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Evidence based emergency medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088378/antimicrobial-coated-implants-in-trauma-and-orthopaedics-a-clinical-review-and-risk-benefit-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Volker Alt
Implant-associated infections remain a major issue in orthopaedics and antimicrobial functionalization of the implant surface by antibiotics or other anti-infective agents have gained interest. The goal of this article is to identify antimicrobial coatings, for which clinical data are available and to review their clinical need, safety profile, and their efficacy to reduce infection rates. PubMed database of the National Library of Medicine was searched for clinical studies on antimicrobial coated implants for internal fracture fixation devices and endoprostheses for bone surgery, for which study design, level of evidence, biocompatibility, development of resistance, and effectiveness to reduce infection rates were analyzed...
December 21, 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077195/evidence-based-medicine-in-the-era-of-social-media-scholarly-engagement-through-participation-and-online-interaction
#2
Teresa Chan, N Seth Trueger, Damian Roland, Brent Thoma
The integration of new knowledge into clinical practice continues to lag behind discovery. The use of Free Open Access Medical education (FOAM) has disrupted communication between emergency physicians, making it easy for practicing clinicians to interact with colleagues from around the world to discuss the latest and highest impact research. FOAM has the potential to decrease the knowledge translation gap, but the concerns raised about its growing influence are 1) research that is translated too quickly may cause harm if its findings are incorrect; 2) there is little editorial oversight of online material; and 3) eminent online individuals may develop an outsized influence on clinical practice...
January 12, 2017: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076656/combined-inhaled-beta-agonist-and-anticholinergic-agents-for-emergency-management-in-adults-with-asthma
#3
REVIEW
Scott W Kirkland, Christine Vandenberghe, Britt Voaklander, Taylor Nikel, Sandra Campbell, Brian H Rowe
BACKGROUND: Inhaled short-acting anticholinergics (SAAC) and short-acting beta₂-agonists (SABA) are effective therapies for adult patients with acute asthma who present to the emergency department (ED). It is unclear, however, whether the combination of SAAC and SABA treatment is more effective in reducing hospitalisations compared to treatment with SABA alone. OBJECTIVES: To conduct an up-to-date systematic search and meta-analysis on the effectiveness of combined inhaled therapy (SAAC + SABA agents) vs...
January 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067181/pediatric-information-seeking-behaviour-information-needs-and-information-preferences-of-health-care-professionals-in-general-emergency-departments-results-from-the-translating-emergency-knowledge-for-kids-trekk-needs-assessment
#4
Shannon D Scott, Lauren Albrecht, Lisa M Given, Lisa Hartling, David W Johnson, Mona Jabbour, Terry P Klassen
: The majority of children requiring emergency care are treated in general emergency departments (EDs) with variable levels of pediatric care expertise. The goal of the Translating Emergency Knowledge for Kids (TREKK) initiative is to implement the latest research in pediatric emergency medicine in general EDs to reduce clinical variation. OBJECTIVES: To determine national pediatric information needs, seeking behaviours, and preferences of health care professionals working in general EDs...
January 9, 2017: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059802/recent-progress-in-translational-research-on-neurovascular-and-neurodegenerative-disorders
#5
Hans-Ulrich Demuth, Rick M Dijkhuizen, Tracy D Farr, Mathias Gelderblom, Karen Horsburgh, Costantino Iadecola, Damian D Mcleod, Dominik Michalski, Tim H Murphy, Josune Orbe, Willem M Otte, Gabor C Petzold, Nikolaus Plesnila, Georg Reiser, Klaus G Reymann, Maria A Rueger, Dorothee Saur, Sean I Savitz, Stephan Schilling, Neil J Spratt, Renée J Turner, Raghu Vemuganti, Denis Vivien, Manuel Yepes, Marietta Zille, Johannes Boltze
The already established and widely used intravenous application of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator as a re-opening strategy for acute vessel occlusion in ischemic stroke was recently added by mechanical thrombectomy, representing a fundamental progress in evidence-based medicine to improve the patient's outcome. This has been paralleled by a swift increase in our understanding of pathomechanisms underlying many neurovascular diseases and most prevalent forms of dementia. Taken together, these current advances offer the potential to overcome almost two decades of marginally successful translational research on stroke and dementia, thereby spurring the entire field of translational neuroscience...
