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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244251/effect-of-combination-folic-acid-vitamin-b6-and-vitamin-b12-supplementation-on-fracture-risk-in-women-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Katie L Stone, Li-Yung Lui, William G Christen, Aron M Troen, Douglas C Bauer, Deborah Kado, Christopher Schambach, Steven R Cummings, JoAnn E Manson
Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an association of elevated plasma homocysteine levels with greater bone resorption and fracture risk. Vitamins B12 , B6 , and folic acid are cofactors in homocysteine metabolism, and supplementation with B vitamins is effective in lowering homocysteine levels in humans. However, randomized trials of supplemental B vitamins for reduction of fracture risk have been limited. Therefore, we performed an ancillary study to the Women's Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study (WAFACS), a large randomized trial of women with preexisting cardiovascular disease or three or more coronary risk factors, to test whether a daily B vitamin intervention including folic acid (2...
December 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242864/three-in-one-type-fluorescent-sensor-based-on-a-pyrene-pyridoxal-cascade-for-the-selective-detection-of-zn-ii-hydrogen-phosphate-and-cysteine
#2
Yachana Upadhyay, Thangaraj Anand, Lavanya Thilak Babu, Priyankar Paira, Guido Crisponi, Ashok Kumar Sk, Rajender Kumar, Suban K Sahoo
A novel fluorescent receptor L was synthesized by Schiff base condensation of 1-pyrenemethylamine with the vitamin B6 cofactor pyridoxal. The receptor L is highly selective and sensitive towards Zn2+ ions among other tested metal ions. Upon interaction with Zn2+, the receptor L showed a distinct fluorescence enhancement at 485 nm due to the excimer formation leading to the fluorescent colour change from blue to bluish-green. Subsequently, when the in situ generated ZnL2 complex interacted with various anions and amino acids, the addition of H2PO4- and cysteine reinstated the fluorescence of the receptor L due to the demetalation of Zn2+ from the ZnL2 complex...
December 15, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242567/a-coxiella-mutualist-symbiont-is-essential-to-the-development-of-rhipicephalus-microplus
#3
Melina Garcia Guizzo, Luís Fernando Parizi, Rodrigo Dutra Nunes, Renata Schama, Rodolpho M Albano, Lucas Tirloni, Daiane Patrícia Oldiges, Ricardo Pilz Vieira, Wanderson Henrique Cruz Oliveira, Milane de Souza Leite, Sergio A Gonzales, Marisa Farber, Orlando Martins, Itabajara da Silva Vaz, Pedro L Oliveira
The cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus is a hematophagous ectoparasite that causes important economic losses in livestock. Different species of ticks harbor a symbiont bacterium of the genus Coxiella. It was showed that a Coxiella endosymbiont from R. microplus (CERM) is a vertically transmitted mutualist symbiont, comprising 98% of the 16S rRNA sequences in both eggs and larvae. Sequencing of the bacterial genome revealed genes for biosynthetic pathways for several vitamins and key metabolic cofactors that may provide a nutritional complement to the tick host...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242124/kinetic-characterization-and-structural-modeling-of-an-nadp-dependent-succinic-semialdehyde-dehydrogenase-from-anabaena-sp-pcc7120
#4
Xiaoqin Wang, Chongde Lai, Guofeng Lei, Fei Wang, Haozhi Long, Xiaoyu Wu, Jinyin Chen, Guanghua Huo, Zhimin Li
Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenases (SSADH) of cyanobacteria played a pivotal role in completing the cyanobacterial tricarboxylic acid cycle. The structural information of cofactor preference and catalysis for SSADH from cyanobacteria is currently available. However, the detailed kinetics of SSADH from cyanobacteria were not characterized yet. In this study, an all3556 gene encoding SSADH from Anabaena sp. PCC7120 (ApSSADH) was amplified and the recombinant ApSSADH was purified homogenously. Kinetic analysis showed that ApSSADH was an NADP+-dependent SSADH, which utilized NADP+ and succinic semialdehyde (SSA) as its preferred substrates and the activity of ApSSADH was inhibited by its substrate of SSA...
