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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024790/dna-methylation-and-potential-multigenerational-epigenetic-effects-linked-to-uranium-chronic-low-dose-exposure-in-gonads-of-males-and-females-rats
#1
REVIEW
G Elmhiri, C Gloaguen, S Grison, D Kereselidze, C Elie, K Tack, M Benderitter, P Lestaevel, A Legendre, M Souidi
INTRODUCTION: An increased health problem in industrialised countries is the contemporary concern of public and scientific community as well. This has been attributed in part to accumulated environmental pollutants especially radioactive substances and the use of nuclear power plants worldwide. However, the outcome of chronic exposure to low doses of a radionuclide such as uranium remains unknown. Recently, a paradigm shift in the perception of risk of radiotoxicology has emerged through investigating the possibility of transmission of biological effects over generations, in particular by epigenetic pathways...
October 9, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024256/transgenerational-plasticity-and-climate-change-experiments-where-do-we-go-from-here
#2
REVIEW
Jennifer M Donelson, Santiago Salinas, Philip L Munday, Lisa N S Shama
Phenotypic plasticity, both within and across generations, is an important mechanism that organisms use to cope with rapid climate change. While an increasing number of studies show that plasticity across generations (transgenerational plasticity or TGP) may occur, we have limited understanding of key aspects of TGP, such as the environmental conditions that may promote it, its relationship to within-generation plasticity (WGP) and its role in evolutionary potential. In this review, we consider how the detection of TGP in climate change experiments is affected by the predictability of environmental variation, as well as the timing and magnitude of environmental change cues applied...
October 12, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023098/multigenerational-effects-of-antibiotic-tetracycline-on-transcriptional-responses-of-d-magna-and-its-relationship-to-higher-levels-of-biological-organizations
#3
Hyun Young Kim, Jana Asselman, Tae Yong Jeong, Seungho Yu, Karel A C De Schamphelaere, Sang D Kim
Given the risk of environmental pollution by pharmaceutical compounds and the effects of these compounds on exposed ecosystems, ecologically relevant and realistic assessments are required. However, many studies have been mostly focused on individual responses in a single generation exposed to one-effect concentration. Here, transcriptional responses of the crustacean Daphnia magna to the antibiotic tetracycline across multiple generations and effect concentrations were investigated. The results demonstrated that tetracycline induced different transcriptional responses of daphnids that were dependent on dose and generation...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020875/founder-effect-of-the-ret-c611y-mutation-in-multiple-endocrine-neoplasia-2a-in-denmark-a-nationwide-study
#4
Jes Sloth Mathiesen, Jens Peter Kroustrup, Peter Vestergaard, Kirstine Stochholm, Per Løgstrup Poulsen, Åse Krogh Rasmussen, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen, Mette Gaustadnes, Torben Falck Ørntoft, Maria Rossing, Finn Cilius Nielsen, Anders Albrechtsen, Kim Brixen, Christian Godballe, Anja Lisbeth Frederiksen
BACKGROUND: Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) 2A and 2B are caused by REarranged during Transfection (RET) germline mutations. In a recent nationwide study we reported of an unusually high prevalence (33%) of families with the C611Y mutation and hypothesized that this might be due to a founder effect. We conducted the first nationwide study of haplotypes in MEN2A families aiming to investigate the relatedness and occurrence of de novo mutations among Danish families carrying similar mutations...
October 12, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993341/insights-from-molecular-characterization-of-adult-patients-of-families-with-multigenerational-diabetes-mellitus
#5
Serena Pezzilli, Ornella Ludovico, Tommaso Biagini, Luana Mercuri, Federica Alberico, Eleonora Lauricella, Hamza Dallali, Daniele Capocefalo, Massimo Carella, Elide Miccinilli, Pamela Piscitelli, Maria Giovanna Scarale, Tommaso Mazza, Vincenzo Trischitta, Sabrina Prudente
Multigenerational diabetes of the adulthood is a mostly overlooked entity, simplistically comprised in the large basin of type 2 diabetes. The general aim we are pursuing in last years is to unravel the genetic causes of such form of diabetes. Identifying among families with multigenerational diabetes those carrying mutations in known monogenic diabetes genes is the first step to then concentrate on remaining pedigrees where to unravel new diabetogenes.Targeted Next Generation Sequencing of 27 monogenic diabetes-genes has been carried out in 55 family probands and identified mutations verified among their relatives by Sanger sequencing...
October 9, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986453/reduced-cardiac-calcineurin-expression-mimics-long-term-hypoxia-induced-heart-defects-in-drosophila
#6
Rachel Zarndt, Stanley M Walls, Karen Ocorr, Rolf Bodmer
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia is often associated with cardiopulmonary diseases, which represent some of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Long-term hypoxia exposures, whether from disease or environmental condition, can cause cardiomyopathy and lead to heart failure. Indeed, hypoxia-induced heart failure is a hallmark feature of chronic mountain sickness in maladapted populations living at high altitude. In a previously established Drosophila heart model for long-term hypoxia exposure, we found that hypoxia caused heart dysfunction...
