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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100882/efficient-fractionation-and-analysis-of-fatty-acids-and-their-salts-in-fat-oil-and-grease-fog-deposits
#1
Herman P Benecke, Sara K Allen, Daniel B Garbark
A fractionation methodology of fat, oil and grease (FOG) deposits was developed based on the insolubility of fatty acid salts in dichloromethane (DCM) and the relatively high solubility of fatty acids and triglycerides in DCM. Using this method, coupled with spectral analysis, it was shown that fatty acids rather than fatty acid salts were the predominant species in FOG deposits obtained from three metropolitan locations in the United States and that fatty acid triglycerides were either not detected or were present in very small concentrations...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093985/ketogenic-diet-and-other-dietary-intervention-strategies-in-the-treatment-of-cancer
#2
Matteo Vergati, Eriseld Krasniqi, Girolamo Del Monte, Silvia Riondino, Doriana Vallone, Fiorella Guadagni, Patrizia Ferroni, Mario Roselli
Pre-clinical and clinical studies have investigated the role of a dysregulated metabolism in the sustainability of tumor initiation and progression. One of the most familiar metabolic alterations encountered in several types of cancers is the upregulation of glycolysis, which is also maintained in conditions of normal oxygen tension (aerobic glycolysis, Warburg effect) while oxidative phosphorylation is apparently reduced. As a result, cancer cells convert most incoming glucose to lactate. Although more rapid, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production by glycolysis is less efficient in terms of ATP generated per unit of glucose consumed than oxidative phosphorylation...
January 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056770/genetic-architecture-of-kernel-composition-in-global-sorghum-germplasm
#3
Davina H Rhodes, Leo Hoffmann, William L Rooney, Thomas J Herald, Scott Bean, Richard Boyles, Zachary W Brenton, Stephen Kresovich
BACKGROUND: Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an important cereal crop for dryland areas in the United States and for small-holder farmers in Africa. Natural variation of sorghum grain composition (protein, fat, and starch) between accessions can be used for crop improvement, but the genetic controls are still unresolved. The goals of this study were to quantify natural variation of sorghum grain composition and to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with variation in grain composition concentrations...
January 5, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045202/raw-mechanically-separated-chicken-meat-and-salmon-protein-hydrolysate-as-protein-sources-in-extruded-dog-food-effect-on-protein-and-amino-acid-digestibility
#4
M T Tjernsbekk, A-H Tauson, O F Kraugerud, Ø Ahlstrøm
Protein quality was evaluated for mechanically separated chicken meat (MSC) and salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH), and for extruded dog foods where MSC or SPH partially replaced poultry meal (PM). Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in the protein ingredients and extruded foods was determined with mink (Neovison vison). The extruded dog foods included a control diet with protein from PM and grain, and two diets where MSC or SPH provided 25% of the dietary CP. Nutrient composition of the protein ingredients varied, dry matter (DM) was 944...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988117/technical-note-mammary-gland-ultrasonography-to-evaluate-mammary-parenchymal-composition-in-prepubertal-heifers
#5
R L Albino, S E F Guimarães, K M Daniels, M M S Fontes, A F Machado, G B Dos Santos, M I Marcondes
Bovine mammary gland development studies are often terminal or involve invasive biopsy procedures. Therefore, noninvasive means of assessing mammary development should be considered as alternative methods in live animals. The objective was to test if mammary ultrasonography can be used as a noninvasive way to estimate mammary parenchyma (PAR) composition in prepubertal dairy heifers with different average daily body weight gains. In the 84 d preceding, the ultrasound exam heifers were maintained in 1 of 3 treatment groups...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988114/lactation-and-body-composition-responses-to-fat-and-protein-supplies-during-the-dry-period-in-under-conditioned-dairy-cows
#6
G Jaurena, J M Moorby
An experiment was designed to study the effect of precalving supplementation with protein (Pr) and rumen-inert fat (F) on body composition and subsequent milk production and composition. Forty Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments in the dry period (DP) based on a first-cut ryegrass silage, with 6 mature (in their third or greater pregnancy) and 4 young (in their second pregnancy) cows per treatment. These were low Pr, low F (silage alone); low Pr, high F (silage with 10% rumen-inert fat, mixed on a dry matter basis); high Pr, low F [silage with 5% high-protein corn gluten meal (CGM)]; and high Pr, high F (silage with 5% CGM and 10% rumen-inert fat)...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966307/the-effects-of-sebum-configuration-on-demodex-spp-density
#7
Hatice Gamze Demirdağ, Hamdi Özcan, Şule Gürsoy, Gülçin Beker Akbulut
BACKGROUND/AIM: Demodex spp. are ectoparasites living in the pilosebaceous units, which feed on the host's sebum and cellular proteins. The protective barrier of the skin consists of sebum secretion, moisture, and the acid mantle. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of skin sebum, moisture, pH levels, and sebum configuration on Demodex spp. density. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-five patients who had demodicosis were enrolled in the study group, while the control group consisted of 40 subjects without demodicosis...
