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Pancreas, cancer, liver, bowel,

Hyun S Kim, Walid L Shaib, Chao Zhang, Ganji Purnachandra Nagaraju, Christina Wu, Olatunji B Alese, Zhengjia Chen, Edith Brutcher, Meredith Renfroe, Bassel F El-Rayes
BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) metastasize to the liver. Everolimus and selective internal radioembolization (SIRT) are approved treatments. Pasireotide is a somatostatin analogue with an affinity for somatostatin receptors 1, 2, 3, and 5. Everolimus and pasireotide may potentiate SIRT radiosensitization and inhibit rebound angiogenesis. This study evaluated the safety of pasireotide, everolimus, and SIRT. METHODS: This 3 + 3 phase 1 trial evaluated 3 dose levels of everolimus (2...
February 16, 2018: Cancer
Vickie E Baracos, Lisa Martin, Murray Korc, Denis C Guttridge, Kenneth C H Fearon
Cancer-associated cachexia is a disorder characterized by loss of body weight with specific losses of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Cachexia is driven by a variable combination of reduced food intake and metabolic changes, including elevated energy expenditure, excess catabolism and inflammation. Cachexia is highly associated with cancers of the pancreas, oesophagus, stomach, lung, liver and bowel; this group of malignancies is responsible for half of all cancer deaths worldwide. Cachexia involves diverse mediators derived from the cancer cells and cells within the tumour microenvironment, including inflammatory and immune cells...
January 18, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Joanna Róg, Dariusz Juchnowicz, Justyna Morylowska-Topolska
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a family of transmembrane proteins that mediate many cellular processes. GPR120/FFAR4, a receptor from this family that is activated by fatty acids, has received considerable attention recently. This paper presents a literature review concerning the role of GPR120 and its mechanism of action in animal and human studies as well as the potential use of GPR120 for the treatment of chronic diseases. Two electronic databases - Medline and Google Scholar - were searched for available studies addressing the review topic that were written in English and published from 2000 to June 2017...
November 19, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Hassan Ashktorab, Sonia S Kupfer, Hassan Brim, John M Carethers
Cancer from the gastrointestinal tract and its associated excretory organs will occur in more than 300,000 Americans in 2017, with colorectal cancer responsible for >40% of that burden; there will be more than 150,000 deaths from this group of cancers in the same time period. Disparities among subgroups related to the incidence and mortality of these cancers exist. The epidemiology and risk factors associated with each cancer bear out differences for racial groups in the United States. Esophageal adenocarcinoma is more frequent in non-Hispanic whites, whereas esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with risk factors of tobacco and alcohol is more frequent among blacks...
October 2017: Gastroenterology
Stefan Fritz, Christof M Sommer, Thomas Longerich, Clemens Kuhn-Neureuther, Boris Radeleff, Jens Werner, Thilo Hackert
BACKGROUND: Irreversible electroporation (IRE), a nonthermal injury ablation technique, has been shown to be effective and safe in various organs, such as in the kidney, liver, prostate, or in pancreas. In contrast to radiofrequency or microwave ablation, IRE is also effective in the neighborhood of major vessels. Many human cancers reveal lymphatic spread. The present study aimed to evaluate technical feasibility and safety of IRE in lymphatic tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing successful IRE of lymph nodes in a standardized porcine survival model...
May 2017: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
Vladimir Milovanov, Armando Sardi, Nail Aydin, Carol Nieroda, Michelle Sittig, Vadim Gushchin
BACKGROUND: MD Anderson Cancer Center developed a computed tomography (CT)-based preoperative assessment tool simplified preoperative assessment for appendix tumor (SPAAT) for predicting incomplete cytoreduction (IC) in low-grade mucinous adenocarcinoma (LGMA) of the appendix, based on preoperative CT scans. This study independently evaluates the tool's performance. METHODS: Seventy-six preoperative CT scans of LGMA patients were evaluated by two surgeons unfamiliar with the patients' medical history...
July 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Yasunaru Sakuma, Yoshikazu Yasuda, Naohiro Sata, Yoshinori Hosoya, Atsushi Shimizu, Hirofumi Fujii, Daisuke Matsubara, Noriyuki Fukushima, Atsushi Miki, Misato Maeno, Alan Kawarai Lefor
BACKGROUND: Long-term term survival in patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors has been reported, even in patients with metastatic disease. Metastases to the spleen are extremely rare, but have been reported from a number of primary malignancies, such as breast cancer, lung cancer, melanoma and ovarian cancer. This is the first report of a splenic metastasis from a primary pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient presented as a 53 years old white male with anemia and fatigue...
January 9, 2017: BMC Cancer
Faidon-Marios Laskaratos, Martin Walker, Keval Naik, Emmanouil Maragkoudakis, Nikolaos Oikonomopoulos, Lee Grant, Tim Meyer, Martyn Caplin, Christos Toumpanakis
BACKGROUND: The antiproliferative activity of octreotide LAR in neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) has been demonstrated by small retrospective studies and confirmed by a prospective phase III trial (PROMID). However, there are limited data about the duration and predictors of response. The aim of our retrospective study was to determine the time to radiological progression (TTRP) of disease and the factors that were associated with better response. METHODS: A total of 254 treatment naïve patients with advanced NETs and positive somatostatin receptor scintigraphy were included...
November 22, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Giuseppe Frieri, Brigida Galletti, Donatella Serva, Angelo Viscido
Alcohol, in addition to well-known damages on the liver and pancreas, produces direct and indirect injuries in the mucosa of the oesophagus, stomach, small intestine and large bowel. Different damages can be produced both when a large amount of alcohol is acutely drunk and when this is taken chronically. Almost all these lesions can be detected and treated by endoscopy as shown in the present article. When, over time, cirrhosis ensues the role of endoscopy is not different from that played with cirrhosis of different etiology...
2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Christopher J D Wallis, Georg Bjarnason, James Byrne, Douglas C Cheung, Azik Hoffman, Girish S Kulkarni, Avery B Nathens, Robert K Nam, Raj Satkunasivam
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of disseminated cancer on perioperative outcomes following radical nephrectomy. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing radical nephrectomy for kidney cancer from 2005 to 2014 using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, a multi-institutional prospective registry that captures perioperative surgical complications. Patients were stratified according to the presence (n = 657) or absence (n = 7143) of disseminated cancer at the time of surgery...
September 2016: Urology
Stephanie Demeyer, Kris De Boeck, Peter Witters, Katrien Cosaert
UNLABELLED: Cystic fibrosis is a life shortening hereditary disease, primarily leading to progressive pulmonary infection and exocrine pancreatic dysfunction. Several gastrointestinal complications other than malabsorption can arise during the disease course and with the progressively increasing life span of patients with CF; new and more rare complications are being recognized. We review the literature on gastrointestinal manifestations in CF, excluding the liver and pancreas. CONCLUSION: We describe the clinical presentation and treatment of more common conditions like gastroesophageal reflux, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, intussusception, meconium ileus, distal intestinal obstruction syndrome, and constipation, and we also discuss what is known on celiac disease, appendicitis, fibrosing colonopathy, inflammation and inflammatory bowel disease and gastrointestinal cancer...
July 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
Florian Heitz, Philipp Harter, Piero F Alesina, Martin K Walz, Dietmar Lorenz, Harald Groeben, Sebastian Heikaus, Anette Fisseler-Eckhoff, Stephanie Schneider, Beyhan Ataseven, Christian Kurzeder, Sonia Prader, Bianca Beutel, Alexander Traut, Andreas du Bois
OBJECTIVE: Describing the pattern of and reasons for post-operative tumor residuals in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (AOC) operated in a specialized gynecologic cancer center following a strategy of maximum upfront debulking followed by systemic chemotherapy. METHODS: All consecutive AOC-patients treated between 2005 and 2015 due to stages FIGO IIIB/IV were included in this single-center analysis. RESULTS: 739 patients were included in this analysis...
May 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
Katherine L Chapman, Matthew E Witek, Hongyu Chen, Timothy N Showalter, Voichita Bar-Ad, Amy S Harrison
To compare the roles of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric- modulated arc therapy (VMAT) therapy as compared to simple and complex 3-dimensional chemoradiotherpy (3DCRT) planning for resectable and borderline resectable pancreatic cancer. In all, 12 patients who received postoperative radiotherapy (8) or neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (4) were evaluated retrospectively. Radiotherapy planning was performed for 4 treatment techniques: simple 4-field box, complex 5-field 3DCRT, 5 to 6-field IMRT, and single-arc VMAT...
2016: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
Li-Yu Hu, Fan-Chen Ku, Ti Lu, Cheng-Che Shen, Yu-Wen Hu, Chiu-Mei Yeh, Cheng-Hwai Tzeng, Tzeng-Ji Chen, Pan-Ming Chen, Chia-Jen Liu
PURPOSE: The aim of our study was to evaluate the overall cancer risk among patients with the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) by using a nationwide population-based data set. METHODS: We obtained data on newly diagnosed IBS patients (age ≥ 20 years) without antecedent cancer from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for the period between 2000 and 2010. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for various types of cancer in the IBS patients...
