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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161772/microarray-analysis-of-gene-expression-in-the-cyclooxygenase-cox-knockout-mice-a-connection-to-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Ravneet Rai-Bhogal, Eizaaz Ahmad, Hongyan Li, Dorota A Crawford
The cellular and molecular events that take place during brain development play an important role in governing function of the mature brain. Lipid signalling molecules such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) play an important role in healthy brain development. Abnormalities along the COX/PGE2 signalling pathway due to genetic or environmental causes have been linked to Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). This study aims to evaluate the effect of altered COX/PGE2 signalling on development and function of the prenatal brain using male mice lacking cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 (COX-1(-/-) and COX-2(-/-) ) as potential model systems of ASD...
November 21, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161754/the-sorghum-bicolor-reference-genome-improved-assembly-gene-annotations-a-transcriptome-atlas-and-signatures-of-genome-organization
#2
Ryan F McCormick, Sandra K Truong, Avinash Sreedasyam, Jerry Jenkins, Shengqiang Shu, David Sims, Megan Kennedy, Mojgan Amirebrahimi, Brock D Weers, Brian McKinley, Ashley Mattison, Daryl T Morishige, Jane Grimwood, Jeremy Schmutz, John E Mullet
Sorghum bicolor is a drought tolerant C4 grass used for production of grain, forage, sugar, and lignocellulosic biomass and a genetic model for C4 grasses due to its relatively small genome (~800 Mbp), diploid genetics, diverse germplasm, and colinearity with other C4 grass genomes. In this study, deep sequencing, genetic linkage analysis, and transcriptome data were used to produce and annotate a high-quality reference genome sequence. Reference genome sequence order was improved, 29.6 Mbp of additional sequence was incorporated, the number of genes annotated increased 24% to 34,211, average gene length and N50 increased, and error frequency was reduced 10-fold to 1 per 100 kbp...
November 21, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161696/the-protein-expression-level-of-a-heterogeneous-gene-inserted-in-lipi-1-of-the-listeria-ivanovii-genome-relies-on-its-insertion-orientation
#3
Sijing Liu, Mingjuan Jiang, Lin Su, Tian Tang, Xiang Zhang, Yongyu Li, Qikang Pu, Chenyan Ren, Chuan Wang
Due to its capability to multiply in either phagocytic or nonphagocytic cells, and to subsequently elicit a robust cellular immune response, Listeria ivanovii (LI) is thought to be feasible for developing bacteria-based live attenuated vaccines. We previously generated several recombinant LI strains expressing Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens. Since the expression level of heterogeneous protein was sometimes very low, we attempted to elucidate the principle of heterogeneous protein expression in such recombinant LI strains...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161660/molecular-mechanisms-of-anti-inflammatory-effect-of-chrysophanol-an-active-component-of-ast2017-01-on-atopic-dermatitis-in-vitro-models
#4
Hyun-Ja Jeong, Hee-Yun Kim, Hyung-Min Kim
AST2017-01 mainly consists of Rumex crispus and -Cordyceps militaris and has been widely consumed as an herbal medicine or functional food in Korea. Here we investigated the influences of AST2017-01 and its active component, chrysophanol on human mast cell (HMC-1 cell) and human keratinocyte (HaCaT cell)-mediated inflammatory reactions. Pretreatment with AST2017-01 or chrysophanol suppressed intracellular calcium levels and histamine release in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-treated HMC-1 cells...
November 18, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161657/effects-of-local-lipopolysaccharide-administration-on-the-expression-of-toll-like-receptor-4-and-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-in-uterus-and-oviduct-of-rabbit-does
#5
Laura Menchetti, Olimpia Barbato, Iulia Elena Filipescu, Giovanna Traina, Leonardo Leonardi, Angela Polisca, Alessandro Troisi, Gabriella Guelfi, Federica Piro, Gabriele Brecchia
Inflammation of the uterus and oviduct is associated with reduced reproductive performance in humans and domestic animals. Toll-like receptors are expressed in various immune and non-immune cells and play a crucial role in innate immunity. Toll-like receptor - 4 (TLR4) can detect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria leading to the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, antimicrobial peptides and other inflammatory mediators. To investigate the effects of a local inflammation on the expression levels of TLR4 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, 12 female rabbits received an intracervical infusion with either saline solution endotoxin-free (carrier, 2 mL; n = 6) or LPS (500 μg diluted in 2 mL of saline solution; n = 6)...
