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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717386/understanding-low-radiation-background-biology-through-controlled-evolution-experiments
#1
Nathanael Lampe, Vincent Breton, David Sarramia, Télesphore Sime-Ngando, David G Biron
Biological experiments conducted in underground laboratories over the last decade have shown that life can respond to relatively small changes in the radiation background in unconventional ways. Rapid changes in cell growth, indicative of hormetic behaviour and long-term inheritable changes in antioxidant regulation have been observed in response to changes in the radiation background that should be almost undetectable to cells. Here, we summarize the recent body of underground experiments conducted to date, and outline potential mechanisms (such as cell signalling, DNA repair and antioxidant regulation) that could mediate the response of cells to low radiation backgrounds...
August 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711770/multigenerational-effects-evaluation-of-the-flame-retardant-tris-2-butoxyethyl-phosphate-tboep-using-daphnia-magna
#2
Maeva Giraudo, Maxime Dubé, Mélanie Lépine, Pierre Gagnon, Mélanie Douville, Magali Houde
Tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) is an organophosphate ester used as substitute following the phase-out of brominated flamed retardants. Because of its high production volume and its use in a broad range of applications, this chemical is now frequently detected in the environment and biota. However, limited information is available on the long-term effects of TBOEP in aquatic organisms. In this study, Daphnia magna were exposed over three 21d generations to an environmentally relevant concentration of TBOEP (10μg/L) and effects were evaluated at the gene transcription, protein, and life-history (i...
July 8, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711317/invasion-fitness-for-gene-culture-co-evolution-in-family-structured-populations-and-an-application-to-cumulative-culture-under-vertical-transmission
#3
Charles Mullon, Laurent Lehmann
Human evolution depends on the co-evolution between genetically determined behaviors and socially transmitted information. Although vertical transmission of cultural information from parent to offspring is common in hominins, its effects on cumulative cultural evolution are not fully understood. Here, we investigate gene-culture co-evolution in a family-structured population by studying the invasion fitness of a mutant allele that influences a deterministic level of cultural information (e.g., amount of knowledge or skill) to which diploid carriers of the mutant are exposed in subsequent generations...
July 12, 2017: Theoretical Population Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710368/genome-wide-linkage-analysis-of-large-multiple-multigenerational-families-identifies-novel-genetic-loci-for-coronary-artery-disease
#4
Yang Guo, Fan Wang, Lin Li, Hanxiang Gao, Stephen Arckacki, Isabel Z Wang, John Barnard, Stephen Ellis, Carlos Hubbard, Eric J Topol, Qiuyun Chen, Qing K Wang
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death, and genetic factors contribute significantly to risk of CAD. This study aims to identify new CAD genetic loci through a large-scale linkage analysis of 24 large and multigenerational families with 433 family members (GeneQuest II). All family members were genotyped with markers spaced by every 10 cM and a model-free nonparametric linkage (NPL-all) analysis was carried out. Two highly significant CAD loci were identified on chromosome 17q21.2 (NPL score of 6...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706188/lack-of-social-support-raises-stress-vulnerability-in-rats-with-a-history-of-ancestral-stress
#5
Jamshid Faraji, Nabiollah Soltanpour, Hamid Lotfi, Reza Moeeini, Ali-Reza Moharreri, Shabnam Roudaki, S Abedin Hosseini, David M Olson, Ali-Akbar Abdollahi, Nasrin Soltanpour, Majid H Mohajerani, Gerlinde A S Metz
Stress is a primary risk factor for psychiatric disorders. However, it is not fully understood why some stressed individuals are more vulnerable to psychiatric disorders than others. Here, we investigated whether multigenerational ancestral stress produces phenotypes that are sensitive to depression-like symptoms in rats. We also examined whether social isolation reveals potentially latent sensitivity to depression-like behaviours. F4 female rats born to a lineage of stressed mothers (F0-F3) received stress in adulthood while housed in pairs or alone...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702456/growing-pains-at-hospitals-opportunities-and-issues-of-service-expansion-in-maximum-care
#6
Juergen Hinkelmann, Joachim Paul Hasebrook, Thomas Volkert, Klaus Hahnenkamp
PURPOSE: Due to the demographic change morbidity raises the demand for medical hospital services as well as a need for medical specialization, while economic and human resources are diminishing. Unlike other industries hospitals do not have sufficient data and adequate models to relate growing demands and increasing performance to growth in staff capacity and to increase in staff competences. METHOD: Based on huge medical data sample covering the years from 2010 to 2014 with more than 150,000 operations of the Department for Anesthesiology at the University Hospital Muenster, Germany, comparisons are drawn between the development of medical services and the development of personnel capacity and expertise...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692576/associations-between-maternal-mental-health-and-well-being-and-physical-activity-and-sedentary-behavior-in-children
#7
Jaclyn P Maher, Chaelin Ra, Sydney G OʼConnor, Britni R Belcher, Adam Leventhal, Gayla Margolin, Genevieve F Dunton
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed whether aspects of maternal mental health and well-being were associated with objective monitor-based measures of child's physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) and the extent to which household structure (i.e., single- vs multigenerational/dual-parent) and maternal employment (i.e., full-time vs not full-time) moderated those associations. METHODS: Dyads (N = 191) of mothers and their 8- to 12-year-old children participated in the baseline wave of the Mother's and Their Children's Health study...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684319/ovotoxicity-of-cigarette-smoke-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#8
REVIEW
Maria Cristina Budani, Gian Mario Tiboni
This study reviews the scientific literature on the noxious effects of cigarette smoke on the ovarian follicle, and the cumulative data on the impact of smoking on in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle outcome. There is a close association between tobacco smoke and accelerated follicle loss, abnormal follicle growth and impairment of oocyte morphology and maturation. There is an increasing amount of evidence indicating that smoke can directly derange folliculogenesis. Increased cellular apoptosis or autophagy, DNA damage and abnormal crosstalk between oocyte and granulosa cells have been implicated in the demise of ovarian follicles...
