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Kari Hemminki, Otto Hemminki, Asta Försti, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist, Xinjun Li
Urolithiasis (UL, urinary tract stone disease) has been reported to increase subsequent cancers in the urinary tract. Recently, we showed data that surveillance bias may be an important confounder in the reported associations. In the present approach we want to address the question of possible cancer risk posed by UL mechanistically. Both UL and cancer have strong genetic components and we hypothesize that familial association between UL and cancer may be plausible. We thus assess familial risks between UL and cancer, hoping to find an explanation why UL may pose a risk of cancer...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anna Sidorchuk, Anna Goodman, Ilona Koupil
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether and how social class and social mobility in grandparents and parents predict alcohol-related disorders (ARDs) in males and females aged 12+ years, and whether intergenerational social prediction of ARDs varies across time periods. METHODS: The study sample included four successive generations (G) of Swedish families from the Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study: G0 born 1851-1912; G1 born 1915-1929; G2 born 1940-1964 and G3 born 1965-1989...
2018: PloS One
Renata Amanda Gonçalves, Ana Letícia de Oliveira Franco Rossetto, Diego José Nogueira, Denice Schulz Vicentini, William Gerson Matias
Zinc oxide nanomaterials (ZnO NM) have been used in a large number of applications due to their interesting physicochemical properties. However, the increasing use of ZnO NM has led to concerns regarding their environmental impacts. In this study, the acute and chronic toxicity of ZnO nanorods (NR) bare (ZnONR) and amine-functionalized (ZnONR@AF) toward the freshwater microcrustacean Daphnia magna was evaluated. The ZnO NR were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and the zeta potential and hydrodynamic diameter (HD)...
February 5, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
S Stevanin, A Palese, V Bressan, K Vehviläinen-Julkunen, T Kvist
AIMS: Describe and summarize workplace characteristics of three nursing generations: Baby Boomers, Generations X and Y. BACKGROUND: Generational differences affect occupational well-being, nurses' performance, patient outcomes and safety; therefore, nurse managers, administrators and educators are interested increasingly in making evidence-based decisions about the multigenerational nursing workforce. DESIGN: Mixed-methods systematic review...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Paul A Schulte, James Grosch, Juliann C Scholl, Sara L Tamers
OBJECTIVES: The U.S. population is experiencing a demographic transition resulting in an aging workforce. The objective of this article is to elucidate and expand an approach to keep that workforce safe, healthy and productive. METHODS: This article elucidates the framework for the National Center for Productive Aging at Work of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Subject matter experts used a snowball method to review published literature to substantiate elements in the framework...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Daniel Land
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Journal of AHIMA
Johan Dahlberg
Macro-level studies have shown that rapid increases in mortality can affect fertility rates. Parental death has also been linked to negative psychological and physical outcomes, reduced relationship quality, and making bereaved children attach more importance to their families. No prior study has examined whether parental death influences adult children's fertility at the microlevel. This study applies event history techniques to Swedish multigeneration registers listing 1.5 million individuals with micro data on mortality and fertility to investigate short-term (first birth risk) and long-term (childlessness at age 45) effects of parental death on adult children's fertility...
January 1, 2018: Omega
Lina Li, Hu Yuan, Hongyang Wang, Jing Guan, Lan Lan, Dayong Wang, Liang Zong, Qiong Liu, Bing Han, Deliang Huang, Qiuju Wang
BACKGROUND: The molecular and genetic research showed the association between DFNA11 and mutations in MYO7A. This research aimed to identify a MYO7A mutation in a family with nonsyndromic autosomal dominant hearing loss. METHODS: We have ascertained one large multigenerational Chinese family (Z029) with autosomal dominant late-onset progressive non-syndromic sensorineural hearing loss. Genome-wide linkage analysis of the family mapped the disease locus to the DFNA11 interval, where the MYO7A was considered as a candidate gene...
February 5, 2018: Acta Oto-laryngologica
Norman C Ellstrand
Natural gene flow often delivers alleles from cultivated species into unmanaged populations of weedy or wild relatives. Unmanaged populations with introgressed crop alleles may become the unintended repositories of crop alleles that are no longer available to breeders. Descriptive studies have confirmed the introgression of alleles from 17 crop species into free-living populations. Multigeneration experimental studies allowing hybrid-derived individuals to evolve under natural conditions are informative, but remain few...
January 2018: Molecular Ecology
Sree Kanthaswamy, Karen L Bales
Pedigree metrics are essential for investigating colony genetic structure. The genetic structure of a closed Callicebus cupreus colony was examined using multigenerational pedigrees. Inbreeding was low, but genetic drift caused the loss of founder genome representation. Pedigrees can be used to detect founder representation and prevent bottlenecks and allele loss.