November 5, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161617/early-pregnancy-immune-biomarkers-in-peripheral-blood-may-predict-preeclampsia
#6
M D Salazar Garcia, Y Mobley, J Henson, M Davies, A Skariah, S Dambaeva, A Gilman-Sachs, K Beaman, C Lampley, J Kwak-Kim
We performed a prospective cohort study in 197 pregnant women. Peripheral blood was collected between 5 and 16 weeks of gestation. Intracellular cytokine analysis and immunophenotype were performed by flow-cytometry. Serum levels of cytokines and chemokines were analyzed by multiplex assay. 86 patients were eligible for the analysis and 10.5% (n=9) developed preeclampsia. Patients with preeclampsia had significantly higher percentage of CD3(+)CD4(+)TNFα(+) T helper (Th) 1 cells (45.4±10.3 vs 37.1±8.5, P=0...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161510/solvation-structure-and-thermodynamic-mapping-sstmap-an-open-source-flexible-package-for-the-analysis-of-water-in-molecular-dynamics-trajectories
#7
Kamran Haider, Anthony Cruz, Steven Ramsey, Michael K Gilson, Thomas Kurtzman
We have developed SSTMap, a software package for mapping structural and thermodynamic water properties in molecular dynamics trajectories. The package introduces automated analysis and mapping of local measures of frustration and enhancement of water structure. The thermodynamic calculations are based on Inhomogeneous Fluid Solvation Theory (IST), which is implemented using both site-based and grid-based approaches. The package also extends the applicability of solvation analysis calculations to multiple molecular dynamics (MD) simulation programs by using existing cross-platform tools for parsing MD parameter and trajectory files...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161498/selective-isolation-of-myosin-subfragment-1-with-a-dna-polyoxovanadate-bioconjugate
#8
Qing Chen, Xue Hu, Dan-Dan Zhang, Xuwei Chen, Jian-Hua Wang
The bioconjugation of a polyoxometalate (POMs), i.e., dodecavanadate (V12O32), to DNA strands produces a functional labeled DNA primer, V12O32-DNA. The grafting of DNA primer onto streptavidin-coated magnetic nanoparticles (SVM) obtains a novel composite, V12O32-DNA@SVM. The high binding-affinity of V12O32 with the ATP binding site in myosin subfragment-1 (S1) facilitates favorable adsorption of myosin, with an efficiency of 99.4% when processing 0.1 mL myosin solution (100 μg/mL) using 0.1 mg composite. Myosin adsorption fits Langmuir model, corresponding to a theoretical adsorption capacity of 613...
November 21, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161470/resequencing-of-a-mutant-bearing-an-iron-starvation-recovery-phenotype-defines-slr1658-as-a-new-player-in-the-regulatory-network-of-a-model-cyanobacterium
#9
Hagit Zer, Ketty Margulis, Jens Georg, Yoram Shotland, Gergana Kostova, Laure Sultan, Wolfgang R Hess, Nir Keren
Photosynthetic microorganisms encounter an erratic nutrient environment characterized by periods of iron limitation and sufficiency. Surviving in such an environment requires mechanisms for handling these transitions. Our study identified a regulatory system involved in the process of recovery from iron limitation in cyanobacteria. We set out to study the role of bacterioferritin co-migratory proteins during transitions in iron bioavailability in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 using knockout strains coupled with physiological and biochemical measurements...
November 21, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161441/contributions-of-function-altering-variants-in-genes-implicated-in-pubertal-timing-and-body-mass-for-self-limited-delayed-puberty
#10
Sasha R Howard, Leonardo Guasti, Ariel Poliandri, Alessia David, Claudia P Cabrera, Michael R Barnes, Karoliina Wehkalampi, Stephen O'Rahilly, Catherine E Aiken, Anthony P Coll, Marcella Ma, Debra Rimmington, Giles S H Yeo, Leo Dunkel
Context: Self-limited delayed puberty (DP) is often associated with delay in physical maturation, but whilst highly heritable the causal genetic factors remain elusive. Genome-wide association studies of the timing of puberty have identified multiple loci for age of menarche (AAM) in females and voice break in males, particularly in pathways controlling energy balance. Objective/Main outcome measures: We aimed to assess the contribution of rare variants in such genes to the phenotype of familial DP...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161434/designing-a-mutant-candida-uricase-with-improved-polymerization-state-and-enzymatic-activity
#11
Lei Tao, Dandan Li, Yonghong Li, Xinchang Shi, Junzhi Wang, Chunming Rao, Yingqi Zhang
As human uricase has been silenced during evolution, counterparts from other species become an alternative for the treatment of hyperuricemia. Candida uricase is a promising option among them, but its aggregation propensity remains a major obstacle to clinical use. In this study, we designed two mutations according to homology-modeled 3D structure of Candida uricase: Cys249Ser substitution and C-terminal Leu deletion. The wild-type uricase and three mutants containing either or both of the mutations were expressed in Escherichiacoli BL21 and validated by mass spectrometry...
November 17, 2017: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161404/mutation-dependent-aggregation-and-toxicity-in-a-drosophila-model-for-ubqln2-associated-als
#12
Sang Hwa Kim, Shannon G Stiles, Joseph M Feichtmeier, Nandini Ramesh, Lihong Zhan, Mark A Scalf, Lloyd M Smith, Udai Bhan Pandey, Randal S Tibbetts
Members of the conserved ubiquilin (UBQLN) family of ubiquitin (Ub) chaperones harbor an antipodal UBL (Ub-like)-UBA (Ub-associated) domain arrangement and participate in proteasome and autophagosome-mediated protein degradation. Mutations in a proline-rich-repeat region (PRR) of UBQLN2 cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)/frontotemporal dementia (FTD); however, neither the normal functions of the PRR nor impacts of ALS-associated mutations within it are well understood. In this study we show that ALS mutations perturb UBQLN2 solubility and folding in a mutation-specific manner...
November 17, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161365/genome-scale-analysis-ofescherichia-coliwith-a-comprehensive-prokaryotic-sequence-based-biophysical-model-of-translation-initiation-and-elongation
#13
Gilad Shaham, Tamir Tuller
Translation initiation in prokaryotes is affected by the mRNA folding and interaction of the ribosome binding site with the ribosomal RNA. The elongation rate is affected, among other factors, by the local biophysical properties of the coding regions, the decoding rates of different codons, and the interactions among ribosomes. Currently, there is no comprehensive biophysical model of translation that enables the prediction of mRNA translation dynamics based only on the transcript sequence and while considering all of these fundamental aspects of translation...
November 17, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161278/resilience-of-honeybee-colonies-via-common-stomach-a-model-of-self-regulation-of-foraging
#14
Thomas Schmickl, Istvan Karsai
We propose a new regulation mechanism based on the idea of the "common stomach" to explain several aspects of the resilience and homeostatic regulation of honeybee colonies. This mechanism exploits shared pools of substances (pollen, nectar, workers, brood) that modulate recruitment, abandonment and allocation patterns at the colony-level and enable bees to perform several survival strategies to cope with difficult circumstances: Lack of proteins leads to reduced feeding of young brood, to early capping of old brood and to regaining of already spent proteins through brood cannibalism...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161261/mrna-processing-in-mutant-zebrafish-lines-generated-by-chemical-and-crispr-mediated-mutagenesis-produces-unexpected-transcripts-that-escape-nonsense-mediated-decay
#15
Jennifer L Anderson, Timothy S Mulligan, Meng-Chieh Shen, Hui Wang, Catherine M Scahill, Frederick J Tan, Shao J Du, Elisabeth M Busch-Nentwich, Steven A Farber
As model organism-based research shifts from forward to reverse genetics approaches, largely due to the ease of genome editing technology, a low frequency of abnormal phenotypes is being observed in lines with mutations predicted to lead to deleterious effects on the encoded protein. In zebrafish, this low frequency is in part explained by compensation by genes of redundant or similar function, often resulting from the additional round of teleost-specific whole genome duplication within vertebrates. Here we offer additional explanations for the low frequency of mutant phenotypes...
