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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872260/familial-aggregation-and-heritability-of-schizophrenia-and-co-aggregation-of-psychiatric-illnesses-in-affected-families
#1
I-Jun Chou, Chang-Fu Kuo, Yu-Shu Huang, Matthew J Grainge, Ana M Valdes, Lai-Chu See, Kuang-Hui Yu, Shue-Fen Luo, Lu-Shuang Huang, Wen-Yi Tseng, Weiya Zhang, Michael Doherty
Strong familial aggregation of schizophrenia has been reported but there is uncertainty concerning the degree of genetic contribution to the phenotypic variance of the disease. This study aimed to examine the familial aggregation and heritability of schizophrenia, and the relative risks (RRs) of other psychiatric diseases, in relatives of people with schizophrenia using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database. The study population included individuals with affected first-degree or second-degree relatives identified from all beneficiaries (n = 23 422 955) registered in 2013...
November 21, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852355/the-genetic-overlap-between-hair-and-eye-color
#2
Bochao D Lin, Gonneke Willemsen, Abdel Abdellaoui, Meike Bartels, Erik A Ehli, Gareth E Davies, Dorret I Boomsma, Jouke J Hottenga
We identified the genetic variants for eye color by Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) in a Dutch Caucasian family-based population sample and examined the genetic correlation between hair and eye color using data from unrelated participants from the Netherlands Twin Register. With the Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis software package, we found strong genetic correlations between various combinations of hair and eye colors. The strongest positive correlations were found for blue eyes with blond hair (0...
December 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852353/the-brazilian-twin-registry
#3
Paulo H Ferreira, Vinicius C Oliveira, Daniela R Junqueira, Lígia C Cisneros, Lucas C Ferreira, Kate Murphy, Juan R Ordoñana, John L Hopper, Luci F Teixeira-Salmela
The Brazilian Twin Registry (BTR) was established in 2013 and has impelled twin research in South America. The main aim of the initiative was to create a resource that would be accessible to the Brazilian scientific community as well as international researchers interested in the investigation of the contribution of genetic and environmental factors in the development of common diseases, phenotypes, and human behavior traits. The BTR is a joint effort between academic and governmental institutions from Brazil and Australia...
December 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832812/a-longitudinal-cohort-study-of-acute-puerperal-metritis-cases-in-swedish-dairy-cows
#4
Anna Ordell, Helle Ericsson Unnerstad, Ann Nyman, Hans Gustafsson, Renée Båge
BACKGROUND: Acute puerperal metritis affects cows during the early postpartum period and causes fever, fetid vaginal discharge and general depression. The disease is severe and treatment with antimicrobials is often required. This study followed 79 Swedish dairy cows with acute puerperal metritis with registered treatment and outcome in terms of recovery. Bacteria isolated from the uterus and their susceptibility to penicillin were studied. Clinical cases were assigned by participating practitioners who examined the cows, performed uterine swab sampling, decided treatment and provided information about cow health and calving conditions...
November 10, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825374/low-heritability-in-pharmacokinetics-of-talinolol-a-pharmacogenetic-twin-study-on-the-heritability-of-the-pharmacokinetics-of-talinolol-a-putative-probe-drug-of-mdr1-and-other-membrane-transporters
#5
Johannes Matthaei, Mladen V Tzvetkov, Valerie Gal, Cordula Sachse-Seeboth, Daniel Sehrt, Jakob B Hjelmborg, Ute Hofmann, Matthias Schwab, Reinhold Kerb, Jürgen Brockmöller
BACKGROUND: Efflux transporters like MDR1 and MRP2 may modulate the pharmacokinetics of about 50 % of all drugs. It is currently unknown how much of the variation in the activities of important drug membrane transporters like MDR1 or MRP2 is determined by genetic or by environmental factors. In this study we assessed the heritability of the pharmacokinetics of talinolol as a putative probe drug for MDR1 and possibly other membrane transporters. METHODS: Talinolol pharmacokinetics were investigated in a repeated dose study in 42 monozygotic and 13 same-sex dizygotic twin pairs...
