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Xiuhang Chai, Zong Meng, Jiang Jiang, Peirang Cao, Xinyu Liang, Michael Piatko, Shawn Campbell, Seong Koon Lo, Yuanfa Liu
PKO and CNO are composed of 97-98% triacylglycerols and 2-3% minor non-triglyceride components (FFA, DAG and MAG). Triglycerides were separated from minor components by chromatographic method. The lipid composition, thermal properties, polymorphism, isothermal crystallization behavior, nanostructure and microstructure of PKO, PKO-TAG, CNO and CNO-TAG were evaluated. Removal of minor components had no effect on lipid composition and equilibrium solid fat contents. However, presence of minor components did increase the slip melting point and promoted the onset of crystallization from DSC crystallization profiles...
March 2018: Food Research International
Laura M Bolt, Amy L Schreier, Kristofor A Voss, Elizabeth A Sheehan, Nancy L Barrickman, Nathaniel P Pryor, Matthew C Barton
When a forest is fragmented, this increases the amount of forest edge relative to the interior. Edge effects can lead to loss of animal and plant species and decreased plant biomass near forest edges. We examined the influence of an anthropogenic forest edge comprising cattle pasture, coconut plantations, and human settlement on the mantled howler (Alouatta palliata), white-faced capuchin (Cebus capucinus), Central American spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi), and plant populations at La Suerte Biological Research Station (LSBRS), Costa Rica...
February 6, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Victor Hugo Luis-Zarate, Mayra Cecilia Rodriguez-Hernandez, Felipe Alatriste-Mondragon, Luis Felipe Chazaro-Ruiz, Jose Rene Rangel-Mendez
Health and environmental problems associated with the presence of toxic aromatic compounds in water from oil spills have motivated research to develop effective and economically viable strategies to remove these pollutants. In this work, coconut shell (endocarp), coconut fiber (mesocarp) and coconut shell with fiber (endocarp and mesocarp) obtained from coconut (Cocos nucifera) waste were evaluated as biosorbents of benzene, toluene and naphthalene from water, considering the effect of the solution pH (6-9) and the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in natural water (14 mg/L)...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
R Pradeep Kumar, Anil John, Praveen Kumar, K V Dinesh Babu, D A Evans
BACKGROUND: Oryctes rhinoceros Linn. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is one of the serious pests of coconuts and other palms. Symbiotic gut bacteria play significant roles in digestion of cellulosic materials as well as in some other physiological processes essential for the existence of the O. rhinoceros larvae. The study was undertaken to isolate compound with antibacterial and larvicidal activities from the leaves of Adiantum latifolium Lam. following bioassay-guided method. RESULT: Methanol extract (ME) of dry leaf powder of A...
February 2, 2018: Pest Management Science
Asir Gani, Soottawat Benjakul, Pornpot Nuthong
Effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) at various levels (0-25%) on the properties of croaker surimi gels were studied. As the levels of VCO increased up to 15%, breaking force continuously decreased. No differences in breaking force, deformation and fracture constant were noticeable when VCO of 15-25% was incorporated. Based on texture profile analysis, hardness and chewiness decreased as the level of added VCO increased up to 10%, while no marked changes were observed with the addition of 10-25% VCO. Addition of VCO had no profound impact on springiness, cohesiveness and resilience...
February 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Manreet Singh Bhullar, Ankit Patras, Agnes Kilanzo-Nthenge, Bharat Pokharel, Sudheer Kumar Yannam, Kanyasiri Rakariyatham, Che Pan, Hang Xiao, Michael Sasges
A continuous-flow UV reactor operating at 254nm wave-length was used to investigate inactivation of microorganisms including bacteriophage in coconut water, a highly opaque liquid food. UV-C inactivation kinetics of two surrogate viruses (MS2, T1UV) and three bacteria (E. coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 13311, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115) in buffer and coconut water were investigated (D10 values ranging from 2.82 to 4.54mJ·cm-2). A series of known UV-C doses were delivered to the samples...