November 17, 2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939533/effect-of-incomplete-milking-on-milk-production-rate-and-composition-with-2-daily-milkings
#8
J F Penry, E L Endres, B de Bruijn, A Kleinhans, P M Crump, D J Reinemann, L L Hernandez
The primary aim of this study was to assess the effects of incomplete milking on milk secretion and milk composition at the quarter level. Twelve cows were enrolled beginning at 5 d in milk and remained on study through 47 d in milk. Half of each contralateral udder was incompletely milked (treatment), detaching the teat cup early to leave approximately 30% of the total milk yield behind. This target milk remaining in the gland was based on weekly calibration milking measurements of quarter total milk yield...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915341/rs1501299-polymorphism-in-the-adiponectin-gene-and-their-association-with-total-adiponectin-levels-insulin-resistance-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-obese-subjects
#9
Daniel Antonio de Luis, Olatz Izaola, Beatriz de la Fuente, David Primo, Hilda Fernandez Ovalle, Enrique Romero
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the association of single nucleotide polymorphism rs1501299 in the ADIPOQ gene with body weight, insulin resistance, serum adipokine levels and metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: The study involved a population of 1,007 adult obese subjects. Parameters like body weight, fat mass, waist circumferences, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, C-reactive protein, insulin concentration, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipid profile and adipocytokines levels (leptin, adiponectin and resistin) were all measured...
December 3, 2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910786/bioavailability-and-digestibility-of-nutrients-from-the-dried-oyster-culinary-medicinal-mushroom-pleurotus-ostreatus-agaricomycetes-in-vivo-experiments
#10
Julita Regula, Joanna Suliburska, Marek Siwulski
There is a limited number of publications on the bioavailability and digestibility of nutrients contained in macrofungi. The aim of this study was to assess the bioavailability and digestibility of macronutrients using in vivo experiments on laboratory animals. The experiments were conducted with the commercial oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. Semisynthetic diets were prepared based on the modified AIN-93M diet and were supplemented with 4% and 8% mushroom powder. Between days 4 and 13, apparent digestibility indexes were determined for all animals using the conventional balance method...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898907/apparent-total-tract-macronutrient-digestibility-fecal-characteristics-and-fecal-fermentative-end-product-concentrations-of-healthy-adult-dogs-fed-bioprocessed-soy-protein
#11
A N Beloshapka, M R C de Godoy, K B Detweiler, M Newcomb, K H Ellegård, G C Fahey, K S Swanson
Animal proteins are commonly used in extruded dog foods. Plant-based proteins have a more consistent nutrient profile than animal sources but may contain antinutritional factors, including trypsin inhibitors and oligosaccharides. Bioprocessed soy protein (SP; HP-300; Hamlet Protein, Inc., Findlay, OH) is a processed soy-based product with low antinutritional factor concentrations and high protein quality. The objective was to evaluate the effects of SP on apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end products...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898877/effects-of-full-fat-or-defatted-rice-bran-on-growth-performance-and-blood-characteristics-of-weanling-pigs
#12
G A Casas, H H Stein
The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of increased concentrations of full fat rice bran (FFRB) or defatted rice bran (DFRB) in diets without or with supplementation of an exogenous xylanase on growth performance and blood characteristics in weanling pigs. A total of 532 pigs (9.3 ± 0.5 kg initial BW) were allotted to 14 diets in 4 blocks and 8 replicate pens per diet in a randomized complete block design. There were 4 or 5 pigs per pen. A basal diet containing corn, soybean meal, and whey powder and 6 diets containing corn, soybean meal, whey powder, and 10, 20, or 30% FFRB or 10, 20, or 30% DFRB were used...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898678/leukocyte-telomere-length-in-relation-to-17-biomarkers-of-cardiovascular-disease-risk-a-cross-sectional-study-of-us-adults
#13
David H Rehkopf, Belinda L Needham, Jue Lin, Elizabeth H Blackburn, Ami R Zota, Janet M Wojcicki, Elissa S Epel
BACKGROUND: Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a putative biological marker of immune system age, and there are demonstrated associations between LTL and cardiovascular disease. This may be due in part to the relationship of LTL with other biomarkers associated with cardiovascular disease risk. However, the strength of associations between LTL and adiposity, metabolic, proinflammatory, and cardiovascular biomarkers has not been systematically evaluated in a United States nationally representative population...
November 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881409/intake-of-individual-saturated-fatty-acids-and-risk-of-coronary-heart-disease-in-us-men-and-women-two-prospective-longitudinal-cohort-studies
#14
Geng Zong, Yanping Li, Anne J Wanders, Marjan Alssema, Peter L Zock, Walter C Willett, Frank B Hu, Qi Sun
OBJECTIVES:  To investigate the association between long term intake of individual saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and the risk of coronary heart disease, in two large cohort studies. DESIGN:  Prospective, longitudinal cohort study. SETTING:  Health professionals in the United States. PARTICIPANTS:  73 147 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2012) and 42 635 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2010), who were free of major chronic diseases at baseline...
