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Biswaranjan Pradhan, Dipanjan Guha, Aman Kumar Naik, Arka Banerjee, Subodh Tambat, Saurabh Chawla, Shantibhusan Senapati, Palok Aich
Gut microbiota play important role in maintaining health. Probiotics are believed to augment it further. We aimed at comparing effects of probiotics, Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) and Bacillus clausii (BC) (a) on the gut microbiota abundance and diversity and (b) their contributions to control intestinal dysbiosis and inflammation in Th1- and Th2-biased mice following Salmonella infection. We report how could gut microbiota and the differential immune bias (Th1 or Th2) of the host regulate host responses when challenged with Salmonella typhimurium in the presence and absence of either of the probiotics...
June 16, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Shenara Musthaq, Anna Mazuy, Jeannette Jakus
The skin supports a delicate ecosystem of microbial elements. Although the skin typically acts as a barrier, these microbes interact with the internal body environment and imbalances from the "healthy" state that have been linked to several dermatologic diseases. Understanding the changes in microbial flora in disease states allows for the potential to treat by restoring equilibrium. With the rising popularity of holistic and natural consumerism, prebiotics, probiotics, symbiotic, and other therapies are under study to find alternative treatments to these skin disorders through manipulation or supplementation of the microbiome...
May 2018: Clinics in Dermatology
Ziba Ghasemi, Abdol-Reza Varasteh, Malihe Moghadam, Seyed-Amir Jalali, Ali Anissian, Mojtaba Sankian
Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has been introduced as a noninvasive and safer approach for allergen-specific immunotherapies. In this study we investigated the efficacy of oral immunotherapy with recombinant Salsola kali 1 protein (Sal k 1) on Th1/Th2 balance in a mouse model of allergy. Female Balb/c mice were intraperitoneally sensitized with rSal k1, followed by a respiratory challenge with 1% (w/v) rSal k1. The sensitized mice were subjected to SLIT using rSal K1 expressing Lactobacillus lactis strain for three weeks...
June 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
Soosan Abdollahi, Mohammad Hossein Ghahremani, Neda Setayesh, Nasrin Samadi
The Lactococcus lactis is known as a probiotic bacterium and also as a producer of nisin. Nisin has been approved by related legal agencies to be used as an antimicrobial peptide in food preservation. In fact, the L. lactis is present in different food products along with other micro-organisms especially pathogenic bacteria. So, it is important to predict the behavior of nisin-producer strain in contact with other pathogens. In this regard, nisin gene expression and the level of secreted biologically active form of nisin by L...
June 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Ankita Singh, Aditya N Sarangi, Amit Goel, Rajni Srivastava, Rajat Bhargava, Priyanka Gaur, Amita Aggarwal, Rakesh Aggarwal
BACKGROUND: Probiotics have been shown to be useful for the treatment of many disease conditions. These beneficial effects are believed to be mediated by change in the composition of gut microbiota and modulation of the host immune responses. However, the available data on the effect of probiotics on these parameters are quite limited. METHODS: We studied the composition of fecal microbiota, using 16S rRNA sequencing, and host immune responses in peripheral blood (plasma cytokine levels, T cell subsets and in vitro cytokine production after stimulation with anti-CD3/CD28 antibody or lipopolysaccharide) in a group of 14 healthy women at three time-points - before and after administration of a probiotic preparation (a capsule of VSL#3, each containing 112...
June 15, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
Alexia F P Lépine, Paul de Vos
SCOPE: Synbiotic effects of dietary fibers and lactobacilli are usually explained by synergistic modulation of gut-microbiota. New insight however has demonstrated that both dietary fibers and lactobacilli can directly stimulate immune cells and benefit consumer-immunity. Here we investigated synergistic effects of immune-active long-chain inulin (lcITF) and L. acidophilus W37 (LaW37) on dendritic cells (DCs). METHODS AND RESULTS: Effects of lcITF and LaW37 alone or combined were studied on Toll-like receptor (TLRs) signaling and cytokine secretion by DCs in the presence and absence of media of intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) exposed to the ingredients...
June 14, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Yeong-Hsiang Cheng, Ning Zhang, Jin-Cheng Han, Ching-Wen Chang, Felix Shih-Hsiang Hsiao, Yu-Hsiang Yu
Bacillus species are commonly used as probiotics in the poultry feed industry for preventing infectious diseases and improving productivity by altering gastrointestinal microbiota. The growth parameters of Bacillus subtilis for surfactin production in fermentation and the benefits of surfactin on broiler chickens remain unclear. In this study, we examined the growth parameters of B. subtilis in fermentation and evaluated the effects of surfactin from B. subtilis-fermented products on Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis and growth performance in broilers...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Alfredo Guarino, Andrea Lo Vecchio, Jorge Amil Dias, James A Berkley, Chris Boey, Dario Bruzzese, Mitchell B Cohen, Sylvia Cruchet, Ilaria Liguoro, Eduardo Salazar-Lindo, Bhupinder Sandhu, Philip M Sherman, Toshiaki Shimizu
OBJECTIVES: Despite a substantial consistency in recommendations for the management of children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE), a high variability in clinical practice and a high rate of inappropriate medical interventions persist in both developing and developed countries.Aim of this study was to develop a set of clinical recommendations for the management of non-severely malnourished children with AGE to be applied worldwide. METHODS: The Federation of International Societies of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (FISPGHAN) Working Group (WG) selected care protocols on the management of acute diarrhea in infants and children aged between 1 month and 18 years...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Madeleine J H van Oppen, Pim Bongaerts, Pedro Frade, Lesa M Peplow, Sarah E Boyd, Hieu T Nim, Line K Bay
Spatially adjacent habitats on coral reefs can represent highly distinct environments, often harbouring different coral communities. Yet, certain coral species thrive across divergent environments. It is unknown whether the forces of selection are sufficiently strong to overcome the counteracting effects of the typically high gene flow over short distances, and for local adaptation to occur. We screened the coral genome (using restriction-site-associated sequencing [RAD-seq]), and characterized both the dinoflagellate photosymbiont and tissue-associated prokaryote microbiomes (using metabarcoding) of a reef flat and slope population of the reef-building coral, Pocillopora damicornis, at two locations on Heron Island in the southern Great Barrier Reef...
June 13, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Margaret Coleman, Christopher Elkins, Bradford Gutting, Emmanuel Mongodin, Gloria Solano-Aguilar, Isabel Walls
SRA Dose-Response and Microbial Risk Analysis Specialty Groups jointly sponsored symposia that addressed the intersections between the "microbiome revolution" and dose response. Invited speakers presented on innovations and advances in gut and nasal microbiota (normal microbial communities) in the first decade after the Human Microbiome Project began. The microbiota and their metabolites are now known to influence health and disease directly and indirectly, through modulation of innate and adaptive immune systems and barrier function...
June 13, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Hong Zhang, Chiajung Yeh, Zonglian Jin, Liwei Ding, Bryan Y Liu, Li Zhang, H Kathleen Dannelly
The human gut microbiota is an important environmental factor for human health with evolutionarily conserved roles in immunity, metabolism, development, and behavior of the host. Probiotic organisms are claimed to offer several functional properties including stimulation of immune system. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a probiotic supplementation on adult volunteers who have contracted the common cold four or more times in the past year. This study is a single center, double-blind, randomized, controlled, prospective trial...
June 2018: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Prasant Kumar Jena, Lili Sheng, Nidhi Nagar, Chao Wu, Daniela Barile, David A Mills, Yui-Jui Yvonne Wan
Probiotic Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis ( Bifidobacterium infantis ) consumes human milk oligosaccharides (MO) and protects intestinal permeability thereby having anti-inflammatory effects (Underwood et al., 2015; Bode, 2006; Asakuma et al., 2011) [1-3]. Via the gut-liver axis, gut barrier disruption and dysbiosis lead to hepatic inflammation (Sheng et al., 2017; Jena et al., 2017) [4,5,6]. Our published data revealed that butyrate, as well as synbiotics of B. infantis in combination with MO, had protective effects against cancer-prone non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) mouse models, i...
August 2018: Data in Brief
Hugo Varet, Yana Shaulov, Odile Sismeiro, Meirav Trebicz-Geffen, Rachel Legendre, Jean-Yves Coppée, Serge Ankri, Nancy Guillen
Oxidative stress is one of the strongest toxic factors in nature: it can harm or even kill cells. Cellular means of subverting the toxicity of oxidative stress are important for the success of infectious diseases. Many types of bacterium inhabit the intestine, where they can encounter pathogens. During oxidative stress, we analyzed the interplay between an intestinal parasite (the pathogenic amoeba Entamoeba histolytica - the agent of amoebiasis) and enteric bacteria (microbiome residents, pathogens and probiotics)...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Miki Yamada, Naoki Takahashi, Yumi Matsuda, Keisuke Sato, Mai Yokoji, Benso Sulijaya, Tomoki Maekawa, Tatsuo Ushiki, Yoshikazu Mikami, Manabu Hayatsu, Yusuke Mizutani, Shigenobu Kishino, Jun Ogawa, Makoto Arita, Koichi Tabeta, Takeyasu Maeda, Kazuhisa Yamazaki
Several studies have demonstrated the remarkable properties of microbiota and their metabolites in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases. 10-Hydroxy-cis-12-octadecenoic acid (HYA), a bioactive metabolite generated by probiotic microorganisms during the process of fatty acid metabolism, has been studied for its protective effects against epithelial barrier impairment in the intestines. Herein, we examined the effect of HYA on gingival epithelial barrier function and its possible application for the prevention and treatment of periodontal disease...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gözde Konuray, Zerrin Erginkaya
Probiotic microorganisms are generally considered to beneficially affect host health when used in adequate amounts. Although generally used in dairy products, they are also widely used in various commercial food products such as fermented meats, cereals, baby foods, fruit juices, and ice creams. Among lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are the most commonly used bacteria in probiotic foods, but they are not resistant to heat treatment. Probiotic food diversity is expected to be greater with the use of probiotics, which are resistant to heat treatment and gastrointestinal system conditions...
June 13, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Robert H Hall
Colonization of the gut by virulent Vibrio cholerae is suppressed by probiotic-like activity of a live cholera vaccine candidate and Lactococcus lactis in two animal models (Hubbard et al. and Mao et al. , this issue).
June 13, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Troy P Hubbard, Gabriel Billings, Tobias Dörr, Brandon Sit, Alyson R Warr, Carole J Kuehl, Minsik Kim, Fernanda Delgado, John J Mekalanos, Joseph A Lewnard, Matthew K Waldor
Outbreaks of cholera, a rapidly fatal diarrheal disease, often spread explosively. The efficacy of reactive vaccination campaigns-deploying Vibrio cholerae vaccines during epidemics-is partially limited by the time required for vaccine recipients to develop adaptive immunity. We created HaitiV, a live attenuated cholera vaccine candidate, by deleting diarrheagenic factors from a recent clinical isolate of V. cholerae and incorporating safeguards against vaccine reversion. We demonstrate that administration of HaitiV 24 hours before lethal challenge with wild-type V...
June 13, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Ning Mao, Andres Cubillos-Ruiz, D Ewen Cameron, James J Collins
Microbiota-modulating interventions are an emerging strategy to promote gastrointestinal homeostasis. Yet, their use in the detection, prevention, and treatment of acute infections remains underexplored. We report the basis of a probiotic-based strategy to promote colonization resistance and point-of-need diagnosis of cholera, an acute diarrheal disease caused by the pathogen Vibrio cholerae Oral administration of Lactococcus lactis , a common dietary fermentative bacterium, reduced intestinal V. cholerae burden and improved survival in infected infant mice through the production of lactic acid...
June 13, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Satoshi Arai, Noriyuki Iwabuchi, Sachiko Takahashi, Jin-Zhong Xiao, Fumiaki Abe, Satoshi Hachimura
Antigen-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) A plays a major role in host defense against infections in gut mucosal tissue. Follicular helper T (Tfh) cells are located in germinal centers and promote IgA production via interactions with germinal center B cells. Several studies have demonstrated that some lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains activate the host's acquired immune system, inducing IgA secretion in the intestine. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of LAB on IgA production and Tfh cells are not fully resolved...
2018: PloS One
J R Guo, X F Dong, S Liu, J M Tong
This study evaluated the effects of Bacillus subtilis CGMCC 1.921 supplementation on the production performance, cecal microbiota and mucosal transcriptome of laying hens by 16s rRNA gene sequencing and RNA-seq. A total of 144 27-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were allocated into two treatments, namely, a basal diet without additions (T0) and the basal diet supplemented with 1.0 × 108 cfu/g (T1) B. subtilis CGMCC 1.921, with six replicates of 12 birds in each for 24 weeks. The results showed that T1 significantly decreased feed:egg ratio compared with T0 (P < 0...
April 20, 2018: Poultry Science
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