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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340762/reference-free-spectroscopic-determination-of-fat-and-protein-in-milk-in-the-visible-and-near-infrared-region-below-1000nm-using-spatially-resolved-diffuse-reflectance-fiber-probe
#1
Andrey Bogomolov, Valeria Belikova, Vladislav Galyanin, Anastasiia Melenteva, Hans Meyer
New technique of diffuse reflectance spectroscopic analysis of milk fat and total protein content in the visible (Vis) and adjacent near infrared (NIR) region (400-995nm) has been developed and tested. Sample analysis was performed through a probe having eight 200-µm fiber channels forming a linear array. One of the end fibers was used for the illumination and other seven - for the spectroscopic detection of diffusely reflected light. One of the detection channels was used as a reference to normalize the spectra and to convert them into absorbance-equivalent units...
May 15, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340236/diet-density-during-the-first-week-of-life-effects-on-energy-and-nitrogen-balance-characteristics-of-broiler-chickens
#2
D M Lamot, D Sapkota, P J A Wijtten, I van den Anker, M J W Heetkamp, B Kemp, H van den Brand
This study aimed to determine effects of diet density on growth performance, energy balance, and nitrogen balance characteristics of broiler chickens during the first wk of life. Effects of diet density were studied using a dose-response design consisting of 5 dietary fat levels (3.5, 7.0, 10.5, 14.0, and 17.5%). The relative difference in dietary energy level was used to increase amino acid levels, mineral levels, and the premix inclusion level at the same ratio. Chickens were housed in open-circuit climate respiration chambers from d 0 to 7 after hatch...
March 11, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318578/relationships-between-body-condition-score-change-prior-mid-lactation-phenotypic-residual-feed-intake-and-hyperketonemia-onset-in-transition-dairy-cows
#3
Francesca M Rathbun, Ryan S Pralle, Sandra J Bertics, Louis E Armentano, K Cho, C Do, Kent A Weigel, Heather M White
Extensive efforts have been made to identify more feed-efficient dairy cows, yet it is unclear how selection for feed efficiency will influence metabolic health. The objectives of this research were to determine the relationships between residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, body condition score (BCS) change, and hyperketonemia (HYK) incidence. Blood and milk samples were collected twice weekly from cows 5 to 18 d postcalving for a total of 4 samples. Hyperketonemia was diagnosed at a blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) ≥1...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306522/infrared-analyzers-for-breast-milk-analysis-fat-levels-can-influence-the-accuracy-of-protein-measurements
#4
Celia Kwan, Gerhard Fusch, Aldin Bahonjic, Niels Rochow, Christoph Fusch
BACKGROUND: Currently, there is a growing interest in lacto-engineering in the neonatal intensive care unit, using infrared milk analyzers to rapidly measure the macronutrient content in breast milk before processing and feeding it to preterm infants. However, there is an overlap in the spectral information of different macronutrients, so they can potentially impact the robustness of the measurement. In this study, we investigate whether the measurement of protein is dependent on the levels of fat present while using an infrared milk analyzer...
March 15, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301844/the-placenta-maternal-diet-and-adipose-tissue-development-in-the-newborn
#5
Michael E Symonds, Ian Bloor, Shalini Ojha, Helen Budge
BACKGROUND: A majority of adipose tissue present in the newborn possess the unique mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein (UCP1). It is thus highly metabolically active and capable of producing 300 times more heat per unit mass than any other organ in the body. The extent to which maternal obesity and/or an obesogenic diet impacts on placental function thereby resetting the relative distribution of different types of fat in the fetus is unknown. SUMMARY: Developmentally the majority (if not all) fat in the fetus can be considered as classical brown fat, in which UCP1 is highly abundant...
March 17, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295818/accuracy-of-fully-automated-quantitative-volumetric-measurement-of-the-amount-of-fibroglandular-breast-tissue-using-mri-correlation-with-anthropomorphic-breast-phantoms
#6
Georg J Wengert, Katja Pinker, Thomas H Helbich, Wolf-Dieter Vogl, Sylvia M Spijker, Hubert Bickel, Stephan H Polanec, Pascal A Baltzer
To demonstrate the accuracy of fully automated, quantitative, volumetric measurement of the amount of fibroglandular breast tissue (FGT), using MRI, and to investigate the impact of different MRI sequences using anthropomorphic breast phantoms as the ground truth. In this study, 10 anthropomorphic breast phantoms that consisted of different known fractions of adipose and protein tissue, which closely resembled normal breast parenchyma, were developed. Anthropomorphic breast phantoms were imaged with a 1.5 T unit (Siemens, Avantofit) using an 18-channel breast coil...
March 10, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290940/effects-of-combat-deployment-on-anthropometrics-and-physiological-status-of-u-s-army-special-operations-forces-soldiers
#7
Emily K Farina, Jonathan C Taylor, Gary E Means, Kelly W Williams, Nancy E Murphy, Lee M Margolis, Stefan M Pasiakos, Harris R Lieberman, James P McClung
INTRODUCTION: U.S. Army Special Operations Forces (SOF) soldiers deploy frequently and conduct military operations through special warfare and surgical strike capabilities. Tasks required to execute these capabilities may induce physical and mental stress and have the potential to degrade soldier physiological status. No investigations have longitudinally characterized whether combat deployment alters anthropometrics or biochemical markers of physiological status in a SOF population of frequent deployers...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265965/hypophosphatemia-nutritional-status-body-composition-and-mortality-in-hemodialysis-patients
#8
Cristina Garagarza, Ana Valente, Cristina Caetano, Telma Oliveira, Pedro Ponce, Ana Paula Silva
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between serum phosphate levels, clinical parameters, body composition, and mortality. METHODS: Multicenter longitudinal observational study of a cohort of 3552 patients in hemodialysis (HD) from 34 Nephrocare dialysis units in Portugal with 24 months of follow-up. Patients were divided into three groups depending on their serum phosphorus (<3.5; 3.5-5.5; >5.5 mg/dL). Statistical tests were performed with SPSS, version 20...
March 6, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264177/a-randomized-controlled-study-of-an-insulin-dosing-application-that-uses-recognition-and-meal-bolus-estimations
#9
Ewa Pańkowska, Piotr Ładyżyński, Piotr Foltyński, Karolina Mazurczak
BACKGROUND: Throughout the insulin pump therapy, decisions of prandial boluses programming are taken by patients individually a few times every day, and, moreover, this complex process requires numerical skills and knowledge in nutrition components estimation. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of the expert system, supporting the patient's decision on meal bolus programming, on the time in range of diurnal glucose excursion in patients treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII)...
January 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258472/prevalence-of-renal-uric-acid-stones-in-the-adult
#10
Alberto Trinchieri, Emanuele Montanari
The aim of this study was to estimate uric acid renal stone prevalence rates of adults in different countries of the world. PubMed was searched for papers dealing with "urinary calculi and prevalence or composition" for the period from January 1996 to June 2016. Alternative searches were made to collect further information on specific topics. The prevalence rate of uric acid stones was computed by the general renal stone prevalence rate and the frequency of uric acid stones in each country. After the initial search, 2180 papers were extracted...
March 3, 2017: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249783/diet-driven-microbiota-dysbiosis-is-associated-with-vagal-remodeling-and-obesity
#11
Tanusree Sen, Carolina R Cawthon, Benjamin Thomas Ihde, Andras Hajnal, Patricia M DiLorenzo, Claire B de La Serre, Krzysztof Czaja
Obesity is one of the major health issues in the United States. Consumption of diets rich in energy, notably from fats and sugars (high-fat/high-sugar diet: HF/HSD) is linked to the development of obesity and a popular dietary approach for weight loss is to reduce fat intake. Obesity research traditionally uses low and high fat diets and there has been limited investigation of the potential detrimental effects of a low-fat/high-sugar diet (LF/HSD) on body fat accumulation and health. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effects of HF/HSD and LF/HