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Karen Benjamin Guzzo
Building on research examining "boomerang" adult children, I examine multigenerational living among young parents. Returning home likely differs between young mothers and fathers given variation in socioeconomic characteristics, health and risk-taking, their own children's coresidence, and union stability. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), I find that more than 40% of young parents (N = 2,721) live with their own parents at first birth or subsequently. Mothers are generally less likely to move home than fathers but only when not controlling for child coresidence and union stability...
October 2016: Journal of Marriage and the Family
Robert M Post, Lori L Altshuler, Ralph Kupka, Susan L McElroy, Mark A Frye, Michael Rowe, Heinz Grunze, Trisha Suppes, Paul E Keck, Willem A Nolen
BACKGROUND: Patients with bipolar disorder from the US have more early-onset illness and a greater familial loading for psychiatric problems than those from the Netherlands or Germany (abbreviated here as Europe). We hypothesized that these regional differences in illness burden would extend to the patients siblings. METHODS: Outpatients with bipolar disorder gave consent for participation in a treatment outcome network and for filling out detailed questionnaires...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
A R Rao, M Yourshaw, B Christensen, S F Nelson, B Kerner
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a common, complex and heritable psychiatric disorder characterized by episodes of severe mood swings. The identification of rare, damaging genomic mutations in families with BD could inform about disease mechanisms and lead to new therapeutic interventions. To determine whether rare, damaging mutations shared identity-by-descent in families with BD could be associated with disease, exome sequencing was performed in multigenerational families of the NIMH BD Family Study followed by in silico functional prediction...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Franz Alisch, Alexander Weichert, Karim Kalache, Viola Paradiso, Ann Carolin Longardt, Christof Dame, Katrin Hoffmann, Denise Horn
Gordon syndrome or distal arthrogryposis type 3 is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by contractures of upper and lower limbs. It is distinguishable from other forms of distal arthrogryposis by cleft palate and short stature. Recently, Gordon syndrome has been associated to heterozygous mutations in the piezo-type mechanosensitive ion channel component 2 gene (PIEZO2). Different mutations of this gene also cause distal arthrogryposis type 5 and Marden-Walker syndrome. Dysfunction of this ion channel provides pleiotropic effects on joints, ocular muscles, and bone development...
October 7, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Bronwyn Carrigg, Louise Parry, Elise Baker, Lawrence D Shriberg, Kirrie J Ballard
OBJECTIVE: This study describes the phenotype in a large family with a strong, multigenerational history of severe speech sound disorder (SSD) persisting into adolescence and adulthood in approximately half the cases. Aims were to determine whether a core phenotype, broader than speech, separated persistent from resolved SSD cases; and to ascertain the uniqueness of the phenotype relative to published cases. METHOD: Eleven members of the PM family (9-55 years) were assessed across cognitive, language, literacy, speech, phonological processing, numeracy, and motor domains...
October 5, 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Lara S Savas, Patricia Dolan Mullen, Melbourne F Hovell, Cam Escoffrey, Maria E Fernandez, Jennifer A Jones, Jazmine Cavazos, Jo Ann A Gutierrez Monroy, Michelle C Kegler
INTRODUCTION: One third of Mexican American children, in addition to non-smoker adults, are exposed to secondhand smoke at home, yet few interventions target Mexican American households. An effective, brief English language program, tested with United Way 2-1-1 callers in Atlanta, increased home smoking bans (confirmed by air monitors). Two randomized, controlled trials in North Carolina and Texas replicated those results. We explored factors determining adoption and enforcement of smoking bans in Mexican American households to inform program linguistic and cultural adaptation to broaden program reach and relevance...
October 3, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Pierre De Wit, Sam Dupont, Peter Thor
Ocean acidification is expected to have dramatic impacts on oceanic ecosystems, yet surprisingly few studies currently examine long-term adaptive and plastic responses of marine invertebrates to pCO 2 stress. Here, we exposed populations of the common copepod Pseudocalanus acuspes to three pCO 2 regimes (400, 900, and 1550 μatm) for two generations, after which we conducted a reciprocal transplant experiment. A de novo transcriptome was assembled, annotated, and gene expression data revealed that genes involved in RNA transcription were strongly down-regulated in populations with long-term exposure to a high pCO 2 environment, even after transplantation back to control levels...
October 2016: Evolutionary Applications
Patrick Heuveline, Savet Hong
Non-marital births and divorce remain rare in Cambodia. Due to dramatic levels of adult mortality reached during the late 1970s, growing up with a single parent is not. Using nationally representative, cross-sectional data, we estimate that about 12% of children under age 18 co-reside with only one of their biological parents. Using longitudinal data representative of the Mekong River Valley, we find this proportion to be declining. Nearly half of these children live in nuclear families (single parent with or without a step-parent), even though they live in multigenerational families more frequently than children who live with both their parents, especially, when young and not living with their mother...
2016: Marriage & Family Review
Sophie M Prud'homme, Arnaud Chaumot, Eva Cassar, Jean-Philippe David, Stéphane Reynaud
Hazard assessment of chemical contaminants often relies on short term or partial life-cycle ecotoxicological tests, while the impact of low dose throughout the entire life cycle of species across multiple generations has been neglected. This study aimed at identifying the individual and population-level consequences of chronic water contamination by environmental concentrations of three organic micropollutants, ibuprofen, bisphenol A and benzo[a]pyrene, on Aedes aegypti mosquito populations in experimental conditions...
September 22, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Veronika Städele, Linda Vigilant
Knowledge of kin relationships between members of wild animal populations has broad application in ecology and evolution research by allowing the investigation of dispersal dynamics, mating systems, inbreeding avoidance, kin recognition, and kin selection as well as aiding the management of endangered populations. However, the assessment of kinship among members of wild animal populations is difficult in the absence of detailed multigenerational pedigrees. Here, we first review the distinction between genetic relatedness and kinship derived from pedigrees and how this makes the identification of kin using genetic data inherently challenging...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Thomas M Roston, Wenting Guo, Andrew D Krahn, Ruiwu Wang, Filip Van Petegem, Shubhayan Sanatani, S R Wayne Chen, Anna Lehman
BACKGROUND: Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is an ion channelopathy usually caused by gain-of-function mutations ryanodine receptor type-2 (RyR2). Left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) is an often genetic cardiomyopathy. A rare LVNC-CPVT overlap syndrome may be caused by exon 3 deletion in RyR2. We sought to characterize the phenotypic spectrum and molecular basis of a novel RyR2 mutation identified in a family with both conditions. METHODS: Several members of an affected family underwent clinical and genetic assessments...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Electrocardiology
Dalton T Snyder, R Graham Cooks
A method of fragmenting ions over a wide range of m/z values while balancing energy deposition into the precursor ion and available product ion mass range is demonstrated. In the method, which we refer to as "multigenerational collision-induced dissociation", the radiofrequency (rf) amplitude is first increased to bring the lowest m/z of the precursor ion of interest to just below the boundary of the Mathieu stability diagram (q = 0.908). A supplementary AC signal at a fixed Mathieu q in the range 0.2-0.35 (chosen to balance precursor ion potential well depth with available product ion mass range) is then used for ion excitation as the rf amplitude is scanned downward, thus fragmenting the precursor ion population from high to low m/z...
September 19, 2016: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Jongmin Moon, Jin Il Kwak, Shin Woong Kim, Youn-Joo An
Nanomaterials can become disseminated directly or indirectly into the soil ecosystem through various exposure routes. Thus, it is important to study various deposition routes of nanomaterials into the soil, as well as their toxicities. Here, we investigated the multigenerational effects of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on C. elegans after continuous or intermittent food intake. Following continuous exposure, significant differences were observed in the reproduction rate of C. elegans in the F2-F4 generations, which were associated with reproductive system abnormalities...
September 12, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Dalton T Snyder, Patrick W Fedick, R Graham Cooks
There are many cases in which limited information is obtained from a single stage of tandem mass spectrometry (MS(2) or MS/MS). For example, isomeric cathinones give similar product ion MS(2) spectra, but they can be differentiated by their unique MS(3) fragments. Other drugs such as oxycodone and noroxycodone lose water in a single-stage tandem mass spectrometry experiment but give rich structural information in subsequent stages, as do many peptides. Here we utilize multigenerational collision-induced dissociation (CID) on a miniature mass spectrometer and emphasize useful applications...
October 4, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Jianguang Ji, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
BACKGROUND: Personal history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with a lower incidence of prostate cancer, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We hypothesized that genetic factors that are involved in the development of T2DM might protect against prostate cancer. METHODS: We used a few Swedish registers, including the Swedish Multigeneration Register and the Cancer Register, to examine the risk of prostate cancer among men with a family history of T2DM...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Patrick Verrando, Maria Capovilla, Roger Rahmani
Epidemiological association studies have revealed a role for pesticides in cancer occurrence, while a growing number of reports have highlighted the deleterious epigenetic modifications that can be produced by environmental factors. However, epidemiological data currently lack molecular support to unravel the epigenetic impact of pesticides on carcinogenesis. Based on epidemiological studies of melanoma, our data show for the first time that trans-nonachlor (TNC), a component of the pesticide chlordane, modulates the microRNA miR-141-3p in human melanocytic cells in vitro, with effects on melanomagenesis parameters...
August 10, 2016: Toxicology
Xiaoqun Xu, Lin Shi, Minghua Wang
In our earlier work, Tigriopus japonicus were subjected to different mercuric chloride treatments (0-50 μg/L in the seawater) for five generations (F0-F4), and they were subsequently resumed under clean environments for one generation, i.e., F5. Accumulative effects were hypothesized to participate in mercury (Hg) multigenerational toxicity, however phenotypic plasticity could be responsible for metal resistance in this copepod against the long term exposure. Here, we specifically investigated the proteome profiles in the F0, F2, and F5 copepods of the control and 50 μg/L metal treatment, respectively, so as to elucidate the action mechanisms for Hg toxicity/tolerance in T...
November 2016: Environmental Pollution
Leah Houri-Ze'evi, Oded Rechavi
In Caenorhabditis elegans small RNAs can regulate genes across generations. The mysterious tendency of heritable RNA interference (RNAi) responses to terminate after 3-5 generations has been referred to as "the bottleneck to RNAi inheritance." We have recently shown that the re-setting of epigenetic inheritance after 3-5 generations is not due to passive dilution of the original RNA trigger, but instead results from an active, multigenerational, and small RNA-mediated regulatory pathway. In this "Point of View" manuscript we suggest that the process that leads to the erasure of the ancestral small RNA-encoded memory is a specialized type of germline reprogramming mechanism, analogous to the processes that robustly remove parental DNA methylation and histone modifications early in development in different organisms...
September 3, 2016: RNA Biology
J Keiko McCreary, Zachary T Erickson, Gerlinde A S Metz
BACKGROUND: An adverse fetal environment in utero has been associated with long-term alterations in brain structure and function, and a higher risk of neurological disorders in later life. A common consequence of early adverse experience is impaired motor system function. A causal relationship for stress-associated impairments and a suitable therapy, however, have not been determined yet. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of ancestral stress on corticospinal tract (CST) morphology and fine motor performance in rats, and to determine if adverse programming by ancestral stress can be mitigated by environmental enrichment therapy in rats...
October 6, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Frances A Champagne, James P Curley
Maternal behavior is dynamic and highly sensitive to experiential and contextual factors. In this review, this plasticity will be explored, with a focus on how experiences of females occurring from the time of fetal development through to adulthood impact maternal behavior and the maternal brain. Variation in postpartum maternal behavior is dependent on estrogen sensitivity within the medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus and activation within mesolimbic dopamine neurons. This review will discuss how experiences across the lifespan alter the function of these systems and the multigenerational consequences of these neuroendocrine and behavioral changes...
September 2016: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
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