October 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984844/maternal-obesity-heritably-perturbs-offspring-metabolism-for-three-generations-without-serial-programming
#7
S A Eaton, A J Aiken, P E Young, J W K Ho, J E Cropley, C M Suter
Maternal obesity can program offspring metabolism across multiple generations. It is not known whether multigenerational effects reflect true inheritance of the induced phenotype, or are due to serial propagation of the phenotype through repeated exposure to a compromised gestational milieu. Here we sought to distinguish these possibilities, using the A(vy) mouse model of maternal obesity. In this model, F1 sons of obese dams display a predisposition to hepatic insulin resistance which remains latent unless the offspring are challenged with a Western diet...
October 6, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983782/electronic-cigarettes-their-constituents-and-potential-links-to-asthma
#8
REVIEW
Phillip W Clapp, Ilona Jaspers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vaping is gaining popularity in the USA, particularly among teens and young adults. While e-cigs are commonly represented as safer alternatives to tobacco cigarettes, little is known regarding the health effects of their short- or long-term use, especially in individuals with pre-existing respiratory diseases such as asthma. Flavored e-cig liquids (e-liquids) and e-cig aerosols contain airway irritants and toxicants that have been implicated in the pathogenesis and worsening of lung diseases...
October 5, 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983374/positive-germline-selection-in-pedigrees-with-multiple-endocrine-neoplasia-type-2-carrying-v804m-mutation-in-the-ret-gene
#9
Leema Reddy Peddareddygari, Angela Musial Fay, Alexander L Shifrin, Raji P Grewal
BACKGROUND: Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2 is an autosomal dominant cancer syndrome associated with the development of thyroid cancer and tumors or hyperplasia in other endocrine organs. It is caused by mutations in the RET gene and can be phenotypically classified into MEN types 2A and 2B. MEN2B is often sporadic resulting from a spontaneous mutation, M981T. A positive paternal germline selection has been reported for this mutation. METHODS: We analyzed the V804M mutation in the RET gene which also affects the intracellular domain of the protein but results in a different phenotype, MEN2A...
December 2016: World Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970132/the-effects-of-in-utero-bisphenol-a-exposure-on-ovarian-follicle-numbers-and-steroidogenesis-in-the-f1-and-f2-generations-of-mice
#10
Sharada Mahalingam, Laura Ther, Liying Gao, Wei Wang, Ayelet Ziv-Gal, Jodi A Flaws
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a commonly used plasticizer. Previous studies show that in utero exposure to BPA affects reproductive outcomes in the F1-F3 generations of mice. However, its multigenerational effects on ovarian histology and steroidogenesis over the reproductive lifespan are unknown. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that BPA has multigenerational effects on follicle numbers and steroidogenesis. Mice were exposed in utero to vehicle control or BPA (0.5, 20, and 50μg/kg/day). Ovaries were collected for histological and gene expression analyses and sera were collected for hormone assays...
September 29, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968892/laboratory-evaluation-of-a-novel-lethal-ovitrap-for-control-of-aedes-aegypti
#11
Casey N Parker, Roberto M Pereira, Rebecca W Baldwin, Alexandra Chaskopoulou, Philip G Koehler
Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) are known to flourish in a variety of natural and residential habitats and are competent vectors of at least 22 different arboviruses, including dengue, chikungunya, and Zika. Their global distribution, anthropophilic nature, and vector competency make them species of interest for control. A novel durable dual-action lethal ovitrap (DDALO) with combined larviciding and adulticiding effects, as well as a slow-release polymer (isobutyl methacrylate), was designed to target Ae...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960255/multigenerational-effects-on-children-s-cognitive-and-socioemotional-outcomes-a-within-child-investigation
#12
Antti O Tanskanen, Mirkka Danielsbacka
Associations between grandparental investment and child outcomes were investigated using three waves of a longitudinal British Millennium Cohort Study that included children between the ages of 9 months and 5 years (n = 24,614 person-observations from 13,744 children). Grandparental investment was measured by parent-grandparent contact frequency and grandparental financial support. Child cognitive development was measured using the British Ability Scale and socioemotional outcomes using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire...
September 28, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959917/a-qualitative-study-of-men-s-recollections-of-growing-up-with-father-absence-childhood-father-figures-and-family-resilience
#13
Leah East, Marie Hutchinson, Tamara Power, Debra Jackson
BACKGROUND: Families come in many forms and single parent women headed households are common with nurses being well positioned to provide support for these women and their children. For children growing up in lone parent households, the nature of family relationships and the availability of a social support network are important factors in reducing developmental risks. AIM: The aim of this study was to explore adult men's recollections of growing up in a father absent home...
September 29, 2017: Contemporary Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945943/the-role-of-epigenomics-in-aquatic-toxicology
#14
Susanne M Brander, Adam D Biales, Richard E Connon
Over the past decade, the field of molecular biology has rapidly incorporated epigenetic studies to evaluate organism-environment interactions that can result in chronic effects. Such responses arise from early life stage stress, the utilization of genetic information over an individual's life time, and transgenerational inheritance. Knowledge of epigenetic mechanisms provides the potential for a comprehensive evaluation of multigenerational and heritable effects from environmental stressors, such as contaminants...