January 2018: Food Research International
Ademola Clement Famurewa, Fidelis Ebele Ejezie
Objective: Literature has confirmed the pathogenic role of cadmium (Cd) and its exposure in the induction of dyslipidemia implicated in the development and increasing incidence of cardiovascular diseases. The current study explored whether polyphenolics isolated from virgin coconut oil (VCO) prevent Cd-induced dyslipidemia and investigate the underlying mechanism of action, in rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were pretreated with VCO polyphenols (10, 20 and 50 mg/kg body weight; orally) 2 weeks prior to concurrent Cd administration (5 mg/kg) for 5 weeks...
January 2018: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
Wasiu Awoyale, Robert Asiedu, William K C Kawalawu, Busie Maziya-Dixon, Adebayo Abass, Michael Edet, Medinat O Adetunji
Cassava is a staple mostly eaten in the form of gari, after rice in Liberia. The local method of gari processing often leads to product contamination, thus, a study was done to assess the heavy metals and microbial contamination of gari in eight counties of the country. A total of sixty-one gari samples were collected and packaged in an airtight polyethylene bag for analyses, using standard methods. Results depict that the mean of the heavy metals in the gari samples is iron (Fe) 43.87 ppm, copper (Cu) 0.94 ppm, zinc (Zn) 5...
January 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Mariane T de Paula, Márcia R P Silva, Stífani M Araújo, Vandreza C Bortolotto, Illana K Martins, Giulianna E Macedo, Jeferson L Franco, Thaís Posser, Marina Prigol
Maternal obesity and metabolic diseases are two of the most important potential dangers to offspring, given that impaired offspring may cause deficiencies that impair the adult life and health. This study evaluated the oxidative damage, the enzymatic antioxidant defenses, and the enzymes of fatty acid metabolism, such as Acyl-CoA Synthetase and Acetyl-CoA Synthetase (mRNA expression levels), as well as the modulation of cell stress signaling pathway, as Hsp83, and gene expression and insulin-like peptide DILP6 in Drosophila melanogaster models that received a high fat diet (HFD) (10% and 20% of coconut oil) throughout their development period...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Mark E Laidre
Mark Laidre introduces the coconut crab (Birgus latro), the world's largest terrestrial invertebrate.
January 22, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Sabitha Palazhy, Prakash Kamath, D M Vasudevan
Coconut oil has been used by the people of Kerala as a cooking medium for several decades. Due to its alleged hypercholesterolemic activity, general population in recent times is shifting to cooking oils rich in polyunsaturated fats, the most popular being sunflower oil. The effect of long-term consumption of sunflower oil on oxidative stress in humans is not well investigated. We studied oxidative stress among coronary artery disease (CAD) patients who were consuming coconut oil or sunflower oil as a part of their routine diet...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
K S Shameer, M Nasser, Chandrika Mohan, Ian C W Hardy
Coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) infestation by Opisina arenosella (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae) in the Indian subcontinent may occur in November to May each year in the same or adjoining areas of plantations. Parasitoids of O. arenosella may also be consistently present at these times. During other periods, pests and/or parasitoids could be maintained on intercrops that are commonly grown throughout the year. Field surveys of 54 intercrop species in Kerala, India, found that O. arenosella attacks banana, but not others, while laboratory screening showed that O...
2018: Journal of Pest Science
Courtney C Choy, Dongqing Wang, Ana Baylin, Christina Soti-Ulberg, Take Naseri, Muagututia S Reupena, Avery A Thompson, Rachel L Duckham, Nicola L Hawley
OBJECTIVE: Among young Samoan children, diet may not be optimal: in 2015, 16·1 % of 24-59-month-olds were overweight/obese, 20·3 % stunted and 34·1 % anaemic. The present study aimed to identify dietary patterns among 24-59-month-old Samoan children and evaluate their association with: (i) child, maternal and household characteristics; and (ii) nutritional status indicators (stunting, overweight/obesity, anaemia). DESIGN: A community-based, cross-sectional study...
January 24, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Amita Devi, B S Khatkar
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of fatty acid composition and microstructure properties of fats and oils on the textural properties of cookie dough and quality attributes of cookies. Fatty acid composition and microstructure properties of six fats and oils (butter, hydrogenated fat, palm oil, coconut oil, groundnut oil, and sunflower oil) were analyzed. Sunflower oil was found to be the most unsaturated oil with 88.39% unsaturated fatty acid content. Coconut oil and palm oil differed from other fats and oils by having an appreciable amount of lauric acid (59...
