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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427946/is-an-early-age-at-illness-onset-in-schizophrenia-associated-with-increased-genetic-susceptibility-analysis-of-data-from-the-nationwide-danish-twin-register
#1
Rikke Hilker, Dorte Helenius, Birgitte Fagerlund, Axel Skytthe, Kaare Christensen, Thomas M Werge, Merete Nordentoft, Birte Glenthøj
BACKGROUND: Early age at illness onset has been viewed as an important liability marker for schizophrenia, which may be associated with an increased genetic vulnerability. A twin approach can be valuable, because it allows for the investigation of specific illness markers in individuals with a shared genetic background. METHODS: We linked nationwide registers to identify a cohort of twin pairs born in Denmark from 1951 to 2000 (N=31,524 pairs), where one or both twins had a diagnosis in the schizophrenia spectrum...
April 6, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425218/recurrence-of-congenital-heart-defects-among-siblings-a-nationwide-study
#2
Kristoffer Brodwall, Gottfried Greve, Elisabeth Leirgul, Grethe S Tell, Stein E Vollset, Nina Øyen
Congenital heart defects (CHD) constitute the largest group of congenital malformations. In most families, only one person has CHD; however, the risk of CHD increases for children born into families already affected. In this study, all births from 1994 through 2009 were identified in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, including supplemental information on CHD from clinical and administrative registers, as part of the CVDNOR project. By using the unique personal identification number of each parent we were able to link 16,078 pairs of twins, 445,584 pairs of full siblings, and 106,840 pairs of half-siblings...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385495/dosimetric-characterization-of-small-fields-using-a-plastic-scintillator-detector-a-large-multicenter-study
#3
Pietro Mancosu, Massimo Pasquino, Giacomo Reggiori, Laura Masi, Serenella Russo, Michele Stasi
PURPOSE: In modern radiation therapy accurate small fields dosimetry is a challenge and its standardization is fundamental to harmonize delivered dose in different institutions. This study presents a multicenter characterization of MLC-defined small field for Elekta and Varian linear accelerators. Measurements were performed using the Exradin W1 plastic scintillator detector. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The project enrolled 24 Italian centers. Each center performed Tissue Phantom Ratio (TPR), in-plane and cross-plane dose profiles of 0...
April 3, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343600/comparison-of-late-mortality-among-twins-versus-singletons-with-congenital-heart-defects
#4
Anne Maria Herskind, Lisbeth Aagaard Larsen, Dorthe Almind Pedersen, Kaare Christensen
In 2014, in the United States, nearly 7% of newborns were twins. Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are more frequent in both monozygotic and dizygotic twins than in singletons. Still, the longer-term prognosis for CHD twins is unknown. Here we assess the mortality pattern for CHD twins up to age 36 years and compare it with that for non-CHD twins, non-CHD co-twins, and CHD singletons. We identified all twins and a 5% random sample of all singletons born in Denmark from 1977 to 2009 by linking Danish national population and health registers...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341515/computerised-interpretation-of-fetal-heart-rate-during-labour-infant-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#5
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Continuous electronic fetal heart-rate monitoring is widely used during labour, and computerised interpretation could increase its usefulness. We aimed to establish whether the addition of decision-support software to assist in the interpretation of cardiotocographs affected the number of poor neonatal outcomes. METHODS: In this unmasked randomised controlled trial, we recruited women in labour aged 16 years or older having continuous electronic fetal monitoring, with a singleton or twin pregnancy, and at 35 weeks' gestation or more at 24 maternity units in the UK and Ireland...
March 21, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339674/family-history-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-risk-of-autoimmune-disease-nationwide-cohort-study-in-denmark-1977-2013
#6
Constance Jensina Ulff-Møller, Jacob Simonsen, Kirsten Ohm Kyvik, Søren Jacobsen, Morten Frisch
Objective.: To provide population-based estimates of relative risk of SLE and other autoimmune diseases (ADs) in relatives of SLE patients. Methods.: A cohort of 5 237 319 Danish residents identified through the Civil Registration System was coupled to their relatives through the parental link and followed for SLE and other ADs between 1977 and 2013 through linkage to the National Patient Register. Twin zygosity was established through the Danish Twin Registry. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression analyses...
February 20, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338919/genetic-overlap-between-schizophrenia-and-developmental-psychopathology-longitudinal-and-multivariate-polygenic-risk-prediction-of-common-psychiatric-traits-during-development
#7
Michel G Nivard, Suzanne H Gage, Jouke J Hottenga, Catharina E M van Beijsterveldt, Abdel Abdellaoui, Meike Bartels, Bart M L Baselmans, Lannie Ligthart, Beate St Pourcain, Dorret I Boomsma, Marcus R Munafò, Christel M Middeldorp
BACKGROUND: Several nonpsychotic psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence can precede the onset of schizophrenia, but the etiology of this relationship remains unclear. We investigated to what extent the association between schizophrenia and psychiatric disorders in childhood is explained by correlated genetic risk factors. METHODS: Polygenic risk scores (PRS), reflecting an individual's genetic risk for schizophrenia, were constructed for 2588 children from the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) and 6127 from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents And Children (ALSPAC)...
March 11, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338862/family-aggregation-of-cardiovascular-disease-mortality-a-register-based-prospective-study-of-pooled-nordic-twin-cohorts
#8
Karri Silventoinen, Jacob Hjelmborg, Sören Möller, Samuli Ripatti, Axel Skythe, Emmi Tikkanen, Nancy L Pedersen, Patrik Ke Magnusson, Kaare Christensen, Jaakko Kaprio
Background: Familial factors play an important role in the variation of risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but less is known about how they affect the risk of death from CVD. We estimated familial aggregation of CVD mortality for twins offering the maximum level of risk due to genetic and other familial factors. Methods: Altogether, 132 771 twin individuals, including 65 196 complete pairs from Denmark, Finland and Sweden born in 1958 or earlier, participated in this study...
February 28, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333027/transfer-of-more-than-two-embryos-regardless-of-the-age-of-the-female-partner-is-not-beneficial-for-neither-the-mothers-nor-the-babies-lessons-from-the-latin-american-registry-of-assisted-reproductive-techniques
#9
Juan Enrique Schwarze, Javier Crosby
OBJECTIVE: ART has helped millions of infertile couples worldwide to overcome their childlessness. These successes have been accompanied by an increase in multiple deliveries, and perinatal complications associated. The explanation for this complication is the transfer of more than one embryo, to increase the odds of delivery. Our objective was to compare the outcome of elective dual embryo transfer (eDET) to that of the transfer of more than two embryos without embryo cryopreservation (TET), terms of delivery rate and multiple delivery...
February 1, 2017: JBRA Assisted Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320473/which-neural-mechanisms-mediate-the-effects-of-a-parenting-intervention-program-on-parenting-behavior-design-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Laura Kolijn, Saskia Euser, Bianca G van den Bulk, Renske Huffmeijer, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg
BACKGROUND: The Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline (VIPP-SD) has proven effective in increasing parental sensitivity. However, the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. In a randomized controlled trial we examine parental neurocognitive factors that may mediate the intervention effects on parenting behavior. Our aims are to (1) examine whether the intervention influences parents' neural processing of children's emotional expressions and the neural precursors of response inhibition and to (2) test whether neural changes mediate intervention effects on parenting behavior...
March 21, 2017: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318159/-meta-analysis-of-the-condylar-position-changes-produced-by-functional-appliances-in-class-%C3%A2-malocclusion
#11
Huang Xinqi, Cen Xiao, Liu Jun
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze the condylar position changes produced by functional appliances in class Ⅱ malocclusion by systematic review. METHODS: Electronic search was conducted using Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals, Medline, Embase, Pubmed, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Studies on condylar position changes produced by functional appliances in class Ⅱ malocclusion were included...
December 1, 2016: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262917/bed-rest-with-and-without-hospitalisation-in-multiple-pregnancy-for-improving-perinatal-outcomes
#12
REVIEW
Katharina da Silva Lopes, Yo Takemoto, Erika Ota, Shinji Tanigaki, Rintaro Mori
BACKGROUND: Strict or partial bed rest in hospital or at home is commonly recommended for women with multiple pregnancy to improve pregnancy outcomes. In order to advise women to rest in bed for any length of time, a policy for clinical practice needs to be supported by reliable evidence and weighed against possible adverse effects resulting from prolonged activity restriction. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review is to assess the effectiveness of bed rest in hospital or at home to improve perinatal outcomes in women with a multiple pregnancy...
March 6, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244065/breastfeeding-education-and-support-for-women-with-twins-or-higher-order-multiples
#13
REVIEW
Heather M Whitford, Selina K Wallis, Therese Dowswell, Helen M West, Mary J Renfrew
BACKGROUND: There are rising rates of multiple births worldwide with associated higher rates of complications and more hospital care, often due to prematurity. While there is strong evidence about the risks of not breastfeeding, rates of breastfeeding in women who have given birth to more than one infant are lower than with singleton births. Breastfeeding more than one infant can be more challenging because of difficulties associated with the birth or prematurity. The extra demands on the mother of frequent suckling, coordinating the needs of more than one infant or admission to the neonatal intensive care unit can lead to delayed initiation or early cessation...
