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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235239/familial-risks-in-urolithiasis-in-the-population-of-sweden
#1
Kari Hemminki, Otto Hemminki, Asta Försti, Kristina Sundquist, Jan Sundquist, Xinjun Li
OBJECTIVES: To assess detailed familial risks for medically diagnosed urolithiasis (UL, urinary tract stone disease) based on nationwide hospital and population records. SUBJECTS/PATIENTS AND METHODS: Subjects were identified from the Swedish Multigeneration Register in which 211,718 UL patients. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated by comparison to individuals without a family history of UL. RESULTS: The highest familial SIRs were invariably found for the same (concordant) type of UL: 2...
December 13, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222433/the-evolution-of-phenotypic-plasticity-under-global-change
#2
Emma M Gibbin, Gloria Massamba N'Siala, Leela J Chakravarti, Michael D Jarrold, Piero Calosi
Marine ecosystems are currently in a state of flux, with ocean warming and acidification occurring at unprecedented rates. Phenotypic plasticity underpins acclimatory responses by shifting the mean phenotype in a population, which may buffer the negative effects of global change. However, little is known about how phenotypic plasticity evolves across multiple generations. We tested this by reciprocally-transplanting the polychaete Ophryotrocha labronica between control and global change scenarios (ocean warming and acidification in isolation and combined) over five generations...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205317/fitness-consequences-of-occasional-outcrossing-in-a-functionally-asexual-plant-oenothera-biennis
#3
John L Maron, Marc T J Johnson, Amy P Hastings, Anurag A Agrawal
Many clonal organisms occasionally outcross, but the long-term consequences of such infrequent events are often unknown. During five years, representing three to five plant generations, we followed 16 experimental field populations of the forb, Oenothera biennis, originally planted with the same 18 original genotypes. Oenothera biennis usually self-fertilizes, which due to its genetic system (Permanent Translocation Heterozygosity), results in seeds that are clones of the maternal plant. However, rare outcrossing produces genetically novel offspring (but without recombination or increased heterozygosity)...
December 2, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198309/effects-of-simulated-microgravity-on-gene-expression-and-biological-phenotypes-of-a-single-generation-caenorhabditis-elegans-cultured-on-2-different-media
#4
Ling Fei Tee, Hui-Min Neoh, Sue Mian Then, Nor Azian Murad, Mohd Fairos Asillam, Mohd Helmy Hashim, Sheila Nathan, Rahman Jamal
Studies of multigenerational Caenorhabditis elegans exposed to long-term spaceflight have revealed expression changes of genes involved in longevity, DNA repair, and locomotion. However, results from spaceflight experiments are difficult to reproduce as space missions are costly and opportunities are rather limited for researchers. In addition, multigenerational cultures of C. elegans used in previous studies contribute to mixture of gene expression profiles from both larvae and adult worms, which were recently reported to be different...
November 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193655/polygenic-risk-scores-distinguish-patients-from-non-affected-adult-relatives-and-from-normal-controls-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-multi-affected-kindreds
#5
Sébastien Boies, Chantal Mérette, Thomas Paccalet, Michel Maziade, Alexandre Bureau
Recent studies have used results on SNP association with schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) to create polygenic risk scores (PRS) discriminating non-familial unrelated patients from controls. Little is known about the role of PRS in densely affected multigenerational families. We tested PRS differences between affected SZ and BD family members from their non-affected adult relatives (NAARs) in Eastern Quebec Kindreds and from controls. We examined 1227 subjects: from 17 SZ and BD kindreds, we studied 153 patients (57 SZ, 13 schizoaffective, and 83 BD) and 180 NAARs, and 894 unrelated controls from the Eastern Quebec population...
November 28, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189023/the-intergenerational-transmission-of-cannabis-use-associations-between-parental-history-of-cannabis-use-and-cannabis-use-disorder-low-positive-parenting-and-offspring-cannabis-use
#6
Melanie Hill, Ariel Sternberg, Hye Won Suk, Madeline H Meier, Laurie Chassin
Parental cannabis use disorder (CUD) and low positive parenting (monitoring, support, and consistency) are risk factors for adolescent cannabis use. However, it is unclear whether parental cannabis use without CUD is sufficient to increase risk for low positive parenting and adolescent cannabis use. Additionally, parents may not treat each of their adolescents the same, and risk for adolescent cannabis use may increase as a result of low levels of positive parenting in families or low positive parenting unique to each adolescent...
November 30, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188292/association-of-the-world-war-ii-finnish-evacuation-of-children-with-psychiatric-hospitalization-in-the-next-generation
#7
Torsten Santavirta, Nina Santavirta, Stephen E Gilman
Importance: Although there is evidence that adverse childhood experiences are associated with worse mental health in adulthood, scarce evidence is available regarding an emerging concern that the next generation might also be affected. Objective: To compare the risk of psychiatric hospitalization in cousins whose parents were vs were not exposed to the Finnish evacuation policy that involved a mean 2-year stay with a Swedish foster family. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multigenerational, population-based cohort study of Finnish individuals and their siblings born between January 1, 1933, and December 31, 1944, analyzed the association of evacuee status as a child during World War II in the first generation with the risk of psychiatric hospitalization among offspring in the second generation...