February 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
J A Kronenberger, J C Gerberich, S W Fitzpatrick, E D Broder, L M Angeloni, W C Funk
Human land use is fragmenting habitats worldwide and inhibiting dispersal among previously connected populations of organisms, often leading to inbreeding depression and reduced evolutionary potential in the face of rapid environmental change. One management practice used to combat this is the augmentation of isolated populations with immigrants as a means of demographic and genetic rescue. Augmentation with immigrants that are genetically and adaptively similar to the target population is highly effective at increasing population fitness, but if immigrants are very genetically or adaptively divergent, augmentation can lead to outbreeding depression...
January 19, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Denny Vågerö, Vanda Aronsson, Bitte Modin
Purpose: Transgenerational determinants of longevity are poorly understood. We used data from four linked generations (G0, G1, G2 and G3) of the Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigeneration Study to address this issue. Methods: Mortality in G1 (N = 9565) was followed from 1961-2015 and analysed in relation to tertiles of their parents' (G0) age-at-death using Cox regression. Parental social class and marital status were adjusted for in the analyses, as was G1's birth order and adult social class...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
Jie Wang, Ke Wan, Jiayu Sun, Weihao Li, Hong Liu, Yuchi Han, Yucheng Chen
Limited data is available on phenotypic variations with the same genotype in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The present study aims to explore the relationship between genotype and phenotype characterized by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in a large Chinese family. A proband diagnosed with HCM from a multigenerational family underwent next-generation sequencing based on a custom sureSelect panel, including 117 candidate pathogenic genes associated with cardiomyopathies. All genetic results were confirmed by the Sanger sequencing method...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jimmy T Efird, Pollie Bith-Melander
Refugees represent a diverse group of displaced individuals with unique health issues and disease risks. The obstacles facing this population have their origins in war, violence, oppression, exploitation, and fear of persecution. Regardless of country of origin, a common bond exists, with refugees often confronting inadequate healthcare resources, xenophobia, discrimination, and a complex web of legal barriers in their new homelands. In many cases, the plight of refugees is multigenerational, manifesting as mental health issues, abuse, poverty, and family disruption...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Beverly H K Po, Jill M Y Chiu
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers have become ubiquitous in the environment and elevated concentrations have often been found in marine organisms. Using the gastropod Crepidula onyx as a study model, this multigenerational study sets out to test the hypotheses that 1) parental dietary exposure to environmentally realistic levels of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-47) would lead to transgenerational impairments on fitness traits of marine invertebrates, and 2) the organisms might develop adaptation/acclimation after exposure for one or more generations...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Jianguang Ji, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
A personal history of autoimmune diseases is associated with an increased incidence of gastric cancer, but whether they share familial susceptibility is still unknown. The contribution of shared environmental or genetic factors toward the observed familial aggregation has not been determined. We used a few Swedish registers, including the Swedish Multigeneration Register and the Cancer Register, to examine the familial risk of gastric cancer among individuals with a family history of a set of autoimmune diseases...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
Minghua Wang, Chang-Bum Jeong, Young Hwan Lee, Jae-Seong Lee
Ocean acidification (OA) leads to significant changes in seawater carbon chemistry, broadly affects marine organisms, and considered as a global threat to the fitness of marine ecosystems. Due to the crucial role of copepods in marine food webs of transferring energy from primary producers to higher trophic levels, numerous studies have been conducted to examine the impacts of OA on biological traits of copepods such as growth and reproduction. Under OA stress, the copepods demonstrated species-specific and stage-dependent responses...
January 5, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Minghua Wang, Chen Zhang, Jae-Seong Lee
In this study, the copepod Tigriopus japonicus was exposed to different cadmium (Cd) treatments (0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 50 µg/L in seawater) for five generations (F0-F4), followed by a two-generation (F5-F6) recovery period in clean seawater. Six life-history traits (survival, developmental time of nauplius phase, developmental time to maturation, number of clutches, number of nauplii/clutch, and fecundity) were examined for each generation. Metal accumulation was also analyzed for generations F0-F6. Additionally, proteome profiling was performed for the control and 50 µg/L Cd-treated F4 copepods...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Simon N Chapman, Jenni E Pettay, Virpi Lummaa, Mirkka Lahdenperä
The level of kin help often depends on the degree of relatedness between a helper and the helped. In humans, grandmother help is known to increase the survival of grandchildren, though this benefit can differ between maternal grandmothers (MGMs) and paternal grandmothers (PGMs) and between grandsons and granddaughters. The X-linked grandmother hypothesis posits that differential X-chromosome relatedness between grandmothers and their grandchildren is a leading driver of differential grandchild survival between grandmother lineages and grandchild sexes...
January 2018: Biology Letters
David J Stasek, James N Radl, Thomas O Crist
Trophic interactions are often studied within habitat patches, but among-patch dispersal of individuals may influence local patch dynamics. Metacommunity concepts incorporate the effects of dispersal on local and community dynamics. There are few experimental tests of metacommunity theory using insects compared to those conducted in microbial microcosms. Using connected experimental mesocosms, we varied the density of the leafhopper Agallia constricta Van Duzee (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) and a generalist insect predator, the damsel bug (Nabis spp...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
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