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Altitude and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680577/hypoxia-induced-pulmonary-hypertension-in-type-2-diabetic-mice
#1
Minglin Pan, Ying Han, Rui Si, Rui Guo, Ankit Desai, Ayako Makino
Hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (HPH) is a progressive disease that is mainly caused by chronic exposure to high altitude, chronic obstructive lung disease, and obstructive sleep apnea. The increased pulmonary vascular resistance and increased pulmonary arterial pressure result in increased right ventricular afterload, leading to right heart failure and increased morbidity. There are several clinical reports suggesting a link between PH and diabetes, insulin resistance, or obesity; however, it is unclear whether HPH is associated with diabetes as a progressive complication in diabetes...
March 2017: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641682/health-effects-of-airline-cabin-environments-in-simulated-8-hour-flights
#2
(no author information available yet)
INTRODUCTION: Commercial air travel is usually without health incidents. However, there is a view that cabin environments may be detrimental to health, especially flights of 8 h or more. Concerns have been raised about deep vein thrombosis, upper respiratory tract infections, altitude sickness, and toxins from the engines. METHODS: Passenger cabin simulators were used to achieve a comparative observational study with 8-h flights at pressures equivalent to terrestrial altitudes of ground, 4000, 6000, and 8000 ft...
July 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590162/exercise-testing-supplemental-oxygen-and-hypoxia
#3
Susan A Ward, Michael Pw Grocott, Denny Zh Levett
Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in hyperoxia and hypoxia has several applications, stemming from characterization of abnormal physiological response profiles associated with exercise intolerance. As altered oxygenation can impact on the performance of gas-concentration and flow sensors and pulmonary gas exchange algorithms, integrated CPET system function requires validation under these conditions. Also, as oxygenation status can influence peak O2 uptake, care should be taken in the selection of work-rate incrementation rates when CPET performance is to be compared with sea-level...
June 7, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375663/respiratory-health-benefits-and-risks-of-living-at-moderate-altitude
#4
Colin K Grissom, Barbara E Jones
Grissom, Colin K., Barbara E. Jones. Respiratory health benefits and risks of living at moderate altitude. High Alt Med Biol 00:000-000, 2017.-The respiratory system plays a critical role in the series of physiologic responses that occur at high altitude and allows individuals to adapt to and tolerate hypobaric hypoxia. Persons with underlying lung disease may have complications, but sometimes derive benefits, related to residence at high altitude. This review will focus on health benefits and risks of patients with underlying asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary hypertension, or obstructive sleep apnea, who live at altitudes of 1500 to 4500 m...
April 4, 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974708/alveolar-hypoxia-induced-pulmonary-inflammation-from-local-initiation-to-secondary-promotion-by-activated-systemic-inflammation
#5
REVIEW
Ting Chen, Chengzhong Yang, Manman Li, Xiaoling Tan
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a pathological condition with high mortality and morbidity. Hypoxic PH (HPH) is a common form of PH occurring mainly due to lung disease and/or hypoxia. Most causes of HPH are associated with persistent or intermittent alveolar hypoxia, including exposure to high altitude and chronic obstructive respiratory disease. Recent evidence suggests that inflammation is a critical step for HPH initiation and development. A detailed understanding of the initiation and progression of pulmonary inflammation would help in exploring potential clinical treatments for HPH...
2016: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878796/patent-foramen-ovale-a-novel-cardiovascular-risk-factor-in-patients-with-sleep-disordered-breathing-and-high-altitude-dwellers
#6
Emrush Rexhai, Urs Scherrer, Stefano F Rimoldi
Diseases associated with chronic hypoxaemia are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries. Epidemiological data indicate that cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to this problem, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Sleep disordered breathing and high altitude exposure are frequent conditions associated with hypoxaemia. Recent evidence suggests that in these conditions the concomitant presence of a patent foramen ovale plays an important pathogenic role...
2016: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679963/pulmonary-hypertension-associated-with-chronic-lung-diseases
#7
Manuela Funke, Thomas Geiser, Otto D Schoch
In 2015, the international guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension (PH) were updated. Group 3 of the current classification includes PH associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), interstitial lung disease (ILD), other pulmonary diseases with restrictive and obstructive pattern, sleep-disordered breathing, alveolar hypoventilation disorders, chronic exposure to high altitude, and developmental lung diseases [1]. PH associated with COPD and ILD is common but difficult to manage, as no long-term randomised controlled trial (RCT) has been conducted with specific pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) drugs in PH associated with COPD, and the one recent RCT in PH associated with ILD had to be stopped early due to a possible increased risk of death and side effects in the treatment group...
2016: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601440/regulation-of-myogenesis-and-skeletal-muscle-regeneration-effects-of-oxygen-levels-on-satellite-cell-activity
#8
REVIEW
Thomas Chaillou, Johanna T Lanner
Reduced oxygen (O2) levels (hypoxia) are present during embryogenesis and exposure to altitude and in pathologic conditions. During embryogenesis, myogenic progenitor cells reside in a hypoxic microenvironment, which may regulate their activity. Satellite cells are myogenic progenitor cells localized in a local environment, suggesting that the O2 level could affect their activity during muscle regeneration. In this review, we present the idea that O2 levels regulate myogenesis and muscle regeneration, we elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying myogenesis and muscle regeneration in hypoxia and depict therapeutic strategies using changes in O2 levels to promote muscle regeneration...
December 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443510/on-the-combined-effects-of-normobaric-hypoxia-and-bed-rest-upon-bone-and-mineral-metabolism-results-from-the-planhab-study
#9
Jörn Rittweger, Tadej Debevec, Petra Frings-Meuthen, Patrick Lau, Uwe Mittag, Bergita Ganse, Philip G Ferstl, Elizabeth J Simpson, Ian A Macdonald, Ola Eiken, Igor B Mekjavic
Bone losses are common as a consequence of unloading and also in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although hypoxia has been implicated as an important factor to drive bone loss, its interaction with unloading remains unresolved. The objective therefore was to assess whether human bone loss caused by unloading could be aggravated by chronic hypoxia. In a cross-over designed study, 14 healthy young men underwent 21-day interventions of bed rest in normoxia (NBR), bed rest in hypoxia (HBR), and hypoxic ambulatory confinement (HAmb)...
October 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27154628/the-emerging-role-of-micrornas-in-hypoxia-induced-pulmonary-hypertension
#10
REVIEW
Vahid Mohsenin
PURPOSE: The aim of this review is to discuss hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH) and the role of microRNAs (miRNAs). BACKGROUND: Acute global hypoxia causes pulmonary vasoconstriction and increased pulmonary arterial blood pressure. Chronic exposure to sustained or intermittent hypoxia as in high altitude residents, chronic obstructive lung disease and sleep-disordered breathing can lead to pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right ventricular dysfunction. The development of PH is a poor prognostic sign in these patients that affects both quality of life and mortality...
September 2016: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26920146/carotid-body-chemoreceptors-sympathetic-neural-activation-and-cardiometabolic-disease
#11
REVIEW
Rodrigo Iturriaga, Rodrigo Del Rio, Juan Idiaquez, Virend K Somers
The carotid body (CB) is the main peripheral chemoreceptor that senses the arterial PO2, PCO2 and pH. In response to hypoxemia, hypercapnia and acidosis, carotid chemosensory discharge elicits reflex respiratory, autonomic and cardiovascular adjustments. The classical construct considers the CB as the main peripheral oxygen sensor, triggering reflex physiological responses to acute hypoxemia and facilitating the ventilatory acclimation to chronic hypoxemia at high altitude. However, a growing body of experimental evidence supports the novel concept that an abnormally enhanced CB chemosensory input to the brainstem contributes to overactivation of the sympathetic nervous system, and consequent pathology...
February 26, 2016: Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26260891/exaggerated-pulmonary-vascular-response-to-acute-hypoxia-in-older-men
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
George M Balanos, Keith Pugh, Matthew C Frise, Keith L Dorrington
What is the central question of this study? Pulmonary arterial pressure is higher in older than younger humans and predicts mortality. It is also increased by acute hypoxia, which causes constriction of the pulmonary vasculature. We asked whether this pulmonary vascular response to hypoxia is greater in older humans. What is the main finding and its importance? Using Doppler echocardiography in 12 younger (∼ 20 years old) and nine older men (∼ 55 years old) exposed to 20 min of moderate isocapnic hypoxia, we demonstrated that older men showed a significantly greater rise in pulmonary arterial pressure during alveolar hypoxia than younger men...
October 2015: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26016363/plasma-endothelin-1-and-nitric-oxide-correlate-with-ligustrazine-alleviation-of-pulmonary-artery-hypertension-in-patients-of-chronic-cor-pulmonale-from-high-altitude-plateau-during-acute-exacerbation
#13
En-Zhi Feng, Sheng-Yue Yang, Ning-Xia Huang, He Yin, Ying Zhang, Zhong-Xin Tian
OBJECTIVE: To explore the mechanisms involved in the ligustrazine alleviation of the pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) in patients of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) associated with chronic cor pulmonale (CCP) during exacerbation. METHODS: Seventy patients of COPD and CCP with acute exacerbation were randomly and equally divided into control group and treatment group. The control group received standard treatment with antibiotics, antiasthmatic and expectorant medications, and oxygenation; and the ligustrazine treatment group received ligustrazine treatment (80 mg/d; i...
November 2014: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25889777/prevalence-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-variation-in-risk-factors-across-four-geographically-diverse-resource-limited-settings-in-peru
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Devan Jaganath, J Jaime Miranda, Robert H Gilman, Robert A Wise, Gregory B Diette, Catherine H Miele, Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz, William Checkley
BACKGROUND: It is unclear how geographic and social diversity affects the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We sought to characterize the prevalence of COPD and identify risk factors across four settings in Peru with varying degrees of urbanization, altitude, and biomass fuel use. METHODS: We collected sociodemographics, clinical history, and post-bronchodilator spirometry in a randomly selected, age-, sex- and site-stratified, population-based sample of 2,957 adults aged ≥35 years (median age was 54...