December 2015: Annals of Epidemiology
Ryogo Minamimoto, Mehran Jamali, Amir Barkhodari, Camila Mosci, Erik Mittra, Bin Shen, Frederick Chin, Sanjiv Sam Gambhir, Andrei Iagaru
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the biodistribution of 2-fluoropropionyl-labeled PEGylated dimeric arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide (PEG3-E[c{RGDyk}]2) ((18)F-FPPRGD2) in cancer patients and to compare its uptake in malignant lesions with (18)F-FDG uptake. METHODS: A total of 35 patients (11 men, 24 women, mean age 52.1 ± 10.8 years) were enrolled prospectively and had (18)F-FPPRGD2 PET/CT prior to treatment. Maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) and mean SUV (SUVmean) were measured in 23 normal tissues in each patient, as well as in known or suspected cancer lesions...
November 2015: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Maria Coats, Sami M Shimi
AIM: To investigate the association between cholecystectomy and gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) cancers. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review according to the PRISMA guidelines. A MEDLINE search was performed with predefined search criteria for English Language articles on the association between cholecystectomy and GIT cancers. Additional articles were retrieved by manual search of references. All relevant articles were accessed in full text. Data on study type; cases; controls; country; effect estimate; adjustments for confounders and quality of publication were extracted...
March 28, 2015: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Ted C Ling, Jerry M Slater, Rachel Mifflin, Prashanth Nookala, Roger Grove, Anh M Ly, Baldev Patyal, Jerry D Slater, Gary Y Yang
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is a highly aggressive malignancy. Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is utilized in many cases to improve locoregional control; however, toxicities associated with radiation can be significant given the location of the pancreas. RTOG 0848 seeks to evaluate chemoradiation using either intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or 3D conformal photon radiotherapy (3DCRT) modalities as an adjuvant treatment. The purpose of this study is to quantify the dosimetric changes seen when using IMRT or 3D CRT photon modalities, as well as proton radiotherapy, in patients receiving CRT for cancer of the pancreas treated per RTOG 0848 guidelines...
April 2015: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Jung Ae Lee, Yong Chan Ahn, Do Hoon Lim, Hee Chul Park, Margarita S Asranbaeva
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the dosimetric and clinical influence of computed tomography-based (3-dimensional [3D]) simulation versus conventional 2-dimensional (2D)-based simulation in postoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for patients with advanced gastric cancer in terms of parallel opposed anteroposterior-posteroanterior field arrangement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective stage-matched cohort study was conducted in 158 patients treated with adjuvant CRT following curative surgery and D2 dissection from 2006 to 2008 at Samsung Medical Center: 98 patients in the 3D group; and 60 patients in the 2D group...
October 2015: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
Beata M Gruber
The receptor of vitamin D (VDR) is present in most non-skeletal human cells, suggesting its role beyond the bone and calcium metabolism. The relationship between vitamin D and the respiratory tract is a consequence of its activity in the immune system. Some gastrointestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, coeliac disease, liver, pancreas or cardiac diseases, lead to vitamin D deficiency. Many studies indicate a correlation between vitamin D and diabetes. VDR and 1α-hydroxylase have been detected in the cutaneous capillary vessels, endothelium, vascular smooth muscles, myocytes and cardiac fibroblasts...
2015: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
David M Schuster, Cristina Nanni, Stefano Fanti, Shuntaro Oka, Hiroyuki Okudaira, Yusuke Inoue, Jens Sörensen, Rikard Owenius, Peter Choyke, Baris Turkbey, Trond V Bogsrud, Tore Bach-Gansmo, Raghuveer K Halkar, Jonathon A Nye, Oluwaseun A Odewole, Bital Savir-Baruch, Mark M Goodman
UNLABELLED: Anti-1-amino-3-(18)F-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid ((18)F-FACBC) is a synthetic amino acid analog PET radiotracer undergoing clinical trials for the evaluation of prostate and other cancers. We aimed to describe common physiologic uptake patterns, incidental findings, and variants in patients who had undergone (18)F-FACBC PET. METHODS: Sixteen clinical trials involving 611 (18)F-FACBC studies from 6 centers, which included dosimetry studies on 12 healthy volunteers, were reviewed...
December 2014: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
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