December 11, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242074/genome-wide-identification-and-validation-of-new-reference-genes-for-transcript-normalization-in-developmental-and-post-harvested-fruits-of-actinidia-chinensis
#5
Jian Liu, Shengxiong Huang, Xiangli Niu, Danyang Chen, Qiang Chen, Li Tian, FangMing Xiao, Yongsheng Liu
The appropriate reference genes are important and essential for reliable results of transcript normalization in real-time qRT-PCR. In the current study, we identified 1203 stably expressed genes from 35,286 genes' expression profiles in developmental fruits of Actinidia chinensis. We manually selected six candidate genes and assessed their expression levels, using two sets of fruit samples of A. chinensis: flesh fruits at four developmental stages and post-harvested fruits. The expression stability of these six genes was assessed by three independent algorithms: geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper...
December 11, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241711/l-carnitine-and-heart-disease
#6
REVIEW
Zhong-Yu Wang, Ying-Yi Liu, Guo-Hui Liu, Hai-Bin Lu, Cui-Ying Mao
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a key cause of deaths worldwide, comprising 15-17% of healthcare expenditure in developed countries. Current records estimate an annual global average of 30 million cardiac dysfunction cases, with a predicted escalation by two-three folds for the next 20-30years. Although β-blockers and angiotensin-converting-enzymes are commonly prescribed to control CVD risk, hepatotoxicity and hematological changes are frequent adverse events associated with these drugs. Search for alternatives identified endogenous cofactor l-carnitine, which is capable of promoting mitochondrial β-oxidation towards a balanced cardiac energy metabolism...
December 11, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241411/prediction-of-zinc-binding-sites-in-proteins-using-sequence-derived-information
#7
Abhishikha Srivastava, Manish Kumar
Zinc is one the most abundant catalytic cofactor and also an important structural component of a large number of metallo-proteins. Hence prediction of zinc metal binding sites in proteins can be a significant step in annotation of molecular function of a large number of proteins. Majority of existing methods for zinc-binding site predictions are based on a dataset of proteins, which has been compiled nearly a decade ago. Hence there is a need to develop zinc-binding site prediction system using the current updated data to include recently added proteins...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241292/the-in-situ-enzymatic-screening-ises-approach-to-reaction-discovery-and-catalyst-identification
#8
Robert A Swyka, David B Berkowitz
The importance of discovering new chemical transformations and/or optimizing catalytic combinations has led to a flurry of activity in reaction screening. The in situ enzymatic screening (ISES) approach described here utilizes biological tools (enzymes/cofactors) to advance chemistry. The protocol interfaces an organic reaction layer with an adjacent aqueous layer containing reporting enzymes that act upon the organic reaction product, giving rise to a spectroscopic signal. ISES allows the experimentalist to rapidly glean information on the relative rates of a set of parallel organic/organometallic reactions under investigation, without the need to quench the reactions or draw aliquots...
December 14, 2017: Current Protocols in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240291/novel-4-amino-1-2-3-triazole-inhibitors-of-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-form-a-long-lived-complex-with-the-enzyme-and-display-exquisite-cellular-potency
#9
Julie Alexandre, Michael Swan, Mike Latchem, Dean Boyall, John Pollard, Stuart Hughes, James Westcott
Indoleamine-2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) has emerged as a central regulator of immune responses in both normal and disease biology. Due to its established role in promoting tumour immune escape, IDO has become an attractive target for cancer treatment. We have identified a novel series of highly cell potent IDO inhibitors based on a 4-amino-1,2,3-triazole core. Comprehensive kinetic, biochemical and structural studies demonstrate that compounds from this series have a non-competitive kinetic mechanism-of-action with respect to the tryptophan substrate...
December 14, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240217/interdependence-of-free-zinc-changes-and-protein-complex-assembly-insights-into-zinc-signal-regulation
#10
Anna Kocyła, Justyna Adamczyk, Artur Krężel
Cellular zinc (Zn(ii)) is bound with proteins that are part of the proteomes of all domains of life. It is mostly utilized as a catalytic or structural protein cofactor, which results in a vast number of binding architectures. The Zn(ii) ion is also important for the formation of transient protein complexes with a Zn(ii)-dependent quaternary structure that is formed upon cellular zinc signals. The mechanisms by which proteins associate with and dissociate from Zn(ii) and the connection with cellular Zn(ii) changes remain incompletely understood...