July 3, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680972/non-toxin-producing-bacillus-cereus-strains-belonging-to-the-b-%C3%A2-anthracis-clade-isolated-from-the-international-space-station
#9
Kasthuri Venkateswaran, Nitin K Singh, Aleksandra Checinska Sielaff, Robert K Pope, Nicholas H Bergman, Sandra P van Tongeren, Nisha B Patel, Paul A Lawson, Masataka Satomi, Charles H D Williamson, Jason W Sahl, Paul Keim, Duane Pierson, Jay Perry
In an ongoing Microbial Observatory investigation of the International Space Station (ISS), 11 Bacillus strains (2 from the Kibo Japanese experimental module, 4 from the U.S. segment, and 5 from the Russian module) were isolated and their whole genomes were sequenced. A comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of these isolates showed the highest similarity (>99%) to the Bacillus anthracis-B. cereus-B. thuringiensis group. The fatty acid composition, polar lipid profile, peptidoglycan type, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight profiles were consistent with the B...
May 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676141/hla-drb1-15-association-with-multiple-sclerosis-is-confirmed-in-a-multigenerational-italian-family
#10
L Mosca, V Mantero, S Penco, L La Mantia, S De Benedetti, M R Marazzi, C Spreafico, C Erminio, L Grassi, G Lando, M Zagaria, E Agostoni, A Protti
Environmental and genetic factors seem to play a pathogenetic role in multiple sclerosis (MS). The genetic component is partly suggested by familial aggregation of cases; however, MS families with affected subjects over different generations have rarely been described. The aim of this study was to report clinical and genetic features of a multigenerational MS family and to perform a review of the literature on this topic. We describe a multigenerational Italian family with six individuals affected by MS, showing different clinical and neuroradiological findings...
April 2017: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673401/an-exposome-perspective-early-life-events-and-immune-development-in-a-changing-world
#11
REVIEW
Harald Renz, Patrick G Holt, Michael Inouye, Alan C Logan, Susan L Prescott, Peter D Sly
Advances in metagenomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and systems biology are providing a new emphasis in research; interdisciplinary work suggests that personalized medicine is on the horizon. These advances are illuminating sophisticated interactions between human-associated microbes and the immune system. The result is a transformed view of future prevention and treatment of chronic noncommunicable diseases, including allergy. Paradigm-shifting gains in scientific knowledge are occurring at a time of rapid global environmental change, urbanization, and biodiversity losses...
July 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671891/associations-between-maternal-mental-health-and-well-being-and-physical-activity-and-sedentary-behavior-in-children
#12
Jaclyn P Maher, Chaelin Ra, Sydney G OʼConnor, Britni R Belcher, Adam Leventhal, Gayla Margolin, Genevieve F Dunton
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed whether aspects of maternal mental health and well-being were associated with objective monitor-based measures of child's physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) and the extent to which household structure (i.e., single- vs multigenerational/dual-parent) and maternal employment (i.e., full-time vs not full-time) moderated those associations. METHODS: Dyads (N = 191) of mothers and their 8- to 12-year-old children participated in the baseline wave of the Mother's and Their Children's Health study...
