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Pancreas, cancer, liver, bowel,

Giuseppe Frieri, Brigida Galletti, Donatella Serva, Angelo Viscido
Alcohol, in addition to well-known damages on the liver and pancreas, produces direct and indirect injuries in the mucosa of the oesophagus, stomach, small intestine and large bowel. Different damages can be produced both when a large amount of alcohol is acutely drunk and when this is taken chronically. Almost all these lesions can be detected and treated by endoscopy as shown in the present article. When, over time, cirrhosis ensues the role of endoscopy is not different from that played with cirrhosis of different etiology...
2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Christopher J D Wallis, Georg Bjarnason, James Byrne, Douglas C Cheung, Azik Hoffman, Girish S Kulkarni, Avery B Nathens, Robert K Nam, Raj Satkunasivam
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of disseminated cancer on perioperative outcomes following radical nephrectomy. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing radical nephrectomy for kidney cancer from 2005 to 2014 using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, a multi-institutional prospective registry that captures perioperative surgical complications. Patients were stratified according to the presence (n = 657) or absence (n = 7143) of disseminated cancer at the time of surgery...
September 2016: Urology
Stephanie Demeyer, Kris De Boeck, Peter Witters, Katrien Cosaert
UNLABELLED: Cystic fibrosis is a life shortening hereditary disease, primarily leading to progressive pulmonary infection and exocrine pancreatic dysfunction. Several gastrointestinal complications other than malabsorption can arise during the disease course and with the progressively increasing life span of patients with CF; new and more rare complications are being recognized. We review the literature on gastrointestinal manifestations in CF, excluding the liver and pancreas. CONCLUSION: We describe the clinical presentation and treatment of more common conditions like gastroesophageal reflux, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, intussusception, meconium ileus, distal intestinal obstruction syndrome, and constipation, and we also discuss what is known on celiac disease, appendicitis, fibrosing colonopathy, inflammation and inflammatory bowel disease and gastrointestinal cancer...
July 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
Florian Heitz, Philipp Harter, Piero F Alesina, Martin K Walz, Dietmar Lorenz, Harald Groeben, Sebastian Heikaus, Anette Fisseler-Eckhoff, Stephanie Schneider, Beyhan Ataseven, Christian Kurzeder, Sonia Prader, Bianca Beutel, Alexander Traut, Andreas du Bois
OBJECTIVE: Describing the pattern of and reasons for post-operative tumor residuals in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (AOC) operated in a specialized gynecologic cancer center following a strategy of maximum upfront debulking followed by systemic chemotherapy. METHODS: All consecutive AOC-patients treated between 2005 and 2015 due to stages FIGO IIIB/IV were included in this single-center analysis. RESULTS: 739 patients were included in this analysis...
May 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
Katherine L Chapman, Matthew E Witek, Hongyu Chen, Timothy N Showalter, Voichita Bar-Ad, Amy S Harrison
To compare the roles of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric- modulated arc therapy (VMAT) therapy as compared to simple and complex 3-dimensional chemoradiotherpy (3DCRT) planning for resectable and borderline resectable pancreatic cancer. In all, 12 patients who received postoperative radiotherapy (8) or neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (4) were evaluated retrospectively. Radiotherapy planning was performed for 4 treatment techniques: simple 4-field box, complex 5-field 3DCRT, 5 to 6-field IMRT, and single-arc VMAT...
2016: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
Li-Yu Hu, Fan-Chen Ku, Ti Lu, Cheng-Che Shen, Yu-Wen Hu, Chiu-Mei Yeh, Cheng-Hwai Tzeng, Tzeng-Ji Chen, Pan-Ming Chen, Chia-Jen Liu
PURPOSE: The aim of our study was to evaluate the overall cancer risk among patients with the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) by using a nationwide population-based data set. METHODS: We obtained data on newly diagnosed IBS patients (age ≥ 20 years) without antecedent cancer from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for the period between 2000 and 2010. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for various types of cancer in the IBS patients...
December 2015: Annals of Epidemiology
Ryogo Minamimoto, Mehran Jamali, Amir Barkhodari, Camila Mosci, Erik Mittra, Bin Shen, Frederick Chin, Sanjiv Sam Gambhir, Andrei Iagaru
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the biodistribution of 2-fluoropropionyl-labeled PEGylated dimeric arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide (PEG3-E[c{RGDyk}]2) ((18)F-FPPRGD2) in cancer patients and to compare its uptake in malignant lesions with (18)F-FDG uptake. METHODS: A total of 35 patients (11 men, 24 women, mean age 52.1 ± 10.8 years) were enrolled prospectively and had (18)F-FPPRGD2 PET/CT prior to treatment. Maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) and mean SUV (SUVmean) were measured in 23 normal tissues in each patient, as well as in known or suspected cancer lesions...
November 2015: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Maria Coats, Sami M Shimi
AIM: To investigate the association between cholecystectomy and gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) cancers. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review according to the PRISMA guidelines. A MEDLINE search was performed with predefined search criteria for English Language articles on the association between cholecystectomy and GIT cancers. Additional articles were retrieved by manual search of references. All relevant articles were accessed in full text. Data on study type; cases; controls; country; effect estimate; adjustments for confounders and quality of publication were extracted...
March 28, 2015: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Ted C Ling, Jerry M Slater, Rachel Mifflin, Prashanth Nookala, Roger Grove, Anh M Ly, Baldev Patyal, Jerry D Slater, Gary Y Yang
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is a highly aggressive malignancy. Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is utilized in many cases to improve locoregional control; however, toxicities associated with radiation can be significant given the location of the pancreas. RTOG 0848 seeks to evaluate chemoradiation using either intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or 3D conformal photon radiotherapy (3DCRT) modalities as an adjuvant treatment. The purpose of this study is to quantify the dosimetric changes seen when using IMRT or 3D CRT photon modalities, as well as proton radiotherapy, in patients receiving CRT for cancer of the pancreas treated per RTOG 0848 guidelines...
April 2015: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Jung Ae Lee, Yong Chan Ahn, Do Hoon Lim, Hee Chul Park, Margarita S Asranbaeva
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the dosimetric and clinical influence of computed tomography-based (3-dimensional [3D]) simulation versus conventional 2-dimensional (2D)-based simulation in postoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for patients with advanced gastric cancer in terms of parallel opposed anteroposterior-posteroanterior field arrangement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective stage-matched cohort study was conducted in 158 patients treated with adjuvant CRT following curative surgery and D2 dissection from 2006 to 2008 at Samsung Medical Center: 98 patients in the 3D group; and 60 patients in the 2D group...
October 2015: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
Beata M Gruber
The receptor of vitamin D (VDR) is present in most non-skeletal human cells, suggesting its role beyond the bone and calcium metabolism. The relationship between vitamin D and the respiratory tract is a consequence of its activity in the immune system. Some gastrointestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, coeliac disease, liver, pancreas or cardiac diseases, lead to vitamin D deficiency. Many studies indicate a correlation between vitamin D and diabetes. VDR and 1α-hydroxylase have been detected in the cutaneous capillary vessels, endothelium, vascular smooth muscles, myocytes and cardiac fibroblasts...
2015: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
David M Schuster, Cristina Nanni, Stefano Fanti, Shuntaro Oka, Hiroyuki Okudaira, Yusuke Inoue, Jens Sörensen, Rikard Owenius, Peter Choyke, Baris Turkbey, Trond V Bogsrud, Tore Bach-Gansmo, Raghuveer K Halkar, Jonathon A Nye, Oluwaseun A Odewole, Bital Savir-Baruch, Mark M Goodman
UNLABELLED: Anti-1-amino-3-(18)F-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid ((18)F-FACBC) is a synthetic amino acid analog PET radiotracer undergoing clinical trials for the evaluation of prostate and other cancers. We aimed to describe common physiologic uptake patterns, incidental findings, and variants in patients who had undergone (18)F-FACBC PET. METHODS: Sixteen clinical trials involving 611 (18)F-FACBC studies from 6 centers, which included dosimetry studies on 12 healthy volunteers, were reviewed...
December 2014: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
A Deiteren, J G De Man, P A Pelckmans, B Y De Winter
Histamine is a well-established mediator involved in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms and exerts its effect through activation of four histamine receptors (H1-H₄). The histamine H₄ receptor is the newest member of this histamine receptor family, and is expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract as well as in the liver, pancreas and bile ducts. Functional studies using a combination of selective and non-selective H₄ receptor ligands have rapidly increased our knowledge of H₄ receptor involvement in gastrointestinal processes both under physiological conditions and in models of disease...