January 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Achmad Syafiuddin, Salmiati Salmiati, Tony Hadibarata, Ahmad Beng Hong Kueh, Mohd Razman Salim, Muhammad Abbas Ahmad Zaini
The current status of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in the water environment in Malaysia was examined and reported. For inspection, two rivers and two sewage treatment plants (STPs) were selected. Two activated carbons derived from oil palm (ACfOPS) and coconut (ACfCS) shells were proposed as the adsorbent to remove AgNPs. It was found that the concentrations of AgNPs in the rivers and STPs are in the ranges of 0.13 to 10.16 mg L-1 and 0.13 to 20.02 mg L-1, respectively, with the highest concentration measured in July...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Samantha J Snow, Wan-Yun Cheng, Andres Henriquez, Myles Hodge, Virgina Bass, Gail M Nelson, Gleta Carswell, Judy E Richards, Mette C Schladweiler, Allen D Ledbetter, Brian Chorley, Kymberly M Gowdy, Haiyan Tong, Urmila P Kodavanti
Fish, olive, and coconut oil dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if they protect against air pollution-induced adverse effects. We hypothesized that these dietary supplements would attenuate ozone-induced systemic and pulmonary effects. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were fed either a normal diet, or a diet supplemented with fish, olive, or coconut oil for 8 weeks. Animals were then exposed to air or ozone (0.8 ppm), 4h/day for 2 days. Ozone exposure increased phenylephrine-induced aortic vasocontraction, which was completely abolished in rats fed the fish oil diet...
January 10, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Ramaswamy Manimekalai, Smita Nair, A Naganeeswaran, Anitha Karun, Suresh Malhotra, V Hubbali
Areca catechu L. belongs to the Arecaceae family which comprises many economically important palms. The palm is a source of alkaloids and carotenoids. The lack of ample genetic information in public databases has been a constraint for the genetic improvement of arecanut. To gain molecular insight into the palm, high throughput RNA sequencing and de novo assembly of arecanut leaf transcriptome was undertaken in the present study. A total 56,321,907 paired end reads of 101 bp length consisting of 11.343 Gb nucleotides were generated...
March 2018: Biotechnology Reports
Manuella Verdinelli de Paula Reis, Carlos José Soares, Priscilla Barbosa Ferreira Soares, Aletheia Moraes Rocha, Cristiane Clemente de Mello Salgueiro, Márcia Helena Niza Ramalho Sobral, Camilla Christian Gomes Moura
BACKGROUND/AIM: A newly developed powdered coconut water formulae (ACP-404) has been proposed to preserve periodontal ligament cell viability. The aim of this study was to investigate the periodontal healing of dog teeth replanted after storage in ACP-404 with two different osmolalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty teeth of 10 adult beagle dogs were extracted and randomly subjected to the following protocols: immediate replantation after extraction (positive control); dry conditions (negative control); and storage in ACP-404 I (G1), ACP-404 II (G2), in coconut water long-shelf (G3), or in pH-neutralized coconut water long-shelf (G4) for 50 minutes before replantation...
January 5, 2018: Dental Traumatology: Official Publication of International Association for Dental Traumatology
Flávio V Nakadi, Caroline Prodanov, Wiliam Boschetti, Maria Goreti R Vale, Bernhard Welz, Jailson B de Andrade
Thermochemical processes can convert the biomass into fuels, such as bio-oil. The biomass submitted to pyrolysis process, such as fibers, are generally rich in silicon, an element that can lead to damages in an engine when there is high concentration in a fuel. High-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS AAS) is an interesting alternative for Si determination in the products and byproducts of the pyrolysis process because, besides the flame (F) and graphite furnace (GF) atomizers, it has enhanced the application of direct analysis of solid samples (SS) within GF...
March 1, 2018: Talanta
Michael L Oliveira, Geovani C Brandao, Jailson B de Andrade, Sergio L C Ferreira
This work proposes a method for the determination of free and total sulfur(IV) compounds in coconut water samples, using the high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry. It is based on the measurement of the absorbance signal of the SO2 gas generate, which is resultant of the addition of hydrochloric acid solution on the sample containing the sulfating agent. The sulfite bound to the organic compounds is released by the addition of sodium hydroxide solution, before the generation of the SO2 gas...
March 1, 2018: Talanta
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