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Radiology, Nuclear Medicine

Maikol Salas-Ramirez, Johannes Tran-Gia, Christian Kesenheimer, Andreas Max Weng, Aleksander Kosmala, Anke Heidemeier, Herbert Koestler, Michael Lassmann
Absorbed dose to active bone marrow is a predictor of hematological toxicity in molecular radiotherapy. Due to the complex composition of bone marrow tissue, the necessity to improve the personalized dosimetry has led to the application of non-conventional imaging methods in nuclear medicine. The aim of this study is to apply magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for quantification of the fat fraction in lumbar vertebrae and to analyze its implications for bone marrow dosimetry. Methods First, a highly accelerated two-point Dixon MRI sequence for fat-water separation was validated in a 3T system against the magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) gold standard...
November 13, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Andrew B Rosenkrantz, Wenyi Wang, Arvind Vijayasarathi, Richard Duszak
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Meaningfully measuring physician outcomes and resource utilization requires appropriate patient risk adjustment. We aimed to assess Medicare patient complexity by physician specialty and to further identify radiologist characteristics associated with higher patient complexity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The average beneficiary Hierarchical Condition Category (HCC) risk scores (Medicare's preferred measure of clinical complexity) were identified for all physicians using 2014 Medicare claims data...
November 3, 2017: Academic Radiology
Mary G Hochman, Yulia V Melenevsky, Darlene F Metter, Catherine C Roberts, Jenny T Bencardino, R Carter Cassidy, Michael G Fox, Mark J Kransdorf, Douglas N Mintz, Nehal A Shah, Kirstin M Small, Stacy E Smith, Kathy M Tynus, Barbara N Weissman
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is the most commonly performed joint replacement procedure in the United States and annual demand for primary TKA is expected to grow by 673% by 2030. The first part provides an overview of imaging modalities (radiographs, CT, MRI, ultrasound, and various nuclear medicine studies) and discusses their usefulness in the imaging evaluation of TKA. The second part focuses on evidence-based imaging and imaging-guided intervention algorithms for the workup of TKA and its complications, including routine follow-up, component wear, periprosthetic infection, aseptic loosening, granulomas/osteolysis, conventional and rotational instability, periprosthetic fracture, patellar complications, and a variety of periprosthetic soft tissue abnormalities...
November 2017: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
Martin Andersson, Lennart Johansson, Keith Eckerman, Sören Mattsson
BACKGROUND: To date, the estimated radiation-absorbed dose to organs and tissues in patients undergoing diagnostic examinations in nuclear medicine is derived via calculations based on models of the human body and the biokinetic behaviour of the radiopharmaceutical. An internal dosimetry computer program, IDAC-Dose2.1, was developed based on the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)-specific absorbed fractions and computational framework of internal dose assessment given for reference adults in ICRP Publication 133...
November 3, 2017: EJNMMI Research
B Grubmüller, P Baltzer, D D'Andrea, S Korn, A R Haug, M Hacker, K H Grubmüller, G M Goldner, W Wadsak, S Pfaff, J Babich, C Seitz, H Fajkovic, M Susani, P Mazal, G Kramer, S F Shariat, Markus Hartenbach
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of [(68)Ga]Ga-PSMA(HBED-CC) conjugate 11 positron emission tomography (PSMA-PET) in the early detection of metastases in patients with biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP) for clinically non-metastatic prostate cancer, to compare it to CT/MRI alone and to assess its impact on further therapeutic decisions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively assessed 117 consecutive hormone-naïve BCR patients who had (68)Ga-PSMA 11 PET/CT (n = 46) or PET/MRI (n = 71) between May 2014 and January 2017...
October 26, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Martin Andersson, Keith Eckerman, L J Soren Mattsson
Abstract The aim of this study is to implement lifetime attributable risk (LAR) predictions of cancer for patients of various age and gender, undergoing diagnostic investigations or treatments in nuclear medicine and to compare the outcome with a population risk estimate using effective dose and the International Commission on Radiological Protection risk coefficients. The radiation induced risk of cancer occurrence (incidence) or death from four nuclear medicine procedures are estimated for both male and female between 0 and 120 years...