November 21, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161081/diet-obesity-and-asthma
#16
Lisa G Wood
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many developed countries as Western dietary patterns have been widely adopted. These diets are characterized by excess energy intake as well as regular consumption of processed or "fast" foods and limited consumption of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains. The result is a high intake of saturated fat, refined carbohydrates, and sodium; and a low intake of fiber, vitamins, and other phytochemicals. This type of poor-quality diet has been associated with increased risk of chronic inflammatory diseases, including asthma...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161034/dynamic-glycosylation-governs-the-vertebrate-copii-protein-trafficking-pathway
#17
Nathan J Cox, Gokhan Unlu, Brittany J Bisnett, Thomas R Meister, Brett Condon, Peter M Luo, Tim J Smith, Michael Hanna, Abhishek Chhetri, Erik J Soderblom, Anjon Audhya, Ela W Knapik, Michael Boyce
The COPII coat complex, which mediates secretory cargo trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum, is a key control point for subcellular protein targeting. Because misdirected proteins cannot function, protein sorting by COPII is critical for establishing and maintaining normal cell and tissue homeostasis. Indeed, mutations in COPII genes cause a range of human pathologies, including cranio-lenticulo-sutural dysplasia (CLSD), which is characterized by collagen trafficking defects, craniofacial abnormalities and skeletal dysmorphology...
November 21, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160940/morphological-transformation-of-hbmsc-from-2d-monolayer-to-3d-microtissue-on-low-crystallinity-sf-pcl-patch-with-promotion-of-cardiomyogenesis
#18
Hsin-Yu Lo, An-Li Huang, Pei-Chi Lee, Tze-Wen Chung, Shoei-Shen Wang
The effects of the stiffness of substrates on the cell behaviors of hBMSC have been investigated but the effects of the secondary structures of proteins in the substrates on the morphological transformation and differentiation of hBMSC have yet been elucidated. To investigate these issues, SP cardiac patches of poly(ε-caprolactone) (P), on which is grafted by silk (SF) with various β-sheet contents (or crystallinity) to provide various degrees of stiffness, were produced to examine the in-vitro behaviors of hBMSC during proliferation, and cardiomyogenesis on the SP patches...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160911/simultaneous-use-of-erythropoietin-and-lfm-a13-as-a-new-therapeutic-approach-for-colorectal-cancer
#19
Anna Tankiewicz-Kwedlo, Justyna Magdalena Hermanowicz, Tomasz Domaniewski, Krystyna Pawlak, Małgorzata Rusak, Anna Pryczynicz, Arkadiusz Surazynski, Tomasz Kaminski, Adam Kazberuk, Dariusz Pawlak
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase involved in the activation of signaling pathways responsible for cell maturation and viability. BTK has previously been reported to be overexpressed in colon cancers. This kind of cancer is often accompanied by anemia, which is treated with an erythropoietin supplement. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of combination therapy with erythropoietin beta (Epo) and LFM-A13 (BTK inhibitor) on colon cancer in in vitro and in vivo models...
November 21, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160910/epithelial-disruptions-but-not-immune-cell-invasion-induced-secretory-dysfunction-following-innate-immune-activation-in-a-novel-model-of-acute-salivary-gland-injury
#20
Abeer Shaalan, Guy Carpenter, Gordon Proctor
BACKGROUND: Salivary gland (SG) injurious agents are all translated into loss of salivation (xerostomia). An association has been established between activation of innate immunity and salivary gland injury and dysfunction. However, it remains unclear how the secretory epithelia respond by halting saliva production. METHODS: C57BL/6 submandibular glands (SMGs) were acutely challenged using a single dose of the innate immune stimulant: polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly (I:C))...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
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