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Francisco Sánchez-Soberón, Matthias Cuykx, Noemí Serra, Victoria Linares, Montserrat Bellés, Adrian Covaci, Marta Schuhmacher
In this pilot study three fractions of particulate matter (PM0.25 , PM2.5-0.25 , and PM10-2.5 ) were collected in three environments (classroom, home, and outdoors) in a village located nearby an industrial complex. Time-activity pattern of 20 students attending the classroom was obtained, and the dose of particles reaching the children's lungs under actual environmental conditions (i.e. real dose) was calculated via dosimetry model. The highest PM concentrations were reached in the classroom. Simulations showed that heavy intensity outdoor activities played a major role in PM deposition, especially in the upper part of the respiratory tract...
June 10, 2018: Chemosphere
Huan Zhang, Liurong Fang, Xinyu Zhu, Dang Wang, Shaobo Xiao
Protein lysine ubiquitination is a dynamic reversible post-translational modification that plays key roles in modulating different cellular processes. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a notorious pathogen, causing tremendous economic losses for the global swine industry. The possible involvement of ubiquitination in PRRSV infection is unclear. So anti-ubiquitination-based enrichment and LC-MS were performed to investigate the global ubiquitination events triggered by PRRSV infection in pulmonary alveolar macrophages...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Chien-Chun Liu, Chih-Chuan Lin, Yung-Chin Hsiao, Po-Jung Wang, Jau-Song Yu
Deinagkistrodon acutus, Trimeresurus stejnegeri, Protobothrops mucrosquamatus, Daboia russelii siamensis, Bungarus multicinctus and Naja atra are the six medically important venomous snake species in Taiwan. In this study, we characterized and compared their venom protein profiles using proteomic approaches. The major snake venom proteins were identified by GeLC-MS/MS and the total venom proteome was characterized by in-solution digestion coupled with LC-MS/MS. A total of 27-52 proteins, categorized into 23 protein families, were identified in each snake's venom...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Toru Komatsu, Masahiro Shimoda, Yukiko Kawamura, Yasuteru Urano, Tetsuo Nagano
Diced electrophoresis gel (DEG) assay is a methodology to identify enzymes with a specified activity in complex cell or tissue lysates by means of two-dimensional separation using isoelectric focusing and native PAGE, followed by dicing of the gel into small pieces that are assayed separately, and digestion and peptide fingerprinting to identify the protein(s) of interest in positive wells. The existing hand-made system has some disadvantages, and here we describe the development and validation of an improved cutter-plate system that enables simple, reliable and reproducible DEG assay in a 384-well plate-based format with signal readout using fluorometric or LC-MS-based reaction monitoring...
June 18, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Cristiane Loiva Reichert, Denise Brentan da Silva, Carlos Alexandre Carollo, Almeriane Maria Weffort-Santos, Cid Aimbiré de Moraes Santos
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil., belonging to the family Lythraceae and popularly known as 'dedaleira' and 'mangava-brava,' is a native tree of the Brazilian Cerrado, and its barks have been traditionally used as a tonic to treat inflammatory conditions, particularly related to gastric ulcers, wounds or fevers and various types of cancer. AIM OF THE STUDY: We have previously demonstrated the apoptogenic effects of the methanolic extract of L...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Yuanjing Wang, Hongxia Li
Chemotherapy is an important adjuvant therapy for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). The main cause of chemotherapy failure in EOC is paclitaxel resistance. The present study aimed to identify novel biomarkers to predict chemosensitivity to paclitaxel and improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying paclitaxel resistance in EOC. In the present study, the heterogeneity of EOC was evaluated by adenosine triphosphate-tumor chemosensitivity assay (ATP-TCA) in vitro . Fresh samples were collected from 54 EOC cases during cytoreductive surgery...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
Thomas N Kakuda, Jeysen Yogaratnam, Jennifer Rito, Malcolm Boyce, Toni Mitchell, Kusum Gupta, Julian A Symons, Sushmita Chanda, Pieter Van Remoortere, John Fry
BACKGROUND: This double-blind, first-in-human phase 1 study evaluated pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of AL-794 (prodrug of ALS-033719), a potent endonuclease inhibitor of influenza A and B in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Healthy adult volunteers were randomized to AL-794 (50-2000 mg single ascending doses, fasting) or placebo (5 cohorts, n=6:2 AL-794: placebo/cohort) in part 1, and AL-794 (50-600 mg multiple ascending doses, twice-daily, fed or fasted) or placebo (3 cohorts, n=8:2 AL-794: placebo/cohort) for 7 days in part 2...
June 21, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Anton Iliuk
Liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has enabled researchers to analyze complex biological samples with unprecedented depth. It facilitates the identification and quantification of modifications within thousands of proteins in a single large-scale proteomic experiment. Analysis of phosphorylation, one of the most common and important post-translational modifications, has particularly benefited from such progress in the field. Here, detailed protocols are provided for a few well-regarded, common sample preparation methods for an effective phosphoproteomic experiment...
May 31, 2018: Current Protocols in Chemical Biology
Akemi Suzuki, Minoru Suzuki, Emi Ito, Takahiro Nitta, Jin-Ichi Inokuchi
This chapter describes protocols for mass spectrometry (MS) applied to the characterization of ganglioside structures and the determination of ganglioside contents. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and electrospray ionization (ESI) are often used to ionize biological materials and this chapter covers three protocols for atmospheric pressure MALDI MS (AP-MALDI MS), liquid chromatography-ESI MS (LC-ESI MS), and LC-ESI MS with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Purified gangliosides were used in AP-MALDI MS analyses while crude preparations of gangliosides were subjected to LC-ESI MS and LC-ESI MS with MRM...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
M Alasmari, M Bӧhlke, C Kelley, T Maher, A Pino-Figueroa
The pentane extract of the Peruvian plant, Lepidium meyenii (Maca), has been demonstrated to possess neuroprotective activity in previous in vitro and in vivo studies (Pino-Figueroa et al. in Ann N Y Acad Sci 1199:77-85, 2010; Pino-Figueroa et al. in Am J Neuroprot Neuroregener 3:87-92, 2011). This extract contains a number of macamides that may act on the endocannabinoid system (Pino-Figueroa et al. in Ann N Y Acad Sci 1199:77-85, 2010; Pino-Figueroa et al., 2011; Dini et al. in Food Chem 49:347-349, 1994)...
June 20, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Tomáš Řezanka, Andrea Palyzová, Karel Sigler
Cyanobacteria are one of the most successful and oldest forms of life that are present on Earth. They are prokaryotic photoautotrophic microorganisms that colonize so diverse environments as soil, seawater, and freshwater, but also stones, plants, or extreme habitats such as snow and ice as well as hot springs. This diversity in the type of environment they live in requires a successful adaptation to completely different conditions. For this reason, cyanobacteria form a wide range of different secondary metabolites...
June 20, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Laila S Espindola, Renata G Dusi, Daniel P Demarque, Raimundo Braz-Filho, Pengcheng Yan, Heidi R Bokesch, Kirk R Gustafson, John A Beutler
The new pentacyclic triterpene 11 β -hydroxypristimerin ( 1 ), along with the known metabolites pristimerin ( 2 ), 6-oxopristimerol ( 3 ) and vitideasin ( 4 ), were isolated from a Salacia crassifolia root wood extract, following a bioassay-guided fractionation approach. Both the extract and the purified triterpenes displayed pronounced cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines. The NCI-60 cell line screen revealed that compound 2 was the most active, with a mean GI50 of 0.17 μM, while compound 1 had a mean GI50 of 8...
June 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Bhargab Kalita, Sudeepa Singh, Aparup Patra, Ashis K Mukherjee
The proteome composition of Russell's viper venom (RVV) from southern India (SI) was investigated by 1D-SDS-PAGE of venom followed by tandem mass spectrometry analysis of protein bands. A total of 66 proteins belonging to 14 snake venom protein families were identified by LC-MS/MS analysis against Viperidae (taxid 8689) protein entries from the non-redundant NCBI database. Phospholipase A2 (43.25%) and snaclec (14.57%) represented the most abundant enzymatic and non-enzymatic proteins, respectively. SI RVV was characterized as containing a higher quantity of PLA2 and a lower amount of Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors, in comparison to RVV from other regions of the Indian subcontinent...
June 17, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Shu-Jian Zheng, Shi-Jie Liu, Quan-Fei Zhu, Ning Guo, Ya-Lan Wang, Bi-Feng Yuan, Yu-Qi Feng
Chemical labeling (CL) in combination with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis has been demonstrated to be a promising technology in metabolomic analysis. However, identification of chemically-labeled metabolites remains to be challenging. Retention time (RT) is one of the most important parameters for the identification of metabolites, but it could vary greatly in LC-MS analysis. In this work, we developed a chemical labeling-based HPLC retention index (CL-HPLC RI) strategy to facilitate the identification of metabolites...
June 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Nicholas M Riley, Jacek W Sikora, Henrique S Seckler, Joseph B Greer, Ryan T Fellers, Richard D LeDuc, Michael S Westphall, Paul M Thomas, Neil L Kelleher, Joshua J Coon
High-throughput top-down proteomic experiments directly identify proteoforms in complex mixtures, making high quality tandem mass spectra necessary to deeply characterize proteins with many sources of variation. Collision-based dissociation methods offer expedient data acquisition, but often fail to extensively fragment proteoforms for thorough analysis. Electron-driven dissociation methods are a popular alternative approach, especially for precursor ions with high charge density. Combining infrared photo-activation concurrent with electron transfer dissociation (ETD) reactions, i...
June 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Keshab M Bairagi, Katharigatta N Venugopala, Pradip Kumar Mondal, Raquel M Gleiser, Deepak Chopra, Daniel García, Bharti Odhav, Susanta K Nayak
A series of methyl or ethyl 4-(substitutedphenyl/pyridyl)-6-methyl-2-oxo/thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-carboxylate (HPM) analogues 4a-g was synthesized and evaluated for larvicidal activity against Anopheles arabiensis. These newly synthesized compounds were characterized by spectral studies such as FT-IR, NMR (1 H and 13 C), LC-MS and elemental analysis. The conformational features and supramolecular assembly of molecules 4a, 4b and 4e were further analyzed from single crystal X-ray study. The larvicidal activity of these tetrahydropyrimidine pharmacophore series were analyzed based on their relative substituent's...
June 20, 2018: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Dae-Seop Shin, Hyewon Seo, Jung Yoon Yang, Jeongmin Joo, So Hee Im, Seong Soon Kim, Sang Kyum Kim, Myung Ae Bae
Predicting drug-drug interactions (DDIs) is an important step during drug development to avoid unexpected side effects. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 is the most abundant human hepatic phase I enzyme, which metabolizes >50% of therapeutic drugs. Therefore, it is essential to test the potential of a drug candidate to induce CYP3A4 expression or inhibit its activity. Recently, 3-dimensional (3-D) mammalian cell culture models have been adopted in drug discovery research to assess toxicity, DDIs, and pharmacokinetics...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
Weifeng Xu, Hao Jiang, Craig Titsch, Snaehal Gadkari, Alicja Batog, Bonnie Wang, Lauren Hippeli, Brent Yamamoto, Kristina Chadwick, Jennifer Wheeler, Chris Thompson, James Stahl, Scott Willett, Binodh S DeSilva, Heather Myler, Robert W Dodge, Renuka C Pillutla
AIM: A ligand-binding assay (LBA) was used to measure exposure of PRM-151, the recombinant form of human pentraxin-2 (PTX-2), a complex pentamer with multiple binding partners. However, the assay showed a lack of dose-dependent exposure in select preclinical species and it could not differentiate the infused PRM-151 from the endogenous PTX-2 in nonhuman primates. MATERIALS & METHODS: Instead of assessing interference from its multiple binding partners, which could be time consuming and laborious, a LC-MS assay avoid of these interference was implemented to measure 'total' drug without the use of immunoaffinity capture reagents...
June 20, 2018: Bioanalysis
Paridhi Gulati, Shangang Jia, Aixia Li, David Richard Holding, Dipak Santra, Devin Jerrold Rose
Thirty-three accessions of proso millet (Panicum miliaceum) with different countries of origin were screened for their pepsin digestibility after cooking to identify samples with high digestibility. The pepsin digestibility of all samples ranged from 26 to 57% (average 32%). There were no apparent differences in protein profiles (SDS-PAGE) of samples with the lowest, intermediate, and highest digestibilities. However, LC-MS/MS analysis revealed a negative correlation between pepsin digestibility and peptides that matched to high molecular weight proteins (24 kDa) from Panicum hallii with regions of contiguous hydrophobic amino acids...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Jingui Duan, Rui Yan, Linlin Qin, Yong Wang, Lili Wen, Shaoxiao Cheng, Hui Xu, Pingyun Feng
The mild recognition sites of oxygen atoms and phenyl rings from 5-(4-pyridyl)-methoxyl isophthalic acid (5,4-PMIA2-) moieties and tetrakis(4-pyridyloxymethylene) methane (TPOM) linkers inside the channels of a novel three-dimensional microporous MOF [Co2(5,4-PMIA)2(TPOM)0.5]·xSolvent (1), are presumed to provide pore environments with moderate contacts toward guests, as indicated by Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations, which appear to be beneficial for adsorption and separation applications. As expected, 1 represents one of the rare examples that show both a high storage capacity of C2Hn and good adsorption selectivity of C2Hn/CH4 and CO2/CH4 under ambient conditions, and yet, it has significantly lower energy consumption for regeneration...
June 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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