November 29, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185846/adverse-childhood-experiences-aces-and-alcohol-abuse-among-south-carolina-adults
#8
Elizabeth Crouch, Elizabeth Radcliff, Melissa Strompolis, Abygail Wilson
BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been associated with negative adult health outcomes, including alcohol misuse. The impact of ACEs on alcohol use may vary by gender, with ACEs impacting women more than men in coping with adulthood stressors. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to examine the gender-specific relationships between ACEs and self-reported binge drinking and heavy drinking in adulthood among South Carolina residents. METHODS: This study analyzed a sample of 8492 respondents who completed the 2014 or 2015 South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey...
November 29, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182774/heterozygous-ssbp1-start-loss-mutation-co-segregates-with-hearing-loss-and-the-m-1555a-g-mtdna-variant-in-a-large-multigenerational-family
#9
Peter J Kullar, Aurora Gomez-Duran, Payam A Gammage, Caterina Garone, Michal Minczuk, Zoe Golder, Janet Wilson, Julio Montoya, Sanna Häkli, Mikko Kärppä, Rita Horvath, Kari Majamaa, Patrick F Chinnery
The m.1555A>G mtDNA variant causes maternally inherited deafness, but the reasons for the highly variable clinical penetrance are not known. Exome sequencing identified a heterozygous start loss mutation in SSBP1, encoding the single stranded binding protein 1 (SSBP1), segregating with hearing loss in a multi-generational family transmitting m.1555A>G, associated with mtDNA depletion and multiple deletions in skeletal muscle. The SSBP1 mutation reduced steady state SSBP1 levels leading to a perturbation of mtDNA metabolism, likely compounding the intra-mitochondrial translation defect due to m...
November 22, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174219/familial-diabetes-of-adulthood-a-bin-of-ignorance-that-needs-to-be-addressed
#10
S Prudente, O Ludovico, V Trischitta
AIMS: The aim of this article was to share with a wide readership some data and related reasoning about a multigenerational form of diabetes mellitus of adulthood. DATA SYNTHESIS: We have recently described a familial form of diabetes mellitus, which in the routine clinical setting of adult individuals is simplistically diagnosed as type 2 diabetes. Such misdiagnosis involves as much as 3% of adult unrelated diabetic patients with no evidence of autoimmune disease...
October 26, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174050/phonological-working-memory-and-foxp2
#11
Katrin Schulze, Faraneh Vargha-Khadem, Mortimer Mishkin
The discovery and description of the affected members of the KE family (aKE) initiated research on how genes enable the unique human trait of speech and language. Many aspects of this genetic influence on speech-related cognitive mechanisms are still elusive, e.g. if and how cognitive processes not directly involved in speech production are affected. In the current study we investigated the effect of the FOXP2 mutation on Working Memory (WM). Half the members of the multigenerational KE family have an inherited speech-language disorder, characterised as a verbal and orofacial dyspraxia caused by a mutation of the FOXP2 gene...
November 22, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172130/multigenerational-effects-of-4-methylbenzylidene-camphor-4-mbc-on-the-survival-development-and-reproduction-of-the-marine-copepod-tigriopus-japonicus
#12
Leyun Chen, Xiaolin Li, Haizheng Hong, Dalin Shi
One of the most widely used organic UV filters, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), is present at high concentrations in offshore waters. The marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus was exposed to different concentrations of 4-MBC (i.e., 0, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10μgL(-1)) for 4 consecutive generations (F0-F3) to evaluate the impact of 4-MBC on marine ecosystems. The results showed that in the F0 generation, 4-MBC caused significant lethal toxicity in T. japonicas at concentrations of 5 and 10μgL(-1) and the nauplii were more sensitive to 4-MBC toxicity than the adults...
November 16, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165555/prenatal-exposure-to-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-dehp-disrupts-ovarian-function-in-a-transgenerational-manner-in-female-mice
#13
Saniya Rattan, Emily Brehm, Liying Gao, Sarah Niermann, Jodi A Flaws
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer found in polyvinyl chloride products such as vinyl flooring, plastic food containers, medical devices, and children's toys. DEHP is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant and is a known endocrine disrupting chemical. Little is known about the effects of prenatal DEHP exposure on the ovary and whether effects occur in subsequent generations. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to DEHP disrupts ovarian functions in the F1, F2, and F3 generations of female mice...