January 3, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050654/misalignments-of-purpose-and-power-in-an-early-canadian-interprofessional-education-initiative
#6
Sarah Whyte, Elise Paradis, Carrie Cartmill, Ayelet Kuper, Heather Boon, Corinne Hart, Saleem Razack, Mandy Pipher, Cynthia R Whitehead
Interprofessional education (IPE) has been widely incorporated into health professional curricula and accreditation standards despite an arguably thin base of evidence regarding its clinical effects, theoretical underpinnings, and social implications. To better understand how and why IPE first took root, but failed to grow, this study examines one of the earliest documented IPE initiatives, which took place at the University of British Columbia between 1960 and 1975. We examined a subset of 110 texts (academic literature, grey literature, and unpublished records) from a larger study that uses Critical Discourse Analysis to trace the emergence of IPE in Canada...
January 3, 2017: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042926/the-potential-impact-of-gut-microbiota-on-your-health-current-status-and-future-challenges
#7
Stitaya Sirisinha
Our health and probably also our behaviors and mood depend not only on what we eat or what we do (lifestyle behaviors), but also on what we host. It is well established for decades that all vertebrates including humans are colonized by a wide array of bacteria, fungi, eukaryotic parasites and viruses, and that, at steady state (homeostasis), this community of microbes establishes a friendly mutual relationship with the host. The term microbiota was originally meant to represent an ecological community of commensals and potentially pathogenic microbes that live within our bodies, but it is now used interchangeably with the term microbiome which was initially meant to represent a collective genome of the microbiota...
December 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040884/experts-perspectives-on-the-role-of-medical-marijuana-in-oncology-a-semi-structured-interview-study
#8
I M Braun, F L Meyer, J Gagne, L Nabati, D P Yuppa, M Carmona, H J Burstein, J Suzuki, M Nayak, Y Martins
BACKGROUND: Expansion of medical marijuana (MM) laws in the United States may offer oncology new therapeutic options. However, the scientific evidence for MM remains in infancy. This study qualitatively explored professional opinion around the role of MM in cancer care. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were administered to a sample of individuals with expertise at the interface of MM and oncology nationally. Key informant criteria included an oncologic clinical or research background and any of the following: publications, research, or lectures on cannabinoids or cancer symptoms; involvement in the development of MM dispensaries or legislation; early adoption of state MM certification procedures...
January 1, 2017: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032166/periorbital-and-intraorbital-studies-of-the-terminal-branches-of-the-ophthalmic-artery-for-periorbital-and-glabellar-filler-placements
#9
Tanvaa Tansatit, Prawit Apinuntrum, Thavorn Phetudom
BACKGROUND: Filler injections for sunken upper eyelid correction and glabellar augmentation at the orbitoglabellar region need to be performed correctly. Precise knowledge of the emerging sites of all terminal branches of the ophthalmic artery is essential for these procedures to be conducted safely. METHODS: The terminal branches of the ophthalmic artery were studied in both periorbital and intraorbital dissections. The aim of this study was to verify the critical positions of the emerging sites at the orbital septum that may act as potential retrograde channels for filler emboli...
December 28, 2016: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018753/genetic-determinants-of-swallowing-impairment-recovery-and-responsiveness-to-treatment
#10
REVIEW
Alicja Raginis-Zborowska, Neil Pendleton, Shaheen Hamdy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Here we review the latest literature and evidence in the field of genetics and determinants of swallowing and its treatments-specifically, this is a very recent concept in the field of oropharyngeal dysphagia, with only now an emerging research interest in the relationship between our genetic makeup and the effect this has on swallowing function and dysfunction. As such our review will look at preclinical, clinical and hypothesis generating research covering all aspects of the genetics of swallowing, giving new importance to the genotype-phenotype influences pertaining to dysphagia and its recovery...