March 2015: British Journal of Pharmacology
Suzanne Sachsman, Bradford S Hoppe, Nancy P Mendenhall, Adam Holtzman, Zuofeng Li, William Slayton, Mike Joyce, Eric Sandler, Stella Flampouri
Twelve consecutive patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) involving diaphragmatic or subdiaphragmatic regions were treated on an institutional review board-approved outcomes tracking protocol. All patients underwent treatment with proton therapy following chemotherapy and had comparative three-dimensional conformal photon radiotherapy (3DCRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans to evaluate differences in dose to organs at risk (OARs). Among the cohort, stomach doses with 3DCRT, IMRT and proton therapy were 21 Gy (median), 14 Gy and 6 Gy, respectively...
July 2015: Leukemia & Lymphoma
Reid F Thompson, Sonal U Mayekar, Huifang Zhai, Stefan Both, Smith Apisarnthanarax, James M Metz, John P Plastaras, Edgar Ben-Josef
PURPOSE: Uncontrolled local growth is the cause of death in ∼ 30% of patients with unresectable pancreatic cancers. The addition of standard-dose radiotherapy to gemcitabine has been shown to confer a modest survival benefit in this population. Radiation dose escalation with three-dimensional planning is not feasible, but high-dose intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has been shown to improve local control. Still, dose-escalation remains limited by gastrointestinal toxicity...
August 2014: Medical Physics
Kumar Sandrasegaran
In this article, functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques in the abdomen are discussed. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) increases the confidence in detecting and characterizing focal hepatic lesions. The potential uses of DWI in kidneys, adrenal glands, bowel, and pancreas are outlined. Studies have shown potential use of quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging parameters, such as K(trans), in predicting outcomes in cancer therapy. MR elastography is considered to be a useful tool in staging liver fibrosis...
July 2014: Radiologic Clinics of North America
Freddy Sitas, Alison Gibberd, Clare Kahn, Marianne F Weber, May Chiew, Rajah Supramaniam, Louiza Velentzis, Carolyn Nickson, David P Smith, Dianne O'Connell, Megan A Smith, Katie Armstrong, Xue Qin Yu, Karen Canfell, Monica Robotin, Eleonora Feletto, Andrew Penman
BACKGROUND: Australia has one of the highest rates of cancer incidence worldwide and, despite improving survival, cancer continues to be a major public health problem. Our aim was to provide simple summary measures of changes in cancer mortality and incidence in Australia so that progress and areas for improvement in cancer control can be identified. METHODS: We used national data on cancer deaths and newly registered cancer cases and compared expected and observed numbers of deaths and cases diagnosed in 2007...
December 2013: Cancer Epidemiology
Karyn B Stitzenberg, YunKyung Chang, Raphael Louie, Jennifer S Groves, Danielle Durham, Erin F Fraher
OBJECTIVE: This study characterizes the surgical oncology workforce as a baseline for future workforce projections. BACKGROUND: Measuring the capacity of the surgical oncology workforce is difficult due to the wide variety of surgeons who contribute to surgical cancer care. We hypothesize that the bulk of surgical oncology care is provided by general surgeons. METHODS: Using Medicare claims data linked to the North Carolina Central Cancer Registry, all patients 65 years or older who had a diagnosis of incident cancer of the bladder, breast, colon/rectum, esophagus, gallbladder, kidney, liver, lung, skin (melanoma-only), ovary, pancreas, prostate, small bowel, stomach, or uterus in 2005 and who underwent an extirpative procedure for cancer were identified...
March 2014: Annals of Surgery
E Nure, F Frongillo, M C Lirosi, U Grossi, G Sganga, A W Avolio, M Siciliano, G Addolorato, G Mariano, S Agnes
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome of de novo tumors (DNT) of the upper aerodigestive tract in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). METHODS: Among 225 consecutive OLT performed between January 2002 and January 2012, a total of 205 patients received a first liver allograft. Eleven (4.9%) patients developed DNT (lung, pancreas, bowel, esophagus, larynx, tongue, tonsil, and lymphoma)...
September 2013: Transplantation Proceedings
Juanita L Merchant, Milena Saqui-Salces
This review summarizes emerging information regarding the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway during neoplastic transformation in the gastrointestinal tract. Although there is a role for the well-established canonical pathway in which Hedgehog ligands interact with their receptor Patched, there is sufficient evidence that downstream components of the Hh pathway, e.g., Gli1, are hijacked by non-Hh signaling pathways to promote the conversion of the epithelium to dysplasia and carcinoma. We review the canonical pathway and involvement of primary cilia, and then focus on current evidence for Hh signaling in luminal bowel cancers as well as accessory organs, i...
February 2014: Cancer Treatment Reviews
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