November 20, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162533/derivation-of-an-oral-reference-dose-rfd-for-di-2-ethylhexyl-cyclohexan-1-4-dicarboxylate-dehch-an-alternative-to-phthalate-plasticizers
#14
Brian J Hughes, Kevin Cox, Virunya Bhat
Di 2-ethylhexyl cyclohexane-1,4-dicarboxylate (DEHCH, CAS 84731-70-4) is an ester of polycarboxylic acid assessed in a wide variety of ecotoxicological and mammalian toxicity assays as a substitute for phthalate ester-type plasticizers. Laboratory animal data indicate that DEHCH has a low acute oral and dermal toxicity, is non-irritating to the skin and eyes, and is a non-sensitizer. In an OECD 422 combined repeat dose toxicity study with a reproductive/developmental toxicity screening test in Sprague-Dawley rats, minimal effects were observed on the liver, spleen, and thyroid...
November 18, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161229/sex-and-dose-specific-effects-of-maternal-bisphenol-a-exposure-on-pancreatic-islets-of-first-and-second-generation-adult-mice-offspring
#15
Amita Bansal, Cetewayo Rashid, Frances Xin, Changhong Li, Erzsebet Polyak, Anna Duemler, Tom van der Meer, Martha Stefaniak, Sana Wajid, Nicolai Doliba, Marisa S Bartolomei, Rebecca A Simmons
BACKGROUND: Exposure to the environmental endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) is ubiquitous and associated with the increased risk of diabetes and obesity. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We recently demonstrated that perinatal BPA exposure is associated with higher body fat, impaired glucose tolerance, and reduced insulin secretion in first- (F1) and second-generation (F2) C57BL/6J male mice offspring. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the multigenerational effects of maternal bisphenol A exposure on mouse pancreatic islets...
September 27, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159194/multigeneration-family-with-dominant-spg30-hereditary-spastic-paraplegia
#16
Ricardo H Roda, Alice B Schindler, Craig Blackstone
Autosomal recessive KIF1A missense mutations cause hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) type SPG30, while recessive truncations lead to sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSN2C) and many de novo missense mutations are associated with cognitive impairment. Here, we describe family members across three generations with pure HSP. A heterozygous p.Ser69Leu KIF1A mutation segregates with those afflicted. The same variant was previously reported in a Finnish father and son with pure HSP as well as four members of a Sicilian kindred with more intrafamilial phenotypic variability...
November 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151868/evolutionary-toxicology-in-an-omics-world
#17
Elias M Oziolor, John W Bickham, Cole W Matson
Evolutionary toxicology is a young field that has grown rapidly in the past two decades. The potential of this field comes from the ability to link chemical contamination to multigenerational and population-wide effects in various species. The advancements and rapidly decreasing costs of -omic tools are improving the power and resolution of evolutionary toxicology studies. In this manuscript, we aim to address the trajectories and perspectives for conducting evolutionary toxicology studies with -omic approaches...
September 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149743/multigenerational-effects-of-salinity-in-six-clonal-lineages-of-daphnia-longispina
#18
C Venâncio, R Ribeiro, A M V M Soares, I Lopes
Sea level rise, as a consequence of climate changes, is already causing seawater intrusion in some freshwater coastal ecosystems worldwide. The increase in salinity at these freshwater coastal ecosystems may occur gradually (through groundwater) or abruptly (through extreme weather events). Moreover, many of them are also being altered and threatened by anthropogenic activities. Accordingly, the present study aimed at assessing the multigenerational lethal and sublethal effects caused by increased salinity in six clonal lineages of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia longispina differing in their sensitivity to lethal levels of copper...
November 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133949/a-total-population-multigenerational-family-clustering-study-of-autoimmune-diseases-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-tourette-s-chronic-tic-disorders
#19
D Mataix-Cols, E Frans, A Pérez-Vigil, R Kuja-Halkola, C Gromark, K Isomura, L Fernández de la Cruz, E Serlachius, J F Leckman, J J Crowley, C Rück, C Almqvist, P Lichtenstein, H Larsson
The association between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette's/chronic tic disorders (TD/CTD) with autoimmune diseases (ADs) is uncertain. In this nationwide study, we sought to clarify the patterns of comorbidity and familial clustering of a broad range of ADs in individuals with OCD, individuals with TD/CTD and their biological relatives. From a birth cohort of 7 465 455 individuals born in Sweden between 1940 and 2007, we identified 30 082 OCD and 7279 TD/CTD cases in the National Patient Register and followed them up to 31 December 2013...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125953/synergy-effects-of-fluoxetine-and-variability-in-temperature-lead-to-proportionally-greater-fitness-costs-in-daphnia-a-multigenerational-test
#20
Miguel Barbosa, Núrya Inocentes, Amadeu M V M Soares, Miguel Oliveira
Increased variability in water temperature is predicted to impose disproportionally greater fitness costs than mean increase in temperature. Additionally, water contaminants are currently a major source of human-induced stress likely to produce fitness costs. Global change models forecast an increase in these two human-induced stressors. Yet, in spite the growing interest in understanding how organisms respond to global change, the joint fitness effects of water pollution and increased variability in temperature remain unclear...
November 7, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
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