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Altitude and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626002/evaluating-off-label-uses-of-acetazolamide
#1
REVIEW
Megan A Van Berkel, Jessica L Elefritz
PURPOSE: Current off-label uses of acetazolamide in hospitalized patients are reviewed. SUMMARY: Acetazolamide is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor typically used for indications including epilepsy, glaucoma, edema, and altitude sickness but it may be prescribed in hospitalized patients for off-label indications. It inhibits carbonic anhydrase, which leads to reduced hydrogen ion secretion in the proximal renal tubule, resulting in increased bicarbonate and cation excretion and causing urinary alkalization and diuresis...
April 15, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570476/patent-foramen-ovale-and-hypoxemia
#2
Mohammad K Mojadidi, Juan C Ruiz, Jason Chertoff, Muhammad O Zaman, Islam Y Elgendy, Ahmed N Mahmoud, Mohammad Al-Ani, Akram Y Elgendy, Nimesh K Patel, Ghanshyam Shantha, Jonathan M Tobis, Bernhard Meier
Patent foramen ovale (PFO), an embryonic remnant of the fetal circulation, is present in 20-25% of adults. While recent observational studies and clinical trials have established the link between PFO-mediated right-to-left shunting with cryptogenic stroke and migraine with aura, the role of a PFO in exacerbating hypoxemic medical conditions (i.e., sleep apnea, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary hypertension, platypnea-orthodeoxia, pulmonary arteriovenous malformation, high altitude pulmonary edema, and exercise desaturation) remains poorly evaluated...
March 22, 2018: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545281/pulmonary-vascular-endothelium-orchestra-conductor-in-respiratory-diseases-highlights-from-basic-research-to-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Alice Huertas, Christophe Guignabert
The European Respiratory Society (ERS) Research Seminar entitled " Pulmonary Vascular Endothelium: Orchestra Conductor in Respiratory Diseases - Highlights from Basic Research to Therapy " brought together international experts of dysfunctional pulmonary endothelium, from basic science to translational medicine, to discuss several important aspects in acute and chronic lung diseases. This review will briefly sum up the different topics of discussion of this meeting held in Paris (France) on October 27th and 28th, 2016...
March 15, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502125/exercise-performance-of-lowlanders-with-copd-at-2-590-m-data-from-a-randomized-trial
#4
Michael Furian, Sara E Hartmann, Tsogyal D Latshang, Deborah Flueck, Christian Murer, Philipp M Scheiwiller, Batyr Osmonov, Silvia Ulrich, Malcolm Kohler, Marc J Poulin, Konrad E Bloch
BACKGROUND: Effects of hypobaric hypoxia at altitude on exercise performance of lowlanders with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have not been studied in detail. OBJECTIVES: To quantify changes in exercise performance and associated physiologic responses in lowlanders with COPD travelling to moderate altitude. METHODS: A total of 31 COPD patients with a median age (quartiles) of 66 years (59; 69) and FEV1 of 56% predicted (49; 69) living below 800 m performed a constant-load bicycle exercise to exhaustion at 60% of the maximal work rate at 490 m (Zurich) and at an identical work rate at 2,590 m (Davos) in randomized order...
March 2, 2018: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301601/role-of-ros-kv-hif-axis-in-the-development-of-hypoxia-induced-pulmonary-hypertension
#5
Wen Wu, Yan Li, Dun-Quan Xu
Hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH) is a common complication in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), sleep-disordered breathing, or dwellers in high altitude. The exact mechanisms underlying the development of HPH still remain unclear. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), hypoxia inducible factors (HIF), and potassium channels (KV ) are believed as the main factors during the development of HPH. We propose that the "ROS/Kv/HIF axis" may play an important initiating role in the development of HPH...
December 30, 2017: Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, Chung-kuo i Hsüeh K'o Hsüeh Tsa Chih
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198293/comparison-of-subjective-sleep-quality-of-long-term-residents-at-low-and-high-altitudes-saraha-study
#6
Ravi Gupta, Jan Ulfberg, Richard P Allen, Deepak Goel
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of altitude on subjective sleep quality in populations living at high and low altitudes after excluding cases of restless legs syndrome (RLS). METHODS: This population-based study was conducted at three different altitudes (400 m, 1,900-2,000 m, and 3,200 m above sea level). All consenting subjects available from random stratified sampling in the Himalayan and sub-Himalayan regions of India were included in the study (ages 18 to 84 years)...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047083/altered-redox-balance-in-the-development-of-chronic-hypoxia-induced-pulmonary-hypertension
#7
Nikki L Jernigan, Thomas C Resta, Laura V Gonzalez Bosc
Normally, the pulmonary circulation is maintained in a low-pressure, low-resistance state with little resting tone. Pulmonary arteries are thin-walled and rely heavily on pulmonary arterial distension and recruitment for reducing pulmonary vascular resistance when cardiac output is elevated. Under pathophysiological conditions, however, active vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling lead to enhanced pulmonary vascular resistance and subsequent pulmonary hypertension (PH). Chronic hypoxia is a critical pathological factor associated with the development of PH resulting from airway obstruction (COPD, sleep apnea), diffusion impairment (interstitial lung disease), developmental lung abnormalities, or high altitude exposure (World Health Organization [WHO]; Group III)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680577/hypoxia-induced-pulmonary-hypertension-in-type-2-diabetic-mice
#8
Minglin Pan, Ying Han, Rui Si, Rui Guo, Ankit Desai, Ayako Makino
Hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (HPH) is a progressive disease that is mainly caused by chronic exposure to high altitude, chronic obstructive lung disease, and obstructive sleep apnea. The increased pulmonary vascular resistance and increased pulmonary arterial pressure result in increased right ventricular afterload, leading to right heart failure and increased morbidity. There are several clinical reports suggesting a link between PH and diabetes, insulin resistance, or obesity; however, it is unclear whether HPH is associated with diabetes as a progressive complication in diabetes...