February 28, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242872/the-familial-co-aggregation-of-asd-and-adhd-a-register-based-cohort-study
#14
L Ghirardi, I Brikell, R Kuja-Halkola, C M Freitag, B Franke, P Asherson, P Lichtenstein, H Larsson
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occur. The presence of a genetic link between ASD and ADHD symptoms is supported by twin studies, but the genetic overlap between clinically ascertained ASD and ADHD remains largely unclear. We therefore investigated how ASD and ADHD co-aggregate in individuals and in families to test for the presence of a shared genetic liability and examined potential differences between low- and high-functioning ASD in the link with ADHD...
February 28, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220234/prevalence-of-dieting-and-fear-of-weight-gain-across-ages-a-community-sample-from-adolescents-to-the-elderly
#15
Margarita C T Slof-Op 't Landt, Eric F van Furth, Catharina E M van Beijsterveldt, Meike Bartels, Gonneke Willemsen, Eco J de Geus, Lannie Ligthart, Dorret I Boomsma
OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to define the prevalence of dieting and fear of weight gain among men and women across the entire lifespan and identify factors associated with them. METHODS: Data were available for 31,636 participants (60.2% women; age 13-98 years) from the Netherlands Twin Register. Dieting and fear of weight gain were described by age and sex. Associations with BMI, exercise behavior, urbanization and educational attainment were examined by regression analyses in 19,294 participants...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193307/heritability-and-gwas-studies-for-monocyte-lymphocyte-ratio
#16
Bochao D Lin, Gonneke Willemsen, Iryna O Fedko, Rick Jansen, Brenda Penninx, E de Geus, C Kluft, JoukeJan Hottenga, Dorret I Boomsma
The monocyte-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) is a useful biomarker for disease development, but little is known about the extent to which genetic and environmental factors influence MLR variation. Here, we study the genetic architecture of MLR and determine the influence of demographic and lifestyle factors on MLR in data from a Dutch non-patient twin-family population. Data were obtained in 9,501 individuals from the Netherlands Twin Register. We used regression analyses to determine the effects of age, sex, smoking, and body mass index (BMI) on MLR and its subcomponents...
February 14, 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191586/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms-and-low-educational-achievement-evidence-supporting-a-causal-hypothesis
#17
Eveline L de Zeeuw, Catharina E M van Beijsterveldt, Erik A Ehli, Eco J C de Geus, Dorret I Boomsma
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and educational achievement are negatively associated in children. Here we test the hypothesis that there is a direct causal effect of ADHD on educational achievement. The causal effect is tested in a genetically sensitive design to exclude the possibility of confounding by a third factor (e.g. genetic pleiotropy) and by comparing educational achievement and secondary school career in children with ADHD who take or do not take methylphenidate. Data on ADHD symptoms, educational achievement and methylphenidate usage were available in a primary school sample of ~10,000 12-year-old twins from the Netherlands Twin Register...
February 13, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176485/preterm-birth-prevention-in-twin-pregnancies-with-progesterone-pessary-or-cerclage-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
A Jarde, O Lutsiv, C K Park, J Barrett, J Beyene, S Saito, J M Dodd, P S Shah, J L Cook, A B Biringer, L Giglia, Z Han, K Staub, W Mundle, C Vera, L Sabatino, S K Liyanage, S D McDonald
BACKGROUND: About half of twin pregnancies deliver preterm, and it is unclear whether any intervention reduces this risk. OBJECTIVES: To assess the evidence for the effectiveness of progesterone, cerclage, and pessary in twin pregnancies. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ISI Web of Science, without language restrictions, up to 25 January 2016. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials of progesterone, cerclage, or pessary for preventing preterm birth in women with twin pregnancies, without symptoms of threatened preterm labour...
February 8, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170117/prevention-of-preterm-birth-with-pessary-in-twins-poppt-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Vincenzo Berghella, Lorraine Dugoff, Jack Ludmir
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate if cervical pessary placement prevents PTB in twin gestations with a short midtrimester transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) cervical length (CL). METHODS: Multicenter randomized controlled trial of asymptomatic women with twin gestations with a TVU CL ≤30 mm at 18(0) -27(6) weeks. TVU CL screening was performed at the time of the anatomy scan at 18(0) -23(6) , and at subsequent scheduled ultrasounds prior to 28 weeks. Women with a TVU CL ≤30 mm at 18(0) -27(6) weeks were randomized to receive the Bioteque cup cervical pessary or no pessary...
February 7, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166593/impact-of-rare-bleeding-disorders-during-pregnancy-on-maternal-and-fetal-outcomes-review-of-29-pregnancies-at-a-single-center
#20
Gokcen Orgul, Fatih Aktoz, M Sinan Beksac
Objective This study aims to give information about the relationship between different types of factor deficiencies and maternal/obstetric outcomes. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of eight women with factor deficiency disorders. The demographic and clinical features of the patients after their last pregnancies were registered retrospectively. Results There were 29 pregnancies among the 8 patients. The spontaneous abortion rate was relatively high in two patients with factor XIII deficiency (80% and 57...
January 2017: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
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