2016: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018601/the-society-for-immunotherapy-of-cancer-consensus-statement-on-immunotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-hematologic-malignancies-multiple-myeloma-lymphoma-and-acute-leukemia
#11
Michael Boyiadzis, Michael R Bishop, Rafat Abonour, Kenneth C Anderson, Stephen M Ansell, David Avigan, Lisa Barbarotta, Austin John Barrett, Koen Van Besien, P Leif Bergsagel, Ivan Borrello, Joshua Brody, Jill Brufsky, Mitchell Cairo, Ajai Chari, Adam Cohen, Jorge Cortes, Stephen J Forman, Jonathan W Friedberg, Ephraim J Fuchs, Steven D Gore, Sundar Jagannath, Brad S Kahl, Justin Kline, James N Kochenderfer, Larry W Kwak, Ronald Levy, Marcos de Lima, Mark R Litzow, Anuj Mahindra, Jeffrey Miller, Nikhil C Munshi, Robert Z Orlowski, John M Pagel, David L Porter, Stephen J Russell, Karl Schwartz, Margaret A Shipp, David Siegel, Richard M Stone, Martin S Tallman, John M Timmerman, Frits Van Rhee, Edmund K Waller, Ann Welsh, Michael Werner, Peter H Wiernik, Madhav V Dhodapkar
Increasing knowledge concerning the biology of hematologic malignancies as well as the role of the immune system in the control of these diseases has led to the development and approval of immunotherapies that are resulting in impressive clinical responses. Therefore, the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) convened a hematologic malignancy Cancer Immunotherapy Guidelines panel consisting of physicians, nurses, patient advocates, and patients to develop consensus recommendations for the clinical application of immunotherapy for patients with multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and acute leukemia...
2016: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017435/informing-vaccine-decision-making-a-strategic-multi-attribute-ranking-tool-for-vaccines-smart-vaccines-2-0
#12
Stacey Knobler, Karin Bok, Bruce Gellin
SMART Vaccines 2.0 software is being developed to support decision-making among multiple stakeholders in the process of prioritizing investments to optimize the outcomes of vaccine development and deployment. Vaccines and associated vaccination programs are one of the most successful and effective public health interventions to prevent communicable diseases and vaccine researchers are continually working towards expanding targets for communicable and non-communicable diseases through preventive and therapeutic modes...
December 22, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007364/factor-eight-inhibitor-bypassing-agent-feiba-for-reversal-of-target-specific-oral-anticoagulants-in-life-threatening-intracranial-bleeding
#13
Gordon Mao, Lauren King, Sarah Young, Richard Kaplan
INTRODUCTION: As increasing number of patients present to emergency departments with life threatening hemorrhages, particularly intracranial hemorrhage on anticoagulation physicians must be cognizant of the limitations of the available reversal options. Based upon the available literature, our institution formulated a reversal algorithm for patients with life-threatening bleeding on factor Xa inhibitors by administering factor eight inhibitor bypassing agent (FEIBA) 20 units/kg. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed to include all patients who received FEIBA per institutional protocol...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003385/evidence-for-greater-forensic-education-of-all-psychiatry-residents
#14
Howard L Forman, David W Preven
Booth and his colleagues have made an important contribution to the emerging evidence base that shows education in forensic psychiatry topics can improve attitudes toward the field. Given the desinstitutionalization of those with severe mental illness from state psychiatric facilities and the incarceration of many individuals with severe mental illness in correctional facilities, the need to train many more psychiatrists with competence in correctional settings is clear. Simply training more forensic psychiatrists will not both meet the psychiatric needs of incarcerated patients and fulfill the essential roles forensic psychiatrists play in the justice system...