October 24, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Alessia Gimelli, Stephan Achenbach, Ronny R Buechel, Thor Edvardsen, Marco Francone, Oliver Gaemperli, Marcus Hacker, Fabien Hyafil, Philipp A Kaufmann, Patrizio Lancellotti, Koen Nieman, Gianluca Pontone, Francesca Pugliese, Hein J Verberne, Matthias Gutberlet, Jeroen J Bax, Danilo Neglia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2017: European Heart Journal
S C Sasson, R Russo, T Chung, G Chu, I Hunyor, J Williamson, A Murad, A Kane, S Riminton, S Limaye
BACKGROUND: Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disorder of immune dysregulation characterized by non-caseating granulomas that can affect any organ. Cardiac sarcoidosis is an under-recognized entity that has a heterogeneous presentation and may occur independently or with any severity of systemic disease. Diagnosing cardiac sarcoidosis remains problematic with endomyocardial biopsies associated with a high risk of complications. Several diagnostic algorithms are currently available that rely on histopathology or clinical and radiological measures...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Thomas A Hope, Emily Bergsland, Murat Fani Bozkurt, Michael M Graham, Anthony P Heaney, Ken Herrmann, James R Howe, Matthew H Kulke, Pamela L Kunz, Josh Mailman, Lawrence May, David C Metz, Corina Millo, Sue O'Dorisio, Diane L Reidy-Lagunes, Michael C Soulen, Jonathan R Strosberg
Somatostatin receptor positron emission tomography (SSTR-PET) is an imaging modality for patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) that has demonstrated a significant improvement over conventional imaging (CI). SSTR-PET should replace In-111 pentetreotide scintigraphy (OctreoScan) in all indications in which SSTR scintigraphy is currently being used. These appropriate use criteria (AUC) are intended to aid referring medical practitioners in the appropriate use of SSTR-PET for imaging of patients with NETs, and the indications were evaluated in well-differentiated NETs...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Marie-Odile Bernier, Neige Journy, Daphnee Villoing, Michele M Doody, Bruce H Alexander, Martha S Linet, Cari M Kitahara
Purpose To estimate the risk of cataract in a cohort of nuclear medicine (NM) radiologic technologists on the basis of their work histories and radiation protection practices. Materials and Methods In the years 2003-2005 and 2012-2013, 42 545 radiologic technologists from a U.S. prospective study completed questionnaires in which they provided information regarding their work histories and cataract histories. Cox proportional hazards models, stratified according to birth-year cohort (born before 1940 or born in 1940 or later) and adjusted for age, sex, and race, were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for the risk of cataract in radiologic technologists according to NM work history practices according to decade...
October 11, 2017: Radiology
Emilie Roncali, Mohammad Amin Mosleh-Shirazi, Aldo Badano
Computational modelling of radiation transport can enhance the understanding of the relative importance of individual processes involved in imaging systems. Modelling is a powerful tool for improving detector designs in ways that are impractical or impossible to achieve through experimental measurements. Modelling of light transport in scintillation detectors used in radiology and radiotherapy imaging that rely on the detection of visible light plays an increasingly important role in detector design. Historically, researchers have invested heavily in modelling the transport of ionizing radiation while light transport is often ignored or coarsely modelled...
October 4, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Francis X Sundram, John R Buscombe
Primary and secondary liver malignancies are common and associated with a poor prognosis. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice; however, many patients have unresectable disease. In these cases, several liver directed therapies are available, including selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT). SIRT is a multidisciplinary treatment involving nuclear medicine, interventional radiology and oncology. High doses of localised internal radiation are selectively delivered to liver tumour tissues, with relative sparing of adjacent normal liver parenchyma...
October 2017: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
Perry Orthey, Daohai Yu, Mark L Van Natta, Frederick V Ramsey, Jesus R Diaz, Paige A Bennett, Andrei H Iagaru, Roberto Salas Fragomeni, Richard W McCallum, Irene Sarosiek, William L Hasler, Gianrico Farrugia, Madhusudan Grover, Kenneth L Koch, Linda Nguyen, William J Snape, Thomas L Abell, Pankaj J Pasricha, James Tonascia, Frank Hamilton, Henry P Parkman, Alan H Maurer
Impaired fundic accommodation (FA) limits fundic relaxation and ability to act as a reservoir for food. Assessing intragastric meal distribution (IMD) during gastric emptying scintigraphy (GES) allows for a simple measure of FA. GOALS: 1) Evaluate nuclear medicine and radiology physician trained readers' visual assessment of FA from solid-meal GES; 2) Develop software to quantify GES intragastric meal distribution (IMD); 3) Correlate symptoms of gastroparesis with IMD and GE. Methods: After training to achieve consensus interpretation of GES FA, 4 readers interpreted FA in 148 GES studies from normal volunteers and patients...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Maurizio Dondi, Leonel Torres, Mario Marengo, Teresa Massardo, Eyal Mishani, Annare Van Zyl Ellmann, Kishor Solanki, Angelika Bischof Delaloye, Enrique Estrada Lobato, Rodolfo Nunez Miller, Diana Paez, Thomas Pascual
An effective management system that integrates quality management is essential for a modern nuclear medicine practice. The Nuclear Medicine and Diagnostic Imaging Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has the mission of supporting nuclear medicine practice in low- and middle-income countries and of helping them introduce it in their health-care system, when not yet present. The experience gathered over several years has shown diversified levels of development and varying degrees of quality of practice, among others because of limited professional networking and limited or no opportunities for exchange of experiences...
November 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Lienard A Chang, Donald L Miller, Choonsik Lee, Dunstana R Melo, Daphnée Villoing, Vladimir Drozdovitch, Isabelle Thierry-Chef, Sarah J Winters, Michael Labrake, Charles F Myers, Hyeyeun Lim, Cari M Kitahara, Martha S Linet, Steven L Simon
This study summarizes and compares estimates of radiation absorbed dose to the thyroid gland for typical patients who underwent diagnostic radiology examinations in the years from 1930 to 2010. The authors estimated the thyroid dose for common examinations, including radiography, mammography, dental radiography, fluoroscopy, nuclear medicine, and computed tomography (CT). For the most part, a clear downward trend in thyroid dose over time for each procedure was observed. Historically, the highest thyroid doses came from the nuclear medicine thyroid scans in the 1960s (630 mGy), full-mouth series dental radiography (390 mGy) in the early years of the use of x rays in dentistry (1930s), and the barium swallow (esophagram) fluoroscopic exam also in the 1930s (140 mGy)...
December 2017: Health Physics
Daphnée Villoing, Vladimir Drozdovitch, Steven L Simon, Cari M Kitahara, Martha S Linet, Dunstana R Melo
Ionizing radiation exposure to the general U.S. population nearly doubled between 1980 and 2006, due almost entirely to the significant increase in the number of radiologic and nuclear medicine procedures performed. Significant changes in the types of procedures and radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, as well as in detection technology, have led to notable changes over time in absorbed doses to specific organs. This study is the first to estimate per-procedure organ doses to nuclear medicine patients and trends in doses over five decades...
December 2017: Health Physics
L Ukkola, H Oikarinen, A Henner, M Haapea, O Tervonen
INTRODUCTION: It is suspected that little or no information is provided to patients regarding radiological examinations. The purpose was to evaluate the coverage, content and source of this information in a university hospital. METHODS: Altogether 147 patients (18-85 years) were interviewed after different examinations using a questionnaire. The patients had undergone 35 low (<1 mSv), 66 medium (1-10), and 46 high (>10) dose examinations. They were asked if they were informed about radiation use, the course or indication of the examination, the consequences of not having the examination, other options, the dose and risks of radiation, the source for the information and if any consent was enquired...
November 2017: Radiography
Rathan M Subramaniam, Kirk A Frey, Christopher H Hunt, Gustavo A Mercier, Lilja B Solnes, Patrick M Colletti, Yang Lu, Bital Savir-Baruch, Hadyn T Williams
This American College of Radiology and American College of Nuclear Medicine joint clinical practice parameter is for performance of dopamine transporter single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging, for patients with movement disorders. Parkinsonian syndrome (PS) consists of a group of neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson disease (PD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), multiple system atrophy (MSA), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Accurate diagnosis of PS is critical for clinical management...
November 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
A Almén, S Mattsson
This paper describes issues of concern for protecting foetuses and breast-fed children of occupationally exposed women in nuclear medicine from unnecessary exposure of ionising radiation. The protection principle is to ensure the same level of protection for the foetus and child as for the general public. Therefore international radiation protection standards recommend a dose constraint of 1mSv to a foetus during the remaining time of pregnancy after it is known/declared and a yearly dose constraint of 1mSv to a breast-fed child...
September 4, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
A K Ho, S Girgis, G Low
Uncommon liver lesions pose a diagnostic challenge because of unfamiliar imaging findings. For simplification, these lesions can be divided into four broad categories based on the dominant imaging feature in each: hypervascular, hypovascular, fat-containing, or cystic lesions. In this review, we profile the radiological features of uncommon liver lesions on multimodality imaging including ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and nuclear medicine.
September 1, 2017: Clinical Radiology
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