December 14, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239726/camp-signaling-regulates-dna-hydroxymethylation-by-augmenting-the-intracellular-labile-ferrous-iron-pool
#11
Vladimir Camarena, David W Sant, Tyler C Huff, Sushimita Mustafi, Ryan K Muir, Allegra T Aron, Christopher J Chang, Adam R Renslo, Paula Monje, Gaofeng Wang
It is widely accepted that cAMP regulates gene transcription principally by activating the protein kinase A (PKA)-targeted transcription factors. Here, we show that cAMP enhances the generation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) in multiple cell types. 5hmC is converted from 5-methylcytosine (5mC) by Tet methylcytosine dioxygenases, for which Fe(II) is an essential cofactor. The promotion of 5hmC was mediated by a prompt increase of the intracellular labile Fe(II) pool (LIP). cAMP enhanced the acidification of endosomes for Fe(II) release to the LIP likely through RapGEF2...
December 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239168/variation-in-lov-photoreceptor-activation-dynamics-probed-by-time-resolved-infrared-spectroscopy
#12
James N Iuliano, Agnieszka A Gil, Sergey P Laptenok, Christopher R Hall, Jinnette Tolentino Collado, Andras Lukacs, Safaa A Hag Ahmed, Jenna Abyad, Taraneh Daryaee, Gregory M Greetham, Igor V Sazanovich, Boris Illarionov, Adelbert Bacher, Markus Fischer, Michael Towrie, Jarrod B French, Stephen R Meech, Peter J Tonge
The light, oxygen, voltage (LOV) domain proteins are blue light photoreceptors that utilize a non-covalently bound flavin mononucleotide (FMN) cofactor as the chromophore. The modular nature of these proteins has led to their wide adoption in the emerging fields of optogenetics and optobiology, where the LOV domain has been fused to a variety of output domains leading to novel light-controlled applications. In the present work, we extend our studies of the sub-picosecond to several hundred microsecond transient infrared spectroscopy of the isolated LOV domain AsLOV2 to three full-length photoreceptors in which the LOV domain is fused to an output domain: the LOV-STAS protein, YtvA, the LOV-HTH transcription factor, EL222, and the LOV-histidine kinase, LovK...
December 14, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239114/engineering-thermal-stability-and-solvent-tolerance-of-the-soluble-quinoprotein-pede-from-pseudomonas-putida-kt2440-with-a-heterologous-whole-cell-screening-approach
#13
Matthias Wehrmann, Janosch Klebensberger
Due to their ability for direct electron transfer to electrodes, the utilization of rare earth metals as cofactor, and their periplasmic localization, pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (PQQ-ADHs) represent an interesting class of biocatalysts for various biotechnological applications. For most biocatalysts protein stability is crucial, either to increase the performance of the protein under a given process condition or to maximize robustness of the protein towards mutational manipulations, which are often needed to enhance or introduce a functionality of interest...
December 14, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238611/structural-basis-for-nucleotide-modulated-p97-association-with-the-er-membrane
#14
Wai Kwan Tang, Ting Zhang, Yihong Ye, Di Xia
Association of the cytosolic AAA (ATPases associated with various cellular activities) protein p97 to membranes is essential for various cellular processes including endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation. The p97 consists of two ATPase domains and an N domain that interacts with numerous cofactors. The N domain of p97 is known to undergo a large nucleotide-dependent conformation switch, but its physiological relevance is unclear. Here we show p97 is recruited to canine ER membranes predominantly by interacting with VCP-interacting membrane protein (VIMP), an ER-resident protein...