July 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669535/ethnic-socialization-ethnic-identity-life-satisfaction-and-school-achievement-of-roma-ethnic-minority-youth
#13
Radosveta Dimitrova, Deborah J Johnson, Fons J R van de Vijver
This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Explaining Positive Adaptation of Immigrant Youth across Cultures. This study tested a mediation model of ethnic socialization (i.e., parental practices that promote children's knowledge about their history, heritage culture, cultural authenticity, and ethnic bias management) in Roma youth. Roma are the largest ethnic minority group in Europe subjected to severe discrimination, both currently and historically. Participants were 202 Roma youth aged 14 to 19 years old (M = 16...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662594/-this-is-what-family-does-the-family-experience-of-caring-for-serious-illness
#14
Eric W Anderson, Katie M White
BACKGROUND: As the demographics of caregiving in United States evolve toward multigenerational, distributed family structures, the ways in which individuals and their families experience serious illness are changing. As part of a project to create an innovative model of supportive care for serious illness, a series of user interviews were conducted, forming the basis for this article. OBJECTIVE: To understand the experience of caregiving for individuals with serious illness from an intergenerational family perspective...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658637/assessing-multigenerational-effects-of-prednisolone-to-the-freshwater-snail-physa-acuta-gastropoda-physidae
#15
Navdeep Bal, Anu Kumar, Dayanthi Nugegoda
Prednisolone (PDS), a potent synthetic glucocorticoid is widely prescribed for its exceptional anti-inflammatory properties. Several studies have detected the environmental presence of PDS in water bodies which has led to an ecological concern for its toxicity to non-target aquatic biota. The present study investigated the effects of exposure to PDS on different life-cycle stages and generations of the freshwater snail, Physa acuta. This continuous exposure over a period of multiple generations resulted in generational impairments at measured endpoints...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651372/living-arrangements-disability-and-gender-of-older-adults-among-rural-south-africa
#16
Enid Schatz, Margaret Ralston, Sangeetha Madhavan, Mark A Collinson, F Xavier Gómez-Olivé
Objective: A limited understanding exists of the relationship between disability and older persons' living arrangements in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). We examine the associations between living arrangements, disability, and gender for individuals older than 50 years in rural South Africa. Method: Using the Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) survey and Agincourt Health and socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) data, we explore older persons' self-reported disability by living arrangements and gender, paying particular attention to various multigenerational arrangements...
June 23, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646369/impacts-of-a-temporary-urban-pop-up-park-on-physical-activity-and-other-individual-and-community-level-outcomes
#17
Deborah Salvo, Jorge A Banda, Jylana L Sheats, Sandra J Winter, Daniela Lopes Dos Santos, Abby C King
Physical inactivity is a known risk factor for obesity and a number of chronic diseases. Modifying the physical features of neighborhoods to provide residents with equitable and convenient access to spaces for physical activity (PA) is a promising strategy for promoting PA. Public urban recreation spaces (e.g., parks) play an important role in promoting PA and are potentially an important neighborhood element for optimizing social capital and liveability in cities. Most studies examining the effects of park availability and use on PA have focused on traditional, permanent parks...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644985/depressive-like-behavior-is-elevated-among-offspring-of-parents-exposed-to-dim-light-at-night-prior-to-mating
#18
Yasmine M Cissé, Kathryn L G Russart, Randy J Nelson
Rates of major depressive disorder (MDD) have steadily increased over the past 50 years. Many factors have been implicated in the etiology of depressive disorders and environmental influences are being increasingly recognized. The increase in depression rates has coincided with increased artificial nighttime lighting. Exposure to light at night (LAN) has been associated with increased depressive-like behavior in rodents and decreased mood in humans. However, relatively little is known on the multigenerational effects of dLAN on affect...
June 12, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642740/multigenerational-influences-of-the-fut2-gene-on-the-dynamics-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-mice
#19
Philipp Rausch, Sven Künzel, Abdulhadi Suwandi, Guntram A Grassl, Philip Rosenstiel, John F Baines
The FUT2 gene encodes an α-1,2-fucosyltransferase responsible for the expression of ABO histo-blood-group antigens on mucosal surfaces and bodily secretions. Individuals who carry at least one functional allele are known as "secretors," whereas those homozygous for loss-of-function mutations are known as "non-secretors." Non-secretor individuals are more susceptible to chronic inflammatory disorders such as Crohn's Disease, which may be mediated by alterations in the microbiota. Here, we investigated the dynamics of microbial community assembly with respect to genotype using a Fut2-deficient mouse model, taking the genotype of the maternal lineage over two generations into account...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642270/heritable-micro-environmental-variance-covaries-with-fitness-in-an-outbred-population-of-drosophila-serrata
#20
Jacqueline L Sztepanacz, Katrina McGuigan, Mark W Blows
The genetic basis of stochastic variation within a defined environment, and the consequences of such micro-environmental variance for fitness are poorly understood. Using a multigenerational breeding design in Drosophila serrata, we demonstrated that the micro-environmental variance in a set of morphological wing traits in a randomly mating population had significant additive genetic variance in most single wing traits. Although heritability was generally low (< 1%), coefficients of additive genetic variance were of a magnitude typical of other morphological traits, indicating that the micro-environmental variance is an evolvable trait...
June 22, 2017: Genetics
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