March 2017: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641682/health-effects-of-airline-cabin-environments-in-simulated-8-hour-flights
#9
COMPARATIVE STUDY
(no author information available yet)
INTRODUCTION: Commercial air travel is usually without health incidents. However, there is a view that cabin environments may be detrimental to health, especially flights of 8 h or more. Concerns have been raised about deep vein thrombosis, upper respiratory tract infections, altitude sickness, and toxins from the engines. METHODS: Passenger cabin simulators were used to achieve a comparative observational study with 8-h flights at pressures equivalent to terrestrial altitudes of ground, 4000, 6000, and 8000 ft...
July 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590162/exercise-testing-supplemental-oxygen-and-hypoxia
#10
Susan A Ward, Michael P W Grocott, Denny Z H Levett
Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in hyperoxia and hypoxia has several applications, stemming from characterization of abnormal physiological response profiles associated with exercise intolerance. As altered oxygenation can impact the performance of gas-concentration and flow sensors and pulmonary gas exchange algorithms, integrated CPET system function requires validation under these conditions. Also, as oxygenation status can influence peak [Formula: see text]o2, care should be taken in the selection of work-rate incrementation rates when CPET performance is to be compared with normobaria at sea level...
July 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375663/respiratory-health-benefits-and-risks-of-living-at-moderate-altitude
#11
Colin K Grissom, Barbara E Jones
Grissom, Colin K., Barbara E. Jones. Respiratory health benefits and risks of living at moderate altitude. High Alt Med Biol 00:000-000, 2017.-The respiratory system plays a critical role in the series of physiologic responses that occur at high altitude and allows individuals to adapt to and tolerate hypobaric hypoxia. Persons with underlying lung disease may have complications, but sometimes derive benefits, related to residence at high altitude. This review will focus on health benefits and risks of patients with underlying asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary hypertension, or obstructive sleep apnea, who live at altitudes of 1500 to 4500 m...
April 4, 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974708/alveolar-hypoxia-induced-pulmonary-inflammation-from-local-initiation-to-secondary-promotion-by-activated-systemic-inflammation
#12
REVIEW
Ting Chen, Chengzhong Yang, Manman Li, Xiaoling Tan
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a pathological condition with high mortality and morbidity. Hypoxic PH (HPH) is a common form of PH occurring mainly due to lung disease and/or hypoxia. Most causes of HPH are associated with persistent or intermittent alveolar hypoxia, including exposure to high altitude and chronic obstructive respiratory disease. Recent evidence suggests that inflammation is a critical step for HPH initiation and development. A detailed understanding of the initiation and progression of pulmonary inflammation would help in exploring potential clinical treatments for HPH...
2016: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878796/patent-foramen-ovale-a-novel-cardiovascular-risk-factor-in-patients-with-sleep-disordered-breathing-and-high-altitude-dwellers
#13
REVIEW
Emrush Rexhai, Urs Scherrer, Stefano F Rimoldi
Diseases associated with chronic hypoxaemia are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries. Epidemiological data indicate that cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to this problem, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Sleep disordered breathing and high altitude exposure are frequent conditions associated with hypoxaemia. Recent evidence suggests that in these conditions the concomitant presence of a patent foramen ovale plays an important pathogenic role...
2016: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679963/pulmonary-hypertension-associated-with-chronic-lung-diseases
#14
Manuela Funke, Thomas Geiser, Otto D Schoch
In 2015, the international guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension (PH) were updated. Group 3 of the current classification includes PH associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), interstitial lung disease (ILD), other pulmonary diseases with restrictive and obstructive pattern, sleep-disordered breathing, alveolar hypoventilation disorders, chronic exposure to high altitude, and developmental lung diseases [1]. PH associated with COPD and ILD is common but difficult to manage, as no long-term randomised controlled trial (RCT) has been conducted with specific pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) drugs in PH associated with COPD, and the one recent RCT in PH associated with ILD had to be stopped early due to a possible increased risk of death and side effects in the treatment group...