2017: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235505/comprehensive-analysis-of-the-catalytic-and-structural-properties-of-a-mu-class-glutathione-s-transferase-from-fasciola-gigantica
#15
Jupitara Kalita, Rohit Shukla, Harish Shukla, Kundlik Gadhave, Rajanish Giri, Timir Tripathi
Glutathione S‒transferases (GSTs) play an important role in the detoxification of xenobiotics. They catalyze the nucleophilic addition of glutathione (GSH) to nonpolar compounds, rendering the products water-soluble. In the present study, we investigated the catalytic and structural properties of a mu-class GST from Fasciola gigantica (FgGST1). The purified recombinant FgGST1 formed a homodimer composed of 25 kDa subunit. Kinetic analysis revealed that FgGST1 displays broad substrate specificity and shows high GSH conjugation activity toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, and trans-4-phenyl-3-butene-2-one and peroxidase activity towards trans-2-nonenal and hexa-2,4-dienal...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234669/aminoglycoside-resistance-profile-and-structural-architecture-of-the-aminoglycoside-acetyltransferase-aac-6-im
#16
Clyde A Smith, Monolekha Bhattacharya, Marta Toth, Nichole K Stewart, Sergei B Vakulenko
Aminoglycoside 6'-acetyltransferase-Im (AAC(6')-Im) is the closest monofunctional homolog of the AAC(6')-Ie acetyltransferase of the bifunctional enzyme AAC(6')-Ie/APH(2")-Ia. The AAC(6')-Im acetyltransferase confers 4- to 64-fold higher MICs to 4,6-disubstituted aminoglycosides and the 4,5-disubstituted aminoglycoside neomycin than AAC(6')-Ie, yet unlike AAC(6')-Ie, the AAC(6')-Im enzyme does not confer resistance to the atypical aminoglycoside fortimicin. The structure of the kanamycin A complex of AAC(6')-Im shows that the substrate binds in a shallow positively-charged pocket, with the N6' amino group positioned appropriately for an efficient nucleophilic attack on an acetyl-CoA cofactor...
November 9, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234237/expression-purification-and-characterization-of-r-sulfolactate-dehydrogenase-comc-from-the-rumen-methanogen-methanobrevibacter-millerae-sm9
#17
Yanli Zhang, Linley R Schofield, Carrie Sang, Debjit Dey, Ron S Ronimus
(R)-Sulfolactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.337), termed ComC, is a member of an NADH/NADPH-dependent oxidoreductase family of enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of 2-hydroxyacids into their corresponding 2-oxoacids. The ComC reaction is reversible and in the biosynthetic direction causes the conversion of (R)-sulfolactate to sulfopyruvate in the production of coenzyme M (2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid). Coenzyme M is an essential cofactor required for the production of methane by the methyl-coenzyme M reductase complex...
2017: Archaea: An International Microbiological Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233969/receptor-interacting-protein-140-as-a-co-repressor-of-heat-shock-factor-1-regulates-neuronal-stress-response
#18
Yu-Lung Lin, Hong-Chieh Tsai, Pei-Yao Liu, Michael Benneyworth, Li-Na Wei
Heat shock response (HSR) is a highly conserved transcriptional program that protects organisms against various stressful conditions. However, the molecular mechanisms modulating HSR, especially the suppression of HSR, is poorly understood. Here, we found that RIP140, a wide-spectrum cofactor of nuclear hormone receptors, acts as a co-repressor of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) to suppress HSR in healthy neurons. When neurons are stressed such as by heat shock or sodium arsenite (As), cells engage specific proteosome-mediated degradation to reduce RIP140 level, thereby relieving the suppression and activating HSR...
December 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233863/cobl-like-promotes-actin-filament-formation-and-dendritic-branching-using-only-a-single-wh2-domain
#19
Maryam Izadi, Dirk Schlobinski, Maria Lahr, Lukas Schwintzer, Britta Qualmann, Michael M Kessels
Local actin filament formation powers the development of the signal-receiving arbor of neurons that underlies neuronal network formation. Yet, little is known about the molecules that drive these processes and may functionally connect them to the transient calcium pulses observed in restricted areas in the forming dendritic arbor. Here we demonstrate that Cordon-Bleu (Cobl)-like, an uncharacterized protein suggested to represent a very distantly related, evolutionary ancestor of the actin nucleator Cobl, despite having only a single G-actin-binding Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein Homology 2 (WH2) domain, massively promoted the formation of F-actin-rich membrane ruffles of COS-7 cells and of dendritic branches of neurons...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233695/structural-basis-for-substrate-specificity-of-meso-diaminopimelic-acid-decarboxylase-from-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#20
Hyeoncheol Francis Son, Kyung-Jin Kim
l-lysine is an essential amino acid that is widely used as a food supplement for humans and animals. meso-Diaminopimelic acid decarboxylase (DAPDC) catalyzes the final step in the de novol-lysine biosynthetic pathway by converting meso-diaminopimelic acid (meso-DAP) into l-lysine by decarboxylation reaction. To elucidate its molecular mechanisms, we determined the crystal structure of DAPDC from Corynebacterium glutamicum (CgDAPDC). The PLP cofactor is bound at the center of the barrel domain and forms a Schiff base with the catalytic Lys75 residue...
December 9, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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