November 23, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820852/osteoarthritis-in-the-knee-joints-of-g%C3%A3-ttingen-minipigs-after-resection-of-the-anterior-cruciate-ligament-missing-correlation-of-mri-gene-and-protein-expression-with-histological-scoring
#15
Gregor Reisig, Michael Kreinest, Wiltrud Richter, Mechthild Wagner-Ecker, Dietmar Dinter, Ulrike Attenberger, Barbara Schneider-Wald, Stefan Fickert, Markus L Schwarz
INTRODUCTION: The Göttingen Minipig (GM) is used as large animal model in articular cartilage research. The aim of the study was to introduce osteoarthritis (OA) in the GM by resecting the anterior cruciate ligament (ACLR) according to Pond and Nuki, verified by histological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scoring as well as analysis of gene and protein expression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The eight included skeletally mature female GM were assessed after ACLR in the left and a sham operation in the right knee, which served as control...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820654/the-consistency-in-macronutrient-oxidation-and-the-role-for-epinephrine-in-the-response-to-fasting-and-overfeeding
#16
Karyne Lima Vinales, Mathias Schlögl, Paolo Piaggi, Maximilian Hohenadel, Alexis Graham, Susan Bonfiglio, Jonathan Krakoff, Marie S Thearle
CONTEXT: In humans, dietary versus intra-individual determinants of macronutrient oxidation preference and the role of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) during short-term overfeeding and fasting are unclear. OBJECTIVE: To understand the influence of diet and the SNS during 24-h of overfeeding on metabolic changes. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: While residing on a clinical research unit, 64 participants with normal glucose regulation were assessed during energy balance, fasting, and four 24-h overfeeding diets, given in random order...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816854/diet-quality-is-associated-with-mental-health-social-support-and-neighborhood-factors-among-veterans
#17
Katherine D Hoerster, Sarah Wilson, Karin M Nelson, Gayle E Reiber, Robin M Masheb
United States Veterans have a higher prevalence of overweight and related chronic conditions compared to the general population. Although diet is a primary and modifiable contributor to these conditions, little is known about factors influencing diet quality among Veterans. The goal of this study is to examine individual, social environment, and physical environment correlates of general diet quality among Veterans. Study participants (N=653) received care at an urban VA Medical Center in Seattle, WA and completed a mailed survey in 2012 and 2013...
December 2016: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801820/a-comparison-of-nutritional-antioxidant-content-in-breast-milk-donor-milk-and-infant-formulas
#18
Corrine Hanson, Elizabeth Lyden, Jeremy Furtado, Matthew Van Ormer, Ann Anderson-Berry
Human milk is the optimal food for human infants, including infants born prematurely. In the event that a mother of a hospitalized infant cannot provide breast milk, donor milk is considered an acceptable alternative. It is known that the macronutrient composition of donor milk is different than human milk, with variable fat content and protein content. However, much less is known about the micronutrient content of donor milk, including nutritional antioxidants. Samples of breast milk from 12 mothers of infants hospitalized in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit until were collected and analyzed for concentrations of nutritional antioxidants, including α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein + zeaxanthin, retinol, and α-tocopherol...
October 28, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794543/effect-of-different-protein-ingredients-on-performance-egg-quality-organ-health-and-jejunum-morphology-of-laying-hens
#19
X C Wang, H J Zhang, H Wang, H Y Yue, J Wang, S G Wu, G H Qi
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different protein ingredients on performance, egg quality, organ health, and jejunum morphology of laying hens. A total of 216 32-wk-old Hy-Line W36 laying hens with similar egg production was randomly divided into 3 treatment groups with 6 replicates of 12 birds each. The experimental diets were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 2 655 kcal/kg) and isonitrogenous (crude protein, 16.5%). The control group was fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet (SBM), and the other 2 experimental diets consisted of a basal diet with 195...
October 28, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788523/association-of-neuropeptide-y-gene-rs16147-polymorphism-with-cardiovascular-risk-factors-adipokines-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-patients-with-obesity
#20
Daniel Antonio de Luis, Olatz Izaola, Beatriz de la Fuente, David Primo, Rocio Aller
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The NPY gene has 4 exons, and it is located at 7p15.1. The main genetic variant described in this gene is rs16147. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of NPY rs16147 with body weight, insulin resistance, serum adipokine levels, and risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: A population of 1,005 obese patients was analyzed in a cross-sectional survey. Weight, fat mass, waist circumference, blood pressure, basal glucose, C-reactive protein, insulin, insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]), lipid profile, and adipocytokine (leptin, adiponectin, and resistin) levels were measured...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics
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