March 18, 2015: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25640017/effects-of-lung-ventilation-perfusion-and-muscle-metabolism-perfusion-heterogeneities-on-maximal-o2-transport-and-utilization
#15
I Cano, J Roca, P D Wagner
KEY POINTS: We expanded a prior model of whole-body O2 transport and utilization based on diffusive O2 exchange in the lungs and tissues to additionally allow for both lung ventilation-perfusion and tissue metabolism-perfusion heterogeneities, in order to estimate V̇O2 and mitochondrial PO2 (PmO2) during maximal exercise. Simulations were performed using data from (a) healthy fit subjects exercising at sea level and at altitudes up to the equivalent of Mount Everest and (b) patients with mild and severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exercising at sea level...
April 15, 2015: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25628195/comparison-between-the-6-minute-walk-tests-performed-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-at-different-altitudes
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Selma Denis Squassoni, Nadine Cristina Machado, Mônica Silveira Lapa, Priscila Kessar Cordoni, Luciene Costa Bortolassi, Juliana Nascimento de Oliveira, Cecilia Melo Rosa Tavares, Elie Fiss
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of the altitude on the 6-minute walking test in patients with moderate to severe pulmonary disease. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients performed the 6-minute walk test at a pulmonary rehabilitation clinic in Santo André (above sea level), in São Paulo State, and at the Enseada Beach, in Guarujá (at sea level), also in São Paulo State. Of these 29 patients, 8 did the test both on hard sand and on asphalt to analyze if there were differences in performance during the tests...
October 2014: Einstein
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25378921/oxidative-stress-and-free-radicals-in-copd-implications-and-relevance-for-treatment
#17
REVIEW
Wolfgang Domej, Karl Oettl, Wilfried Renner
Oxidative stress occurs when free radicals and other reactive species overwhelm the availability of antioxidants. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species, and their counterpart antioxidant agents are essential for physiological signaling and host defense, as well as for the evolution and persistence of inflammation. When their normal steady state is disturbed, imbalances between oxidants and antioxidants may provoke pathological reactions causing a range of nonrespiratory and respiratory diseases, particularly chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)...
2014: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25334877/the-influence-of-altitude-on-physical-performance-during-6-minute-walk-test-in-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#18
Elie Fiss, Selma Squassoni, Monica Lapa, Nadine Machado, Priscila Cordoni, Luciene Bortolassi, Cecilia Tavares, Juliana Oliveira
Physiology/PFTs/Rehabilitation PostersSESSION TYPE: Original Investigation PosterPRESENTED ON: Wednesday, October 29, 2014 at 01:30 PM - 02:30 PMPURPOSE: Individuals with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) may exhibit significant reduction in physical performance due to various factors such as dynamic hyperinflation and progressive deconditioning associated with inactivity. A study in the Dead Sea suggested that COPD patients showed improvement in dyspnea and the distance traveled at lower altitudes...
October 1, 2014: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25129838/diurnal-and-twenty-four-hour-patterning-of-human-diseases-cardiac-vascular-and-respiratory-diseases-conditions-and-syndromes
#19
REVIEW
Michael H Smolensky, Francesco Portaluppi, Roberto Manfredini, Ramon C Hermida, Ruana Tiseo, Linda L Sackett-Lundeen, Erhard L Haus
Various medical conditions, disorders, and syndromes exhibit predictable-in-time diurnal and 24 h patterning in the signs, symptoms, and grave nonfatal and fatal events, e.g., respiratory ones of viral and allergic rhinorrhea, reversible (asthma) and non-reversible (bronchitis and emphysema) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, high altitude pulmonary edema, and decompression sickness; cardiac ones of atrial premature beats and tachycardia, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, 3rd degree atrial-ventricular block, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, ventricular premature beats, ventricular tachyarrhythmia, symptomatic and non-symptomatic angina pectoris, Prinzmetal vasospastic variant angina, acute (non-fatal and fatal) incidents of myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac arrest, in-bed sudden death syndrome of type-1 diabetes, acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, and heart failure; vascular and circulatory system ones of hypertension, acute orthostatic postprandial, micturition, and defecation hypotension/syncope, intermittent claudication, venous insufficiency, standing occupation leg edema, arterial and venous branch occlusion of the eye, menopausal hot flash, sickle cell syndrome, abdominal, aortic, and thoracic dissections, pulmonary thromboembolism, and deep venous thrombosis, and cerebrovascular transient ischemic attack and hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke...
June 2015: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24950729/assessment-of-right-ventricular-geometry-and-mechanics-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-patients-living-at-high-altitude
#20
Tolga Sinan Güvenç, Seref Kul, Coşkun Doğan, Binnaz Zeynep Yıldırım, Yavuz Karabağ, Rengin Cetin, Yüksel Kaya, Pelin Karadağ, Aleks Değirmencioğlu, Bahattin Balcı
Degree of increase in pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and adaptive responses in right ventricular morphology and mechanics play an important role in the prognosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Three dimensional echocardiography and deformation imaging are recent advancements in echocardiography that allow more through assessment of right ventricle. We aimed to investigate right ventricular geometry and mechanics in a stable COPD population living at moderately high altitude. A total of 26 stable COPD patients with variable disease severity were included to this study...
October 2014: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
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