October 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944023/genetic-conservation-and-management-of-the-california-endemic-torrey-pine-pinus-torreyana-parry-implications-of-genetic-rescue-in-a-genetically-depauperate-species
#15
Jill A Hamilton, Raphaël Royauté, Jessica W Wright, Paul Hodgskiss, F Thomas Ledig
Rare species present a challenge under changing environmental conditions as the genetic consequences of rarity may limit species ability to adapt to environmental change. To evaluate the evolutionary potential of a rare species, we assessed variation in traits important to plant fitness using multigenerational common garden experiments. Torrey pine, Pinus torreyana Parry, is one of the rarest pines in the world, restricted to one mainland and one island population. Morphological differentiation between island and mainland populations suggests adaptation to local environments may have contributed to trait variation...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935396/evaluation-of-familial-factors-in-a-mexican-population-based-setting-with-gastroschisis-further-evidence-for-an-underlying-genetic-susceptibility
#16
REVIEW
Victor M Salinas-Torres, Rafael A Salinas-Torres, Ricardo M Cerda-Flores, Laura E Martínez-de-Villarreal
PURPOSE: To evaluate the occurrence of gastroschisis attributable to familial factors in a Mexican population-based setting. METHODS: A descriptive study was performed among gastroschisis cases born from 2010 through 2016 at Tijuana General Hospital (Baja California, Mexico) to generate multigenerational pedigrees. RESULTS: There were 87 gastroschisis cases from 57,217 live births. Six probands (6.9%) had another affected family member. Two half-siblings, a set of monozygotic twins, a mother-and-daughter occurrence, a distant paternal cousin and a distant maternal uncle were identified...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913347/haplotypes-for-type-degree-and-rate-of-marbling-in-cattle-are-syntenic-with-human-muscular-dystrophy
#17
Sally S Lloyd, Edward J Steele, Jose L Valenzuela, Roger L Dawkins
Traditional analyses of a QTL on Bota 19 implicate a surfeit of candidates, but each is of marginal significance in explaining the deposition of healthy, low melting temperature fat within marbled muscle of Wagyu cattle. As an alternative approach, we have used genomic, multigenerational segregation to identify 14 conserved, ancestral 20 Mb haplotypes. These determine the degree and rate of marbling in Wagyu and other breeds of cattle. The melting temperature of intramuscular fat is highly heritable and traceable by haplotyping...
2017: International Journal of Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905473/does-multigenerational-exposure-to-hormetic-concentrations-of-imidacloprid-precondition-aphids-for-increased-insecticide-tolerance
#18
Rachel R Rix, G Christopher Cutler
BACKGROUND: Hormetic preconditioning, whereby exposure to mild stress primes an organism to better tolerate subsequent stress, is well documented. It is unknown if exposure to hormetic concentrations of insecticide can trans-generationally prime insects to better tolerate insecticide exposure, or whether exposure to hormetic concentrations of insecticide can induce mutations in genes responsible for insecticide resistance. Using the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and insecticide imidacloprid as a model, we examined if exposure to mildly toxic and hormetic concentrations of imidacloprid reduced aphid susceptibility to insecticides across four generations, and whether such exposures induced mutations in the imidacloprid binding site in post-synaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors...
September 14, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902459/exome-sequences-of-multiplex-multigenerational-families-reveal-schizophrenia-risk-loci-with-potential-implications-for-neurocognitive-performance
#19
Mark Z Kos, Melanie A Carless, Juan Peralta, Joanne E Curran, Ellen E Quillen, Marcio Almeida, August Blackburn, Lucy Blondell, David R Roalf, Michael F Pogue-Geile, Ruben C Gur, Harald H H Göring, Vishwajit L Nimgaonkar, Raquel E Gur, Laura Almasy
Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness, involving disruptions in thought and behavior, with a worldwide prevalence of about one percent. Although highly heritable, much of the genetic liability of schizophrenia is yet to be explained. We searched for susceptibility loci in multiplex, multigenerational families affected by schizophrenia, targeting protein-altering variation with in silico predicted functional effects. Exome sequencing was performed on 136 samples from eight European-American families, including 23 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892785/parental-gamma-irradiation-induces-reprotoxic-effects-accompanied-by-genomic-instability-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-embryos
#20
Selma Hurem, Tânia Gomes, Dag A Brede, Elisabeth Lindbo Hansen, Stephen Mutoloki, Cristian Fernandez, Carmel Mothersill, Brit Salbu, Yetneberk A Kassaye, Ann-Karin Olsen, Deborah Oughton, Peter Aleström, Jan L Lyche
Gamma radiation represents a potential health risk to aquatic and terrestrial biota, due to its ability to ionize atoms and molecules in living tissues. The effects of exposure to (60)Co gamma radiation in zebrafish (Danio rerio) were studied during two sensitive life stages: gametogenesis (F0: 53 and 8.7mGy/h for 27 days, total doses 31 and 5.2Gy) and embryogenesis (9.6mGy/h for 65h; total dose 0.62Gy). Progeny of F0 exposed to 53mGy/h showed 100% mortality occurring at the gastrulation stage corresponding to 8h post fertilization (hpf)...
November 2017: Environmental Research
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