December 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998625/a-consensus-driven-agenda-for-emergency-medicine-firearm-injury-prevention-research
#15
Megan L Ranney, Jonathan Fletcher, Harrison Alter, Christopher Barsotti, Vikhyat S Bebarta, Marian E Betz, Patrick M Carter, Magdalena Cerdá, Rebecca M Cunningham, Peter Crane, Jahan Fahimi, Matthew J Miller, Ali Rowhani-Rahbar, Jody A Vogel, Garen J Wintemute, Manish N Shah, Muhammad Waseem
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To identify critical emergency medicine-focused firearm injury research questions and develop an evidence-based research agenda. METHODS: National content experts were recruited to a technical advisory group for the American College of Emergency Physicians Research Committee. Nominal group technique was used to identify research questions by consensus. The technical advisory group decided to focus on 5 widely accepted categorizations of firearm injury...
December 17, 2016: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995920/interplay-between-defects-disorder-and-flexibility-in-metal-organic-frameworks
#16
Thomas D Bennett, Anthony K Cheetham, Alain H Fuchs, François-Xavier Coudert
Metal-organic frameworks are a novel family of chemically diverse materials, which are of interest across engineering, physics, chemistry, biology and medicine-based disciplines. Since the development of the field in its current form more than two decades ago, priority has been placed on the synthesis of new structures. However, more recently, a clear trend has emerged in shifting the emphasis from material design to exploring the chemical and physical properties of structures already known. In particular, although such nanoporous materials were traditionally seen as rigid crystalline structures, there is growing evidence that large-scale flexibility, the presence of defects and long-range disorder are not the exception in metal-organic frameworks, but the rule...
December 20, 2016: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986495/current-strategies-for-the-long-term-assessment-monitoring-and-management-of-cystic-fibrosis-patients-treated-with-cftr-modulator-therapy
#17
J Stuart Elborn, Jane Davies, Marcus A Mall, Patrick A Flume, Barry Plant
The content for this activity is based on the satellite symposium, "Current Strategies for the Long-term Assessment, Monitoring, and Management for Cystic Fibrosis Patients Treated with CFTR Modulator Therapy" that was presented at the 39th European Cystic Fibrosis Society Conference on June 10, 2016 (Online access: http://courses.elseviercme.com/ecfs2016e/619e). The emergence of novel targeted agents, that directly correct CFTR loss function alleles, has created new treatment opportunities for patients with cystic fibrosis with advanced disease...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974430/towards-evidence-based-emergency-medicine-best-bets-from-the-manchester-royal-infirmary
#18
Kevin Mackway-Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974170/getting-it-right-the-first-time-defining-regionally-relevant-training-curricula-and-provider-core-competencies-for-point-of-care-ultrasound-education-on-the-african-continent
#19
Margaret Salmon, Megan Landes, Cheryl Hunchak, Justin Paluku, Luc Malemo Kalisya, Christian Salmon, Mundenga Mutendi Muller, Benjamin Wachira, James Mangan, Kajal Chhaganlal, Joseph Kalanzi, Aklilu Azazh, Sara Berman, El-Sayed Zied, Hein Lamprecht
Significant evidence identifies point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) as an important diagnostic and therapeutic tool in resource-limited settings. Despite this evidence, local health care providers on the African continent continue to have limited access to and use of ultrasound, even in potentially high-impact fields such as obstetrics and trauma. Dedicated postgraduate emergency medicine residency training programs now exist in 8 countries, yet no current consensus exists in regard to core PoCUS competencies...
December 11, 2016: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965781/preacutionary-labelling-of-cross-reactive-foods-the-case-of-rapeseed
#20
REVIEW
Alessandro Fiocchi, Lamia Dahdah, Carla Riccardi, Oscar Mazzina, Vincenzo Fierro
Food allergic individuals are exposed to unnecessary dietary restrictions due to precautionary food allergy labelling (PFAL). Two forms of PFAL exist: type I identifies the possible presence of allergenic contaminaion in foods ('may content…'), type II indicates as potentially dangerous ingredients or contaminants that do no belong to official list of food allergens. PFAL type II is based on the fear of cross-reactivity with foods belonging to that list. PFAL type II is less known, but may be tempting for the legal offices of food companies, for clinicians in a 'defensive medicine' key, and even for legislators...
2016: Asthma research and practice
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