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triple network

Oliver G Bosch, Fabrizio Esposito, Dario Dornbierer, Michael M Havranek, Robin von Rotz, Michael Kometer, Philipp Staempfli, Boris B Quednow, Erich Seifritz
According to the triple network hypothesis the brain is equipped with three core neurocognitive networks: the default mode (DMN), the salience (SN), and the central executive (CEN) network. Moreover, the so called dorsal nexus, has met growing interest as it is a hub region connecting these three networks. Assessment of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of these networks enables the elucidation of drug-induced brain alterations. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a GHB/GABA-B receptor agonist that induces a paradoxical state of mixed stimulation and sedation at moderate doses, which makes it a valuable tool to investigate neural signatures of subjective drug effects...
March 7, 2018: NeuroImage
Yuhong Qian, Tao An, Karl Erik Birgersson, Zhaolin Liu, Dan Zhao
The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is under intense research due to its significance in energy storage and conversion processes. Recent studies show that interconnected and hierarchically porous structures can further enhance ORR kinetics as well as catalyst durability, but their preparation can be quite time and/or chemical consuming. Here, a simple approach is reported to prepare such complex structures by pyrolyzing composites containing NaCl and ZIF-8. The templating effect of molten NaCl connects ZIF-8 particles into web-like carbon networks...
March 9, 2018: Small
Young J Hong, Dean J Tantillo
Results of quantum chemical investigations shed new light on the mechanisms of formation of the stemarene, stemodene, betaerdene, aphidicolene and scopadulanol diterpenes from syn-copalyl diphosphate (syn-CPP). These terpenes are shown to be connected by a complex network of reaction pathways involving concerted but asynchronous dyotropic rearrangements and triple shift rearrangements. The interconnectedness of these pathways leads to multiple routes for formation of each diterpene, which could lead to different origins for some carbon atoms in a given diterpenes under different conditions...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Weidong Cai, Tianwen Chen, Luca Szegletes, Kaustubh Supekar, Vinod Menon
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is thought to stem from aberrancies in large-scale cognitive control networks. However, the exact nature of aberrant brain circuit dynamics involving these control networks is poorly understood. Using a saliency-based triple-network model of cognitive control, we tested the hypothesis that dynamic cross-network interactions among the salience, central executive, and default mode networks are dysregulated in children with ADHD, and we investigated how these dysregulations contribute to inattention...
March 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Xiaojuan Dong, Haixia Qin, Taoyu Wu, Hua Hu, Keren Liao, Fei Cheng, Dong Gao, Xu Lei
Introduction: One classical hypothesis among many models to explain the etiology and maintenance of insomnia disorder (ID) is hyperarousal. Aberrant functional connectivity among resting-state large-scale brain networks may be the underlying neurological mechanisms of this hypothesis. The aim of current study was to investigate the functional network connectivity (FNC) among large-scale brain networks in patients with insomnia disorder (ID) during resting state. Methods: In the present study, the resting-state fMRI was used to evaluate whether patients with ID showed aberrant FNC among dorsal attention network (DAN), frontoparietal control network (FPC), anterior default mode network (aDMN), and posterior default mode network (pDMN) compared with healthy good sleepers (HGSs)...
February 2018: Brain and Behavior
Stavros Stivaros, Shruti Garg, Maria Tziraki, Ying Cai, Owen Thomas, Joseph Mellor, Andrew A Morris, Carly Jim, Karolina Szumanska-Ryt, Laura M Parkes, Hamied A Haroon, Daniela Montaldi, Nicholas Webb, John Keane, Francisco X Castellanos, Alcino J Silva, Sue Huson, Stephen Williams, D Gareth Evans, Richard Emsley, Jonathan Green
Background: Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is a monogenic model for syndromic autism. Statins rescue the social and cognitive phenotype in animal knockout models, but translational trials with subjects > 8 years using cognition/behaviour outcomes have shown mixed results. This trial breaks new ground by studying statin effects for the first time in younger children with NF1 and co-morbid autism and by using multiparametric imaging outcomes. Methods: A single-site triple-blind RCT of simvastatin vs...
2018: Molecular Autism
Tianming Du, Xufeng Niu, Zhengwei Li, Ping Li, Qingling Feng, Yubo Fan
Type I collagen, as the critical organic component of bone matrix, plays a template role in mineralization. Gamma-ray irradiation is used to prepare collagen with different crosslinking degrees without introducing foreign substances for mineralization. Significant improvement in crosslinking degree of collagen can be inferred by enzymolysis and differential scanning calorimetry analysis. Scanning electron microscopy observation reveals that, as crosslinking degree increases, the pore structure of collagen becomes more compact...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Qiang Sun, Xin Yu, Meiling Bao, Mengxi Liu, Jinliang Pan, Zeqi Zha, Liangliang Cai, Honghong Ma, Chunxue Yuan, Xiaohui Qiu, Wei Xu
On-surface synthesis shows significant potential in constructing novel nanostructures/nanomaterials, which has been intensely studied over the recent years. The formation of acetylenic scaffoldings provides an important route to the fabrication of emerging carbon nanostructures including carbyne, graphyne and graphdiyne, which involve the chemically vulnerable sp-hybridized carbons. Herein, we designed and synthesized a tribromomethyl group, by using the combination of high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy and non-contact atomic force microscopy imaging and density functional theory calculations, we demonstrated that it is feasible to achieve the direct formation of C-C triple bonded structural motifs via on-surface dehalogenative homocoupling reactions...
February 20, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Qitang Fan, Liming Liu, Jingya Dai, Tao Wang, Huanxin Ju, Jin Zhao, Julian Kuttner, Gerhard Hilt, J Michael Gottfried, Junfa Zhu
Structural transformations of supramolecular systems triggered by external stimuli maintain great potential for application in the fabrication of molecular storage devices. Using combined ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy (UHV-STM), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), and density functional theory (DFT) calculation, we unambiguously observed the surface adatom mediated structural transformation from 4,4''-dibromo-m-terphenyl (DMTP)-based halogen-bonded networks to DMTP-Cu(Ag) coordination networks on Cu(111) and Ag(111) at low temperatures...
February 19, 2018: ACS Nano
Kaela M Varberg, Seth Winfree, Kenneth W Dunn, Laura S Haneline
Vasculogenesis is a complex process by which endothelial stem and progenitor cells undergo de novo vessel formation. Quantitative assessment of vasculogenesis has become a central readout of endothelial progenitor cell functionality, and therefore, several attempts have been made to improve both in vitro and in vivo vasculogenesis models. However, standard methods are limited in scope, with static measurements failing to capture many aspects of this highly dynamic process. Therefore, the goal of developing this novel protocol was to assess the kinetics of in vitro vasculogenesis in order to quantitate rates of network formation and stabilization, as well as provide insight into potential mechanisms underlying vascular dysfunction...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Guillaume P Andrieu, Gerald V Denis
Transcriptional programs in embryogenesis and cancer, such as the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), ensure cellular plasticity, an essential feature of carcinoma progression. As effectors of signal transduction, the bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) proteins are well suited to support plasticity because they function as co-activators or co-repressors of mammalian transcriptomes. Here, using both hormone-sensitive and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) model systems, we systematically altered EMT transcriptional profiles by manipulating individual BET proteins and found that BRD2 positively regulates EMT, whereas BRD3 and BRD4 repress this program...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Junqing Chen, Zhanhong Chen, Jian Huang, Feng Chen, Weiwu Ye, Guojun Ding, Xiaojia Wang
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for approximately 15-20% of all breast cancer cases and is usually more aggressive with a poorer clinical outcome compared with other breast cancer subtypes. Evidence of the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in cancer has provided an opportunity for the development of novel effective therapeutic targets in TNBC. In the present study, the miRNA expression profiles of the human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, and MCF-7 cells, was evaluated by using miRNA microarray analysis...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
Denton Callander, Hamish McManus, Rebecca Guy, Margaret Hellard, Catherine C O'Connor, Christopher K Fairley, Eric P F Chow, Anna McNulty, David A Lewis, Christopher Carmody, Heather-Marie A Schmidt, Jules Kim, Basil Donovan
BACKGROUND: Female sex workers in Australia have achieved some of the lowest documented prevalences of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmissible infections globally but rates overall are increasing in Australia and warrant closer investigation. METHODS: We constructed a retrospective cohort using repeat testing data extracted from a network of 42 sexual health clinics. Poisson and Cox regression were used to determined trends in incidence and risk factors for HIV, chlamydia, gonorrhoea, and infectious syphilis among female sex workers...
March 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Jing Liu, Huan-Huan Sun, Sheng-Hua Ying, Ming-Guang Feng
Pbs2, Mkk1 and Ste7 orthologs are three mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinases (MAPKKs) acting as checkpoints of the Hog1, Slt2 and Fus3 MAPK cascades that constitute major parts of fungal signaling network. Here, we show that three other MAPKK-like proteins (Mkk4/5/6) exist in Beauveria bassiana and other entomopathogenic or non-entomopathogenic fungi but lack in yeasts and aspergilli, and elucidate how they function in the fungal insect pathogen. Based on phenotypic defects of single-, double- and triple-deletion mutants, Mkk4, Mkk5 and Mkk6 played collaborative or independent roles in sustaining radial growth on various media, conidiation capacity, conidial germination, conidial UV-B resistance, and/or virulence...
February 2, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Deniz A Gürsel, Mihai Avram, Christian Sorg, Felix Brandl, Kathrin Koch
Neuroimaging studies report evidence for two distinct pathophysiological models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): disrupted fronto-striatal circuits and impaired large-scale fronto-parietal-limbic intrinsic brain networks, defined by functionally connected (FC) infra-slow oscillations in ongoing brain activity. To synthesize this literature and overcome inconsistencies, we conducted a coordinate-based meta-analysis of 18 whole-brain resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies (541 patients, 572 healthy controls) comparing seed-based FC between OCD patients and healthy controls...
February 3, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Xavier Guell, John D E Gabrieli, Jeremy D Schmahmann
Delineation of functional topography is critical to the evolving understanding of the cerebellum's role in a wide range of nervous system functions. We used data from the Human Connectome Project (n = 787) to analyze cerebellar fMRI task activation (motor, working memory, language, social and emotion processing) and resting-state functional connectivity calculated from cerebral cortical seeds corresponding to the peak Cohen's d of each task contrast. The combination of exceptional statistical power, activation from both motor and multiple non-motor tasks in the same participants, and convergent resting-state networks in the same participants revealed novel aspects of the functional topography of the human cerebellum...
February 1, 2018: NeuroImage
Martin Jacko, Sebastien M Weyn-Vanhentenryck, John W Smerdon, Rui Yan, Huijuan Feng, Damian J Williams, Joy Pai, Ke Xu, Hynek Wichterle, Chaolin Zhang
Neuronal maturation requires dramatic morphological and functional changes, but the molecular mechanisms governing this process are not well understood. Here, we studied the role of Rbfox1, Rbfox2, and Rbfox3 proteins, a family of tissue-specific splicing regulators mutated in multiple neurodevelopmental disorders. We generated Rbfox triple knockout (tKO) ventral spinal neurons to define a comprehensive network of alternative exons under Rbfox regulation and to investigate their functional importance in the developing neurons...
January 29, 2018: Neuron
Lena Palaniyappan, Gopikrishna Deshpande, Pradyumna Lanka, D Rangaprakash, Sarina Iwabuchi, Susan Francis, Peter F Liddle
OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) and psychotic bipolar disorder share a number of genetic and neurobiological features, despite a divergence in clinical course and outcome trajectories. We studied the diagnostic classification potential that can be achieved on the basis of the structure and connectivity within a triple network system (the default mode, salience and central executive network) in patients with SSD and psychotic bipolar disorder. METHODS: Directed static connectivity and its dynamic variance was estimated among 8 nodes of the three large-scale networks...
February 2, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Zheng Shi, Shuai Zhang, Jialei Yuan, Bingcheng Zhu, Yuan Jiang, Xiangfei Shen, Yongjin Wang
In the brain, each postsynaptic neuron interconnects many presynaptic neurons and performs functions that are related to summation and recognition as well as correlation. Based on a convolution operation and nonlinear distortion function, we propose a mathematical model to explore the elementary synaptic mechanism. A four-emitter light-induced artificial synapse is implemented on an III-nitride-on-silicon platform to validate the device concept for emulating the synaptic behaviors of a biological synapse with multiple presynaptic inputs...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Stephanie Rebecca Setijono, Mikyung Park, Goeun Kim, Yongjo Kim, Kae Won Cho, Su Jung Song
Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed life-threatening cancer in women. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has an aggressive clinical behavior, but the treatment of TNBC remains challenging. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as a potential target for the diagnosis, therapy and prognosis of breast cancer. However, the precise role of miRNAs and their targets in breast cancer remain to be elucidated. Here we show that miR-218 is downregulated and miR-129 is upregulated in TNBC samples and their expressions confer prognosis to patients...
January 26, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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