2016: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601440/regulation-of-myogenesis-and-skeletal-muscle-regeneration-effects-of-oxygen-levels-on-satellite-cell-activity
#15
REVIEW
Thomas Chaillou, Johanna T Lanner
Reduced oxygen (O2 ) levels (hypoxia) are present during embryogenesis and exposure to altitude and in pathologic conditions. During embryogenesis, myogenic progenitor cells reside in a hypoxic microenvironment, which may regulate their activity. Satellite cells are myogenic progenitor cells localized in a local environment, suggesting that the O2 level could affect their activity during muscle regeneration. In this review, we present the idea that O2 levels regulate myogenesis and muscle regeneration, we elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying myogenesis and muscle regeneration in hypoxia and depict therapeutic strategies using changes in O2 levels to promote muscle regeneration...
December 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443510/on-the-combined-effects-of-normobaric-hypoxia-and-bed-rest-upon-bone-and-mineral-metabolism-results-from-the-planhab-study
#16
Jörn Rittweger, Tadej Debevec, Petra Frings-Meuthen, Patrick Lau, Uwe Mittag, Bergita Ganse, Philip G Ferstl, Elizabeth J Simpson, Ian A Macdonald, Ola Eiken, Igor B Mekjavic
Bone losses are common as a consequence of unloading and also in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although hypoxia has been implicated as an important factor to drive bone loss, its interaction with unloading remains unresolved. The objective therefore was to assess whether human bone loss caused by unloading could be aggravated by chronic hypoxia. In a cross-over designed study, 14 healthy young men underwent 21-day interventions of bed rest in normoxia (NBR), bed rest in hypoxia (HBR), and hypoxic ambulatory confinement (HAmb)...
October 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27154628/the-emerging-role-of-micrornas-in-hypoxia-induced-pulmonary-hypertension
#17
REVIEW
Vahid Mohsenin
PURPOSE: The aim of this review is to discuss hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH) and the role of microRNAs (miRNAs). BACKGROUND: Acute global hypoxia causes pulmonary vasoconstriction and increased pulmonary arterial blood pressure. Chronic exposure to sustained or intermittent hypoxia as in high altitude residents, chronic obstructive lung disease and sleep-disordered breathing can lead to pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right ventricular dysfunction. The development of PH is a poor prognostic sign in these patients that affects both quality of life and mortality...
September 2016: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26920146/carotid-body-chemoreceptors-sympathetic-neural-activation-and-cardiometabolic-disease
#18
REVIEW
Rodrigo Iturriaga, Rodrigo Del Rio, Juan Idiaquez, Virend K Somers
The carotid body (CB) is the main peripheral chemoreceptor that senses the arterial PO2, PCO2 and pH. In response to hypoxemia, hypercapnia and acidosis, carotid chemosensory discharge elicits reflex respiratory, autonomic and cardiovascular adjustments. The classical construct considers the CB as the main peripheral oxygen sensor, triggering reflex physiological responses to acute hypoxemia and facilitating the ventilatory acclimation to chronic hypoxemia at high altitude. However, a growing body of experimental evidence supports the novel concept that an abnormally enhanced CB chemosensory input to the brainstem contributes to overactivation of the sympathetic nervous system, and consequent pathology...
February 26, 2016: Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26260891/exaggerated-pulmonary-vascular-response-to-acute-hypoxia-in-older-men
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
George M Balanos, Keith Pugh, Matthew C Frise, Keith L Dorrington
What is the central question of this study? Pulmonary arterial pressure is higher in older than younger humans and predicts mortality. It is also increased by acute hypoxia, which causes constriction of the pulmonary vasculature. We asked whether this pulmonary vascular response to hypoxia is greater in older humans. What is the main finding and its importance? Using Doppler echocardiography in 12 younger (∼ 20 years old) and nine older men (∼ 55 years old) exposed to 20 min of moderate isocapnic hypoxia, we demonstrated that older men showed a significantly greater rise in pulmonary arterial pressure during alveolar hypoxia than younger men...
October 2015: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26016363/plasma-endothelin-1-and-nitric-oxide-correlate-with-ligustrazine-alleviation-of-pulmonary-artery-hypertension-in-patients-of-chronic-cor-pulmonale-from-high-altitude-plateau-during-acute-exacerbation
#20
En-Zhi Feng, Sheng-Yue Yang, Ning-Xia Huang, He Yin, Ying Zhang, Zhong-Xin Tian
OBJECTIVE: To explore the mechanisms involved in the ligustrazine alleviation of the pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) in patients of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) associated with chronic cor pulmonale (CCP) during exacerbation. METHODS: Seventy patients of COPD and CCP with acute exacerbation were randomly and equally divided into control group and treatment group. The control group received standard treatment with antibiotics, antiasthmatic and expectorant medications, and oxygenation; and the ligustrazine treatment group received ligustrazine treatment (80 mg/d; i...
November 2014: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
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