November 8, 2016: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806668/contemporary-management-of-neonatal-alloimmune-thrombocytopenia-good-outcomes-in-the-intravenous-immunoglobulin-era-results-from-the-australian-neonatal-alloimmune-thrombocytopenia-registry
#6
Gemma L Crighton, Ri Scarborough, Zoe K McQuilten, Louise E Phillips, Helen F Savoia, Bronwyn Williams, Rhonda Holdsworth, Amanda Henry, Erica M Wood, Stephen A Cole
OBJECTIVE: To describe the natural history, antenatal and postnatal therapy, and clinical outcomes of Australian patients with fetomaternal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT) recorded in the Australian NAIT Registry. METHODS: Analysis of registry data of Australian mothers treated antenatally for NAIT and any fetus/newborn with thrombocytopenia (TCP) and maternal human platelet antigen (HPA) antibodies. RESULTS: 94 potential cases (91 pregnancies; three twin pregnancies) were registered between December 2004 and September 2015 with 76 confirmed or treated as NAIT...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799851/low-molecular-weight-heparin-can-benefit-women-with-recurrent-pregnancy-loss-and-sole-protein-s-deficiency-a-historical-control-cohort-study-from-taiwan
#7
Ming-Ching Shen, Wan-Ju Wu, Po-Jen Cheng, Gwo-Chin Ma, Wen-Chu Li, Jui-Der Liou, Cheng-Shyong Chang, Wen-Hsiang Lin, Ming Chen
BACKGROUND: Heritable thrombophilias are assumed important etiologies for recurrent pregnancy loss. Unlike in the Caucasian populations, protein S and protein C deficiencies, instead of Factor V Lieden and Prothrombin mutations, are relatively common in the Han Chinese population. In this study we aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of low molecular weight heparin upon women with recurrent pregnancy loss and documented protein S deficiency. METHODS: During 2011-2016, 68 women with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) and protein S deficiency (both the free antigen and function of protein S were reduced) were initially enrolled...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793415/a-sibling-based-design-to-quantify-genetic-and-shared-environmental-effects-of-venous-thromboembolism-in-sweden
#8
Bengt Zöller, Henrik Ohlsson, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
INTRODUCTION: Few large studies have examined the heritability of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Moreover, twin studies have been suggested to overestimate heritability. The aim of the present study was to determine the heritability nationwide in the general Swedish population using full siblings and half-siblings. METHODS: VTE was defined using the Swedish patient register. Full sibling (FS) and half-sibling (HS) pairs born 1950-1990 were obtained from the Swedish Multi-generation Register...
October 20, 2016: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793372/validity-of-self-reported-endometriosis-and-endometriosis-related-questions-in-a-swedish-female-twin-cohort
#9
Rama Saha, Lena Marions, Per Tornvall
OBJECTIVE: To examine the validity of self-reported endometriosis and to improve the reliability of questionnaires by including endometriosis-related questions. DESIGN: Analysis of survey questionnaire data. SETTING: Cross-sectional study. PATIENT(S): Cohort of 26, 898 female twins aged 20-60 years at interview, who participated in either of two surveys (1998-2002 or 2005-2006). INTERVENTION(S): None...
October 25, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776569/twinning-and-multiple-birth-rates-according-to-maternal-age-in-the-city-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil-2003-2014
#10
Emma Otta, Eloisa de S Fernandes, Tiziana G Acquaviva, Tania K Lucci, Leda C Kiehl, Marco A C Varella, Nancy L Segal, Jaroslava V Valentova
The present study investigates the twinning rates in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, during the years 2003-2014. The data were drawn from the Brazilian Health Department database of Sistema de Informações de Nascidos Vivos de São Paulo-SINASC (Live Births Information System of São Paulo). In general, more information is available on the incidence of twinning in developed countries than in developing ones. A total of 24,589 twin deliveries and 736 multiple deliveries were registered in 140 hospitals of São Paulo out of a total of 2,056,016 deliveries during the studied time period...
December 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774759/psychopathology-in-7-year-old-children-differences-in-maternal-and-paternal-ratings-and-the-genetic-epidemiology
#11
Laura W Wesseldijk, Iryna O Fedko, Meike Bartels, Michel G Nivard, Catharina E M van Beijsterveldt, Dorret I Boomsma, Christel M Middeldorp
The assessment of children's psychopathology is often based on parental report. Earlier studies have suggested that rater bias can affect the estimates of genetic, shared environmental and unique environmental influences on differences between children. The availability of a large dataset of maternal as well as paternal ratings of psychopathology in 7-year old children enabled (i) the analysis of informant effects on these assessments, and (ii) to obtain more reliable estimates of the genetic and non-genetic effects...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761665/somatosensory-brain-function-and-gray-matter-regional-volumes-differ-according-to-exercise-history-evidence-from-monozygotic-twins
#12
Pekka Hautasaari, Andrej M Savić, Otto Loberg, Eini Niskanen, Jaakko Kaprio, Urho M Kujala, Ina M Tarkka
Associations between long-term physical activity and cortical function and brain structure are poorly known. Our aim was to assess whether brain functional and/or structural modulation associated with long-term physical activity is detectable using a discordant monozygotic male twin pair design. Nine monozygotic male twin pairs were carefully selected for an intrapair difference in their leisure-time physical activity of at least three years duration (mean age 34 ± 1 years). We registered somatosensory mismatch response (SMMR) in EEG to electrical stimulation of fingers and whole brain MR images...
October 19, 2016: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723547/smoking-status-as-a-predictor-of-antidepressant-medication-use
#13
Tellervo Korhonen, Anu Ranjit, Annamari Tuulio-Henriksson, Jaakko Kaprio
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking and depression are major public health concerns, but longitudinal research on the association between smoking and antidepressant use is scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate, whether smoking predicts antidepressant medication during a 10-year follow-up. METHODS: A questionnaire was administered to Finnish adult twins in 1990. Antidepressant prescription data during 1995-2004 were obtained from the register of the Finnish Social Insurance Institution and linked to the survey data...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702414/validity-of-lidas-lifetime-depression-assessment-self-report-a-self-report-online-assessment-of-lifetime-major-depressive-disorder
#14
M Bot, C M Middeldorp, E J C de Geus, H M Lau, M Sinke, B van Nieuwenhuizen, J H Smit, D I Boomsma, B W J H Penninx
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of valid, brief instruments for the assessment of lifetime major depressive disorder (MDD) that can be used in, for example, large-scale genomics, imaging or biomarker studies on depression. We developed the LIfetime Depression Assessment Self-report (LIDAS), which assesses lifetime MDD diagnosis according to DSM criteria, and is largely based on the widely used Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Here, we tested the feasibility and determined the sensitivity and specificity for measuring lifetime MDD with this new questionnaire, with a regular CIDI as reference...
October 5, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697135/risk-impact-of-having-a-first-degree-relative-with-affective-disorder-a-7-year-follow-up-study
#15
Maj Vinberg
This study investigated a high-risk sample in order to elucidate risk factors for affective disorder. Healthy monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins with and without a co-twin with a history of affective disorder were identified through nationwide registers. Two risk groups were identified: the high-risk group comprised twins at risk of developing affective disorder (DZ or MZ twin; index co-twin affected); the low risk group (control group) comprised twins at low risk of developing affective disorder (DZ or MZ twin; index co-twin not affected)...
October 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664214/no-common-denominator-a-review-of-outcome-measures-in-ivf-rcts
#16
Jack Wilkinson, Stephen A Roberts, Marian Showell, Daniel R Brison, Andy Vail
STUDY QUESTION: Which outcome measures are reported in RCTs for IVF? SUMMARY ANSWER: Many combinations of numerator and denominator are in use, and are often employed in a manner that compromises the validity of the study. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The choice of numerator and denominator governs the meaning, relevance and statistical integrity of a study's results. RCTs only provide reliable evidence when outcomes are assessed in the cohort of randomised participants, rather than in the subgroup of patients who completed treatment...
September 22, 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615409/a-longitudinal-study-of-adolescent-psychotic-experiences-and-later-development-of-substance-use-disorder-and-suicidal-behavior
#17
Martin Cederlöf, Ralf Kuja-Halkola, Henrik Larsson, Arvid Sjölander, Per Östberg, Sebastian Lundström, Ian Kelleher, Paul Lichtenstein
INTRODUCTION: Psychotic experiences are associated with later substance use disorder and suicidal behavior, but individual psychotic experiences have not been examined in a longitudinal data set. Also, the potential dose-response relationship between these phenomena remains unknown. METHOD: Cohort study including 9242 adolescents who participated in The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS). At ages 15 and/or 18, seven psychotic experiences (auditory and visual hallucinations, and five delusions) were assessed via questionnaires...
September 5, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594841/efficacy-of-a-mandibular-advancement-appliance-on-sleep-disordered-breathing-in-children-a-study-protocol-of-a-crossover-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Ghassan Idris, Barbara Galland, Christopher J Robertson, Mauro Farella
BACKGROUND: Sleep-Disordered Breathing (SDB) varies from habitual snoring to partial or complete obstruction of the upper airway and can be found in up to 10% of children. SDB can significantly affect children's wellbeing, as it can cause growth disorders, educational and behavioral problems, and even life-threatening conditions, such as cardiorespiratory failure. Adenotonsillectomy represents the primary treatment for pediatric SDB where adeno-tonsillar hypertrophy is indicated. For those with craniofacial anomalies, or for whom adenotonsillectomy or other treatment modalities have failed, or surgery is contra-indicated, mandibular advancement splints (MAS) may represent a viable treatment option...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27584156/genetic-and-environmental-contributions-to-facial-morphological-variation-a-3d-population-based-twin-study
#19
Jelena Djordjevic, Alexei I Zhurov, Stephen Richmond
INTRODUCTION: Facial phenotype is influenced by genes and environment; however, little is known about their relative contributions to normal facial morphology. The aim of this study was to assess the relative genetic and environmental contributions to facial morphological variation using a three-dimensional (3D) population-based approach and the classical twin study design. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 3D facial images of 1380 female twins from the TwinsUK Registry database were used...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581476/heritability-of-high-sugar-consumption-through-drinks-and-the-genetic-correlation-with-substance-use
#20
Jorien L Treur, Dorret I Boomsma, Lannie Ligthart, Gonneke Willemsen, Jacqueline M Vink
BACKGROUND: High sugar consumption contributes to the rising prevalence of obesity. Sugar can have rewarding effects that are similar to, but less strong than, the effects of addictive substances. People who consume large amounts of sugar also tend to use more addictive substances, but it is unclear whether this is due to shared genetic or environmental risk factors. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether there are genetic influences on the consumption of sugar-containing drinks and whether genetic factors can explain the association with substance use...
October 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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