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novel biomarkers in coronary heart disease

Elena Cavarretta, Giacomo Frati
Coronary artery disease (CAD) and its complication remain the leading cause of mortality in industrialized countries despite great advances in terms of diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment options. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small noncoding RNAs, act as posttranscriptional gene expression modulators and have been implicated as key regulators in several physiological and pathological processes linked to CAD. Circulating miRNAs have been evaluated as promising novel biomarkers of CAD, acute coronary syndromes, and acute myocardial infarction, with prognostic implications...
2016: BioMed Research International
Marc J Mathews, Edward H Mathews, George E Mathews
BACKGROUND: It is well documented that there is some correlation between poor oral health in the form of periodontal disease and coronary heart disease (CHD). It is unclear whether this correlation is due to a causal relationship or shared underlying disorder such as inflammation. A suitable integrated model of the CHD pathogenetic pathways relevant to periodontal disease may help to elucidate the association. Such a model is currently not available in literature. METHODS: A previously developed integrated model of CHD was used to investigate potential pathogenetic pathways linking periodontal disease to CHD biomarkers...
November 15, 2016: BMC Oral Health
Bhavesh Patel, Aashish Ahuja, Ghassan S Kassab, Carlos A Labarrere
Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is one of the most common long-term complications in patients following heart transplantation. Because of its irreversible nature, early detection is essential to impact progression. Thus, imaging techniques play a crucial role in the diagnosis and subsequent treatment. Major advancements in imaging and analysis are required to overcome the limitations of current techniques. Coronary angiography which is the standard method, presents low sensitivity in detection, especially at an early stage...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
Robert W McGarrah, Jacob P Kelly, Damian M Craig, Carol Haynes, Ryan C Jessee, Kim M Huffman, William E Kraus, Svati H Shah
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that systemic inflammation may adversely impact HDL function. In this study we sought to evaluate the independent and incremental predictive performance of glycoprotein acetylation (GlycA)-a novel serum inflammatory biomarker that is an aggregate measure of enzymatically glycosylated acute phase proteins-and HDL subclasses on adverse events in a retrospective observational study of a secondary prevention population and to understand a priori defined potential interactions between GlycA and HDL subclasses...
November 3, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
Fan Deng, Shuang Wang, Liangqing Zhang
Diabetes mellitus- (DM-) related vascular diseases attract increased attention due to their high morbidity and mortality. The incidence of obesity, atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, hypertension, and dyslipidemia is significantly higher in DM patients, with an earlier onset and faster progression compared with non-DM patients. DM-related vascular diseases including macrovascular and microvascular complications are characterized by endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, a better understanding of the etiology and mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction is important for the diagnosis and treatment of DM...
2016: BioMed Research International
Aakash Garg, Deepti Virmani, Sahil Agrawal, Chirag Agarwal, Abhishek Sharma, Giulio Stefanini, John B Kostis
Heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is increasingly prevalent and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. HFpEF has a complex pathophysiology, with recent evidence suggesting that an interaction of cardiovascular and noncardiovascular comorbidities (e.g. obesity, hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, and chronic kidney disease) induces an inflammatory state that eventually leads to myocardial structural and functional alterations. Current ACCF/AHA guidelines suggest incorporation of biomarkers along with clinical and imaging tools to establish the diagnosis and disease severity in heart failure (HF)...
October 27, 2016: Cardiology
Ruijun Li, Fengyu Li, Qiang Feng, Zhipeng Liu, Zhuye Jie, Bo Wen, Xun Xu, Shilong Zhong, Guanglei Li, Kunlun He
This study performed untargeted metabolomics for plasma samples from 40 coronary heart disease patients and 43 healthy controls by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry technology to find a set of effective biomarkers for CHD diagnosis and prognosis. The discriminating metabolites were extracted and analyzed by univariate and multivariate analysis methods. We found five metabolites (1-naphthol, 2-naphthol, methylitaconate, N-acetyl-d-glucosamine 6-phosphate and l-carnitine) contributing to the separation of CHD patients from healthy controls, and a subset of two metabolites in these five were identified as potential plasma biomarkers for CHD diagnosis...
October 18, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Annelise Genoux, Laeticia Lichtenstein, Jean Ferrières, Thibaut Duparc, Vanina Bongard, Paul-Louis Vervueren, Guillaume Combes, Dorota Taraszkiewicz, Meyer Elbaz, Michel Galinier, Bertrand Nassar, Jean-Bernard Ruidavets, Bertrand Perret, Laurent O Martinez
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological and observational studies have established that high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is an independent negative cardiovascular risk factor. However, simple measurement of HDL-C levels is no longer sufficient for cardiovascular risk assessment. Therefore, there is a critical need for novel non-invasive biomarkers that would display prognostic superiority over HDL-C. Cell surface ecto-F1-ATPase contributes to several athero-protective properties of HDL, including reverse cholesterol transport and vascular endothelial protection...
August 23, 2016: BMC Medicine
Henning Jansen, Wolfgang Koenig, Andrea Jaensch, Ute Mons, Lutz P Breitling, Hubert Scharnagl, Tatjana Stojakovic, Heribert Schunkert, Hermann Brenner, Dietrich Rothenbacher
BACKGROUND: Galectin-3 has emerged as a potential useful novel biomarker for heart failure and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, it remains unclear whether galectin-3 is associated with recurrent cardiovascular events during long-term follow-up of patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD) after adjustment for multiple established and novel risk factors. METHODS: We measured galectin-3 at baseline in a cohort consisting of 1035 CHD patients and followed them for 13 years to assess a combined CVD end point...
October 2016: Clinical Chemistry
Claudia Trudel-Fitzgerald, Ying Chen, Ankura Singh, Olivia I Okereke, Laura D Kubzansky
OBJECTIVES: To review the contribution of the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS) on factors that influence mental and physical health. METHODS: Narrative review of all published articles using data from the NHS, the NHS II, and the Growing Up Today Study focusing on mental health conditions (e.g., depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety) and psychosocial resources and stressors (e.g., job strain, interpersonal violence, social relationships, sexual orientation) between 1990 and 2016...
September 2016: American Journal of Public Health
H Rehulkova, P Rehulka, A Myslivcova Fucikova, J Stulik, R Pudil
In-depth proteome discovery analysis represents new strategy in an effort to identify novel reliable specific protein markers for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and other life threatening cardiovascular diseases. To systematically identify novel protein biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases with high mortality we employed an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) proteome technology to make comparative analysis of plasma samples obtained from patients suffering from non-obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, stable dilated cardiomyopathy, aortic valve stenosis, chronic stable coronary artery disease and stable arterial hypertension...
July 15, 2016: Physiological Research
Ender Coskunpinar, Huseyin Altug Cakmak, Ali Kemal Kalkan, Necip Ozan Tiryakioglu, Mehmet Erturk, Zeki Ongen
Recent studies have reported circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) as novel biomarkers for cardiovascular diseases including acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, stroke, and acute pulmonary embolism. The aims of this study were 1) to compare the plasma expression levels of miRNAs in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and control subjects and in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-STEMI 2) to evaluate miRNAs potential to be used as novel diagnostic biomarkers for ACS...
October 10, 2016: Gene
Alexandar V, Pradeep G Nayar, R Murugesan, Shajahan S, Jayalakshmi Krishnan, Shiek S S J Ahmed
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common cause of death worldwide. The burden of CHD increases with risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, obesity and diabetes. Several studies have demonstrated the association of these classical risk factors with CHD. However, the mechanisms of these associations remain largely unclear due to the complexity of disease pathophysiology and the lack of an integrative approach that fails to provide a definite understanding of molecular linkage. To overcome these problems, we propose a novel systems biology approach that relates causative genes, interactomes and pathways to elucidate the risk factors mediating the molecular mechanisms and biomarkers for feasible diagnosis...
July 19, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Julia K Boehm, Ying Chen, David R Williams, Carol D Ryff, Laura D Kubzansky
OBJECTIVE: Individuals who are satisfied and experience frequent positive emotions tend to have reduced risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). However, conflicting evidence exists and little research has investigated whether well-being is associated with early-warning indicators of biological risk that precede CHD. We investigated whether life satisfaction and positive emotions longitudinally predicted reduced risk of incident cardiometabolic conditions and healthier cardiometabolic risk scores, which may provide insight into underlying mechanisms and novel prevention targets...
June 2016: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Mahtab Sharifi, Roby D Rakhit, Steve E Humphries, Devaki Nair
Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a common autosomal-dominant disorder in most European countries. Patients with FH are characterised by a raised level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and a high risk of premature coronary heart disease (CHD). Currently there is no consensus regarding the clinical utility to predict future coronary events or testing for the presence of subclinical atherosclerotic disease in asymptomatic patients with FH. Family screening of patients with FH as recommended by the UK National Institute of Health and Care Excellence guideline would result in finding many young individuals with a diagnosis of FH who are clinically asymptomatic...
July 1, 2016: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Shixi Wang, Weidong He, Caijin Wang
OBJECTIVE: Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in patient body fluids have recently been considered to hold the potential of being novel disease biomarkers and drug targets. We aimed to investigate the correlation between the levels of circulating miR-23a and the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in the pathogenesis of patients with coronary heart disease to further explore the mechanism involved in its vasculogenesis. METHOD: Three different cohorts, including 13 acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients, 176 angina pectoris patients, and 127 control subjects, were enrolled to investigate the expression levels of circulating miR-23a in patients with myocardial ischemia and also the relationship between plasma miR-23a and severity of coronary stenosis...
August 2016: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Rebecca Payne, Ming Yang, Yingye Zheng, Majken K Jensen, Tianxi Cai
Identification of novel biomarkers for risk prediction is important for disease prevention and optimal treatment selection. However, studies aiming to discover which biomarkers are useful for risk prediction often require the use of stored biological samples from large assembled cohorts, and thus the depletion of a finite and precious resource. To make efficient use of such stored samples, two-phase sampling designs are often adopted as resource-efficient sampling strategies, especially when the outcome of interest is rare...
April 1, 2016: Biometrics
Carlos Iribarren, Malini Chandra, Jamal S Rana, Mark A Hlatky, Stephen P Fortmann, Thomas Quertermous, Alan S Go
OBJECTIVE: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) is a novel biomarker of myocardial injury and ischaemia. Our objective was to ascertain correlates of hs-cTnI and its incremental prognostic utility for incident coronary heart disease (CHD) among older asymptomatic subjects. METHODS: We performed a cohort study among 1135 asymptomatic control participants in the ADVANCE (Atherosclerotic Disease, VAscular FunctioN and GenetiC Epidemiology) study at Kaiser Permanente Northern California and Stanford University, with follow-up through 31 December 2014...
August 1, 2016: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Qiang Feng, Zhipeng Liu, Shilong Zhong, Ruijun Li, Huihua Xia, Zhuye Jie, Bo Wen, Xiaomin Chen, Wei Yan, Yanqun Fan, Zhenyu Guo, Nan Meng, Jiyan Chen, Xiyong Yu, Zhiwei Zhang, Karsten Kristiansen, Jun Wang, Xun Xu, Kunlun He, Guanglei Li
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is top risk factor for health in modern society, causing high mortality rate each year. However, there is no reliable way for early diagnosis and prevention of CHD so far. So study the mechanism of CHD and development of novel biomarkers is urgently needed. In this study, metabolomics and metagenomics technology are applied to discover new biomarkers from plasma and urine of 59 CHD patients and 43 healthy controls and trace their origin. We identify GlcNAc-6-P which has good diagnostic capability and can be used as potential biomarkers for CHD, together with mannitol and 15 plasma cholines...
2016: Scientific Reports
Marco Magnoni, Daniele Andreini, Marco Gorini, Tiziano Moccetti, Maria Grazia Modena, Mauro Canestrari, Sergio Berti, Giancarlo Casolo, Domenico Gabrielli, Paolo Marraccini, Gianluca Pontone, Serge Masson, Roberto Latini, Aldo Pietro Maggioni, Attilio Maseri
Although it is generally accepted that cardiac ischemic events develop when coronary atherosclerosis (coronary artery disease [CAD]) has reached a critical threshold, this is true only to a first approximation. Indeed, there are patients with severe CAD who do not develop ischemic events; conversely, at the other extreme, individuals with minimal CAD may do. Similar exceptions to this paradigm include patients with diffuse CAD with a low risk factor (RF) profile and others with multiple RFs who develop only mild or no CAD...
March 2016: American Heart Journal
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