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colon rectal cancer

Mohammad Nassir Al-Sharif, Khalid Ali Fayi, Abdulsalam Ali Alobaidi, Bader Awadh Alshamrani
Introduction: Colorectal cancer (CRC) has different forms of colon cancer or rectal cancer. CRCs are often considered together because they possess many similar features. A severe form of the disease with higher mortality rate increases with increase in age. The most common CRC risk factors include smoking, diabetes, and obesity. This study aims to evaluate the awareness of CRC in a random population of Asir region and to identify the subpopulation that can be recipients of awareness and screening programs...
January 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Fred K Tabung, Weike Wang, Teresa T Fung, Stephanie A Smith-Warner, NaNa Keum, Kana Wu, Charles S Fuchs, Frank B Hu, Edward L Giovannucci
Background: Insulin response may be important in colorectal cancer development. Diet modulates insulin response and may be a modifiable factor in colorectal cancer prevention. Objective: We examined associations between hyperinsulinemic diets and colorectal cancer risk with the use of an empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinemia (EDIH), a food-based index that characterizes dietary insulinemic potential on the basis of circulating C-peptide concentrations. Design: Diet was assessed every 4 y with food-frequency questionnaires in 46,210 men (Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, 1986-2012) and 74,191 women (Nurses' Health Study, 1984-2012) to calculate EDIH scores...
June 12, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Tsuyoshi Hamada, Thing Rinda Soong, Yohei Masugi, Keisuke Kosumi, Jonathan A Nowak, Annacarolina da Silva, Xinmeng Jasmine Mu, Tyler S Twombly, Hideo Koh, Juhong Yang, Mingyang Song, Li Liu, Mancang Gu, Yan Shi, Katsuhiko Nosho, Teppei Morikawa, Kentaro Inamura, Sachet A Shukla, Catherine J Wu, Levi A Garraway, Xuehong Zhang, Kana Wu, Jeffrey A Meyerhardt, Andrew T Chan, Jonathan N Glickman, Scott J Rodig, Gordon J Freeman, Charles S Fuchs, Reiko Nishihara, Marios Giannakis, Shuji Ogino
Inhibitors targeting the PDCD1 (programmed cell death 1, PD-1) immune checkpoint pathway have revolutionized cancer treatment strategies. The TIME (Tumor Immunity in the MicroEnvironment) classification based on tumor CD274 ( PDCD1 ligand 1, PD-L1) expression and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) has been proposed to predict response to immunotherapy. It remains to be determined clinical, pathological, and molecular features of TIME subtypes of colorectal cancer. Using 812 colon and rectal carcinoma cases from the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study, we examined the association of tumor characteristics and survival outcomes with four TIME subtypes (TIME 1, CD274 low /TILabsent ; TIME 2, CD274 high /TILpresent ; TIME 3, CD274 low /TILpresent ; and TIME 4, CD274 high /TILabsent )...
2018: Oncoimmunology
Kazuaki Shibuya, Shigenori Homma, Tadashi Yoshida, Yosuke Ohno, Nobuki Ichikawa, Hideki Kawamura, Teppei Imamoto, Yoshihiro Matsuno, Akinobu Taketomi
The development of colorectal cancer in long-standing Crohn's disease (CD) patients has become a major complication. Therapeutic guidelines for CD-associated cancer (CDAC) have already been established in Western countries; however, specific guidelines are not currently available in Japan. Surveillance of the residual intestine for cancer screening is important for long-standing CD patients. The present case report describes the occurrence of rectal carcinoma in a patient with a 25-year history of CD. A 37-year-old male with a 17-year history of CD underwent semi-emergent subtotal colectomy and ileostomy for bowel obstruction secondary to the transverse colon stenosis, and multiple severe stenosis and inflammation...
July 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Suat Chin Ng, Douglas Stupart, David Bartolo, David Watters
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the anastomotic leak rate for colorectal cancer resections in patients with metastases (compared to those without), and to determine the impact of anastomotic leaks on survival. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent resection and primary anastomosis for colorectal adenocarcinoma at a single institution between January 2002 and December 2014. RESULTS: A total of 843 patients underwent a resection and primary anastomosis for colorectal adenocarcinoma (661 colon and 182 rectal)...
June 12, 2018: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Morgane Bouquot, Ben Creavin, Nicolas Goasguen, Najim Chafai, Emmanuel Tiret, Thierry André, Jean-Francois Flejou, Yann Parc, Jérémie H Lefevre, Magali Svrcek
The presence of tumor deposits (TD) in colorectal cancer (CRC) is associated with poor prognosis. The 7th edition of TNM subclassified a new nodal stage, N1c, characterized by the presence of TD without any concurrent positive lymph node (LN). It is not clear if the N1c category is equal or not to LN metastasis. We aimed to examine the prevalence, characteristics and prognostic significance of this new subcategory METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent surgery for CRC in two centers (2011-2014) were analyzed...
June 12, 2018: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
Daniëlle D Huijts, Julia T van Groningen, Onno R Guicherit, Jan Willem T Dekker, Leti van Bodegom-Vos, Esther Bastiaannet, Johannes A Govaert, Michel W Wouters, Perla J Marang-van de Mheen
Background: It is unclear whether emergency weekend colon and rectal cancer surgery are associated with worse outcomes (ie, weekend effect) because previous studies mostly used administrative data, which may insufficiently adjust for case-mix. Materials and Methods: Prospectively collected data from the 2012-2015 Dutch ColoRectal Audit (n=5,224) was used to examine differences in 30-day mortality and severe complication and failure-to-rescue rates for emergency weekend (Saturday and Sunday) versus Monday surgery, stratified for colon and rectal cancer...
June 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
Naomi Yoshuantari, Didik Setyo Heriyanto, Susanna Hilda Hutajulu, Johan Kurnianda, Ahmad Ghozali
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is both a global and national burden, being the third most common malignancy in men and the second in women, worldwide. The prognosis of CRC is affected by various factors like the histological grade, angiolymphatic invasion, and distant metastases. Metastasis is an intricate process; one of the possible mechanisms is through the interaction of the chemokines CXCL12 and CXCR4. This study aims to reveal the expression patterns of CXCL12 and CXCR4 in CRC...
2018: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Ahmed O Alomair, Ibrahim Masoodi, Essam J Alyamani, Abed A Allehibi, Adel N Qutub, Khalid N Alsayari, Musaad A Altammami, Ali S Alshanqeeti
Background and Aim: Because genetic and geographic variations in intestinal microbiota are known to exist, the focus of this study was to establish an estimation of microbiota in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients in Saudi Arabia by means of metagenomic studies. Methods: From July 2010 to November 2012, colorectal cancer patients attending our hospital were enrolled for the metagenomic studies. All underwent clinical, endoscopic, and histological assessment. Mucosal microbiota samples were collected from each patient by jet-flushing colonic mucosa with distilled water at unified segments of the colon, followed by aspiration, during colonoscopy...
2018: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Renáta Kószó, Linda Varga, Emese Fodor, Zsuzsanna Kahán, Adrienne Cserháti, Katalin Hideghéty, Zsófia Együd, Csilla Szabó, Emőke Borzási, Dorottya Szabó, Kitti Müllner, Zoltán Varga, Anikó Maráz
The presence of normal tissues in the irradiated volume limits dose escalation during pelvic radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer. Supine and prone positions on a belly board were compared by analyzing the exposure of organs at risk (OARs) using intensity modulated RT (IMRT). The prospective trial included 55 high risk, localized or locally advanced prostate cancer patients, receiving definitive image-guided RT. Computed tomography scanning for irradiation planning was carried out in both positions. Gross tumor volume, clinical and planning target volumes (PTV) and OARs were delineated, defining subprostatic and periprostatic rectal subsegments...
June 7, 2018: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
David B Stewart, Wolfgang B Gaertner, Sean C Glasgow, Daniel O Herzig, Daniel Feingold, Scott R Steele
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
A Wale, S D Wexner, N M Saur, H Massarotti, S Laurberg, E Kennedy, A Rockall, D Sebag-Montefiore, G Brown
The process of determining the best treatments that should be offered to patients with newly diagnosed colon and rectal cancer remains highly variable around the world. The aim of this expert review was to agree the key elements of good quality preoperative treatment decision making.
May 2018: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
V Tudyka, R Madoff, A Wale, S Laurberg, H Yano, G Brown
The improvements in surgical technique brought about by the widespread adoption of total mesorectal excision plane dissection in rectal cancer has substantially improved survival and recurrence rates from this disease. For the first time in 50 years, the outcomes in rectal cancer have overtaken those of colon cancer. Professor Madoff's overview lecture and the experts' round table discussion address whether applying the surgical principles already achieved in rectal cancer can meet with similar success in colon cancer, how this can be achieved and the challenges we face...
May 2018: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
J Bhoday, A Martling, J Straßburg, G Brown
The impact of quality of surgery, colorectal surgical specialization, training and expertise has been far greater on survival outcomes than adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapies. The review of the evidence by Professor Martling and expert discussion addresses the evidence base and the crucial importance of the surgeon as a prognostic factor, and how this has been relatively neglected in comparison to other resources invested in improving the treatment of colorectal cancer.
May 2018: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
Tomoki Yamano, Shinichi Yamauchi, Kiyoshi Tsukamoto, Masafumi Noda, Masayoshi Kobayashi, Michiko Hamanaka, Akihito Babaya, Kei Kimura, Chihyon Son, Ayako Imada, Shino Tanaka, Masataka Ikeda, Naohiro Tomita, Kenichi Sugihara
Introduction: The follow-up schedule for colorectal cancer patients after curative surgery is inconsistent among the guidelines. Evaluation of time to recurrence (TTR) and survival after recurrence (SAR) may provide evidence for appropriate follow-up. Methods: We assessed 3039 colon cancer (CC) and 1953 rectal cancer (RC) patients who underwent curative surgery between 2007 and 2008. We evaluated the pre- and post-recurrent clinicopathological factors associated with TTR and SAR in each stage of CC and RC...
May 22, 2018: Oncotarget
R-D Hofheinz, D Arnold, E Fokas, M Kaufmann, T Hothorn, G Folprecht, R Fietkau, W Hohenberger, M Ghadimi, T Liersch, G G Grabenbauer, R Sauer, C Rödel, U Graeven
Background: The German rectal cancer trial CAO/ARO/AIO-04 has shown a significant benefit in 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) of adding oxaliplatin to a standard preoperative 5-fluorouracil-based chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. The use of oxaliplatin as adjuvant treatment in elderly patients with colon cancer is controversial . We therefore investigated the impact of age on clinical outcome in the CAO/ARO/AIO-04 phase 3 trial...
June 4, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Zhiyong Dong, Longzhi Zheng, Weimin Liu, Cunchuan Wang
Background: The relationship between TP53 codon 72 Pro/Arg gene polymorphism and colorectal cancer risk in Asians is still controversial, and this bioinformatics analysis and meta-analysis was performed to assess the associations. Methods: The association studies were identified from PubMed, and eligible reports were included. RevMan 5.3.1 software, Oncolnc, cBioPortal, and Oncomine online tools were used for statistical analysis. A random/fixed effects model was used in meta-analysis...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
Yuanjie Pang, Christiana Kartsonaki, Yu Guo, Yiping Chen, Ling Yang, Zheng Bian, Fiona Bragg, Iona Y Millwood, Enke Mao, Yilei Li, Liya Shi, Junshi Chen, Liming Li, Michael V Holmes, Zhengming Chen
BACKGROUND: Uncertainty remains about the associations of adiposity with intestinal cancer in China and by its anatomical subtype. METHODS: The prospective China Kadoorie Biobank recorded 3024 incident cases of colorectal (CRC) and 143 cases of small intestine (SIC) cancer during a 10-year follow-up among 509 568 participants without prior cancer at baseline. Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for specific cancers associated with adiposity...
June 6, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Ralf Porzig, Sina Neugebauer, Thomas Heckmann, Daniela Adolf, Peter Kaskel, Ursula G Froster
BACKGROUND: Concepts for the nursing and care of cancer patients through a "navigation service" have attracted much interest. However, there is still room for improvement in terms of their funding and coverage. The Saxon Cancer Society designed a prospective, randomized, multicenter, longitudinal study with a view to determining the positive effects of a cancer patient navigator program. The objective of this ongoing study is to evaluate the impact of the cancer patient navigation program on cancer patients and cost bearers in Germany...
June 5, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Claudia Ott, Michael Gerken, Daniela Hirsch, Petra Fest, Stefan Fichtner-Feigl, Stefan Munker, Elisabeth Schnoy, Christian Stroszczynski, Martin Vogelhuber, Wolfgang Herr, Matthias Evert, Michael Reng, Hans Jürgen Schlitt, Monika Klinkhammer-Schalke, Andreas Teufel
BACKGROUND: The clinicopathological significance of the mucinous subtype of colorectal cancer (CRC) remains controversial. As of today, none of the current guidelines differentiate treatment with respect to mucinous or nonmucinous cancer. Due to the lack of substantiated data, best treatment remains unclear and the mucinous subtype of CRC is usually treated along the lines of recommendations for adenocarcinoma of the colon. METHODS: We investigated an East-Bavarian cohort of 8,758 patients with CRC...
June 5, 2018: Digestion
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