phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity of coconut husk. The OD was performed at 60 °C for 12 h and MD was performed at 900 W for 10 min. The total phenolic content (TPC) in fresh coconut husk was 64...
September 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Daniel J Peart, Andy Hensby, Matthew P Shaw
The purpose of this study was to compare markers of hydration during sub-maximal exercise and subsequent time trial performance when consuming water (PW) or coconut water (CW). There was also a secondary aim to assess the palatability of CW during exercise and voluntary intake during intense exercise. 10 males (age 27.9 + 4.9 years, body mass 78.1 + 10.1kg, average max minute power 300.2 + 28.2W) completed 60-min of sub-maximal cycling followed by a 10-km time trial on two occasions. During these trials participants consumed either PW or CW in a randomised manner, drinking a 250 ml of the assigned drink between 10-15 min, 25-30 min and 40-45 min, and then drinking ad libitum from 55-min until the end of the time trial...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Barbara U Daufanamae, Richard C Franklin, Jackie Eagers
INTRODUCTION: Unintentional injuries (injuries for which there is no evidence of a predetermined intent) are one of the leading causes of death worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although evidence demonstrates unintentional injuries are preventable it is a public health challenge for many LMICs such as the Solomon Islands. Occupational therapists are well placed to contribute to injury prevention, as they have specialised skills to analyse the accessibility and safety of the environments within which people conduct their daily occupations...
October 2016: Rural and Remote Health
Janine Donaldson, Michael Taurai Madziva, Kennedy Honey Erlwanger
Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the impact of high-fat diets composed of different animal and vegetable fat sources on serum metabolic health markers in Japanese quail, as well as the overall lipid content and fatty acid profiles of the edible bird tissues following significantly increased dietary lipid supplementation. Methods: Fifty seven male quail were divided into six groups and fed either a standard diet or a diet enriched with one of five different fats (22 % coconut oil, lard, palm oil, soybean oil or sunflower oil) for 12 weeks...
October 20, 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Ahmad H Ibrahim, Md Shamsuddin Sultan Khan, Sawsan S Al-Rawi, Aman Shah Bin Abdul Majid, Dan Ji, Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid
Fermented Virgin Coconut Oil (FVCO) is widely used in the Southeast Asia as food and traditional medicine. The objective of the present study is the evaluation of chronic safety of the commercialized FVCO of Malaysia and other Southeast Asian countries. A single dose of 5000 mg/kg of FVCO was administered orally in rats (each group, n = 5) for the acute toxicity study and 175, 550 and 2000 mg/kg for sub-chronic and chronic studies (each group, n = 10), respectively. The behavior, mortality, and body weight of the rats were assessed to determine the toxic effects of FVCO...
October 15, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
L A Trujillo-Cayado, M C Alfaro, M C García, J Muñoz
In recent years, interest in submicron emulsions has increased due to their high stability and potential applications in the encapsulation and release of active ingredients in many industrial fields, such as the food industry, pharmaceuticals or agrochemicals. Furthermore, the social demand for eco-friendly solutions to replace hazardous solvents in many dispersion formulations has steadily risen. In this study, the influence of surfactant concentration on the formation and physical stability of submicron oil-in-water emulsions using a high-pressure dual-channel homogenizer (microfluidizer) has been investigated...
October 11, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Laurene Boateng, Richard Ansong, William B Owusu, Matilda Steiner-Asiedu
: Coconut and palm oils which were the major sources of dietary fats for centuries in most of West Africa have been branded as unhealthy highly saturated fats. Their consumption has been peddled to supposedly raise the level of blood cholesterol, thereby increasing the risk of coronary heart disease. This adverse view has led to a reduction in their consumption in West Africa and they have been substituted for imported vegetable oils. Recent information however, indicates some beneficial effects of these oils particularly their roles in nutrition, health and national development...
September 2016: Ghana Medical Journal
Ruey-Chee Weng
The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the interplay of dietary lipid sources and feeding regime in the transition from sow milk to solid food of abruptly weaned piglets. 144 weaned piglets were trained over a 15 day period to experience gradually reducing dietary fat content from 12% to 6% for lard (L), soybean oil (S) and coconut oil (C) and their feeding behavior and diet preference then tested in a behavior observation experiment. Another 324 weaned piglets were used in three consecutive feeding experiments to measure the effect of different dietary fats on performance and feed choice in the four weeks after abrupt weaning...
October 5, 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Hasan Awad Aljohi, Wanfei Liu, Qiang Lin, Yuhui Zhao, Jingyao Zeng, Ali Alamer, Ibrahim O Alanazi, Abdullah O Alawad, Abdullah M Al-Sadi, Songnian Hu, Jun Yu
Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), a member of the palm family (Arecaceae), is one of the most economically important crops in tropics, serving as an important source of food, drink, fuel, medicine, and construction material. Here we report an assembly of the coconut (C. nucifera, Oman local Tall cultivar) mitochondrial (mt) genome based on next-generation sequencing data. This genome, 678,653bp in length and 45.5% in GC content, encodes 72 proteins, 9 pseudogenes, 23 tRNAs, and 3 ribosomal RNAs. Within the assembly, we find that the chloroplast (cp) derived regions account for 5...
2016: PloS One
Jovana Trbojević Ivić, Nenad Milosavić, Aleksandra Dimitrijević, Marija Gavrović Jankulović, Dejan Bezbradica, Dušan Kolarski, Dušan Veličković
A commercial preparation of Candida rugosa lipases (CRL) was tested for the production of capsinoids by esterification of vanillyl alcohol (VA) with free fatty acids (FA) and coconut oil (CO) as acyl donors. Screening of FA chain length indicated that C8-C12 FA (the most common FA found in CO triglycerides) are the best acyl-donors, yielding 80-85% of their specific capsinoids. Hence, when CO, which is rich in these FA, was used as the substrate, a mixture of capsinoids (vanillyl caprylate, vanillyl decanoate and vanillyl laurate) was obtained...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Eduardo Monteiro Martins, Priscila Falcão de Sá Borba, Neemias Espindola Dos Santos, Paula Thaise Bermudez Dos Reis, Renata Simões Silveira, Sergio Machado Corrêa
Indoor air quality is an increasing concern; it causes significant damage to health because it is recycled in confined environments for extended periods of time. Among the pollutants found in these environments, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) are known for their potential toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic effects. This study monitored the BTEX concentrations in paint, carpentry, and varnish workplaces and evaluated the potential to cause adverse health effects on workers in these environments...
November 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Chatree Saensuk, Samart Wanchana, Kiattawee Choowongkomon, Sugunya Wongpornchai, Tippaya Kraithong, Wachiraya Imsabai, Ekawat Chaichoompu, Vinitchan Ruanjaichon, Theerayut Toojinda, Apichart Vanavichit, Siwaret Arikit
Thailand's aromatic coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is a special type of green dwarf coconut, the liquid endosperm of which is characterized by a pleasant "pandan-like" aroma due to the presence of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP). The aim of this study was to perform a de novo assembly of transriptome from C. nucifera endosperm and to identify the gene responsible for 2AP biosynthesis. CnAMADH2 was identified as an ortholog of the rice aromatic gene and a G-to-C substitution found in exon 14 was associated with 2AP content in the aromatic green dwarf coconut accessions...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Arijit Das, Sourav Bhattacharya, Srividya Shivakumar, Sujina Shakya, Swathi Shankar Sogane
Filamentous fungi are efficient producers of lipases. The present study focuses on identification of a potent lipolytic fungus and enhancement of lipase production through optimization of nutritional and cultural conditions under submerged fermentation. Molecular characterization of the fungus by 18S rDNA sequencing revealed its identity as Aspergillus tamarii with 98% homology. Maximum lipase production was noted in mineral salts medium supplemented with coconut oil (2.5%, v/v). A combination of ammonium chloride (2%, w/v) and tryptone (2%, w/v) facilitated maximum lipase production at pH 5 of the production medium...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Christopher K Thompson, Hollis T Cline
: Thyroid hormone (TH) regulates many cellular events underlying perinatal brain development in vertebrates. Whether and how TH regulates brain development when neural circuits are first forming is less clear. Furthermore, although the molecular mechanisms that impose spatiotemporal constraints on TH action in the brain have been described, the effects of local TH signaling are poorly understood. We determined the effects of manipulating TH signaling on development of the optic tectum in stage 46-49 Xenopus laevis tadpoles...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
A Vongvanrungruang, C Mongkolsiriwatana, T Boonkaew, O Sawatdichaikul, K Srikulnath, S Peyachoknagul
The fragrance gene, betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Badh2), has been well studied in many plant species. The objectives of this study were to clone Badh2 and compare the sequences between aromatic and non-aromatic coconuts. The complete coding region was cloned from cDNA of both aromatic and non-aromatic coconuts. The nucleotide sequences were highly homologous to Badh2 genes of other plants. Badh2 consisted of a 1512-bp open reading frame encoding 503 amino acids. A single nucleotide difference between aromatic and non-aromatic coconuts resulted in the conversion of alanine (non-aromatic) to proline (aromatic) at position 442, which was the substrate binding site of BADH2...
September 19, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Mazhar Hussian, Abdul Qudoos Arain, Sadia Chiragh
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the anti-dyslipidaemic effects of pioglitazone in diet-induced non-diabetic hyperlipidaemic rats and to compare them with gemfibrozil. METHODS: This comparative animal study was conducted at the Postgraduate Medical Institute, Lahore, Pakistan, from July to September 2011, and comprised Sprague Dawley albino rats divided into three equal groups. Initially all three groups were given high-lipid diet containing cholesterol 1.5g, coconut oil 8ml and sodium cholate 1...
October 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Devi Lekshmi Sheela, Puthiyaveetil Abdulla Nazeem, Arunaksharan Narayanankutty, Jeksy Jos Manalil, Achuthan C Raghavamenon
The coconut oil (CO) contains 91 % of saturated fatty acids in which 72 % are medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) like lauric, capric and caprylic acids. In contrast to animal fat, coconut oil has no cholesterol. Despite this fact, CO is sidelined among other vegetable oils due to the health hazards attributed to the saturated fatty acids. Though various medicinal effects of CO have been reported including the hypolipidemic activity, people are still confused in the consumption of this natural oil. In silico analyses and wet lab experiments have been carried out to identify the hypolipidemic properties of MCFAs and phenolic acids in CO by using different protein targets involved in cholesterol synthesis...
September 27, 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Magali Picard, Gilles de Revel, Stéphanie Marchand
The p-menthane lactones constitute a family of powerful odorants, including the isomers of mintlactone and menthofurolactone that occur naturally in peppermint oil, known for their potent, mint-like olfactory properties. These lactones are closely related to the monoterpene-limonene secondary biotransformation and menthofuran has been identified as their common precursor in Mentha species. Using targeted GC-olfactometry and GC-MS analyses, together with quantification methods, we were able to demonstrate, for the first time, the presence of the diastereoisomers of these p-menthane lactones, as well as their common precursor, menthofuran, in red wines...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Thiago Gonzalez Barbosa-Silva, Ana Maria Baptista Menezes, Renata Moraes Bielemann, Theodore K Malmstrom, Maria Cristina Gonzalez
OBJECTIVES: To validate the (Brazilian) Portuguese-translated version of the SARC-F questionnaire and to verify its performance in the separate sarcopenia screening and muscle function evaluation contexts. In addition, by associating SARC-F to an anthropometric measurement (as an estimate of muscle mass), to test for improvements in its sarcopenia screening efficacy. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Urban population of Pelotas, a middle-sized city in Southern Brazil...
September 17, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Ingunn Narverud, Mari C W Myhrstad, Karl-Heinz Herzig, Toni Karhu, Tuva B Dahl, Bente Halvorsen, Stine M Ulven, Kirsten B Holven
Peptides released from the small intestine and colon regulate short-term food intake by suppressing appetite and inducing satiety. Intake of marine omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) from fish and fish oils is associated with beneficial health effects, whereas the relation between intake of the vegetable n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid and diseases is less clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the postprandial effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 FAs with their different unsaturated fatty acid composition on intestinal peptide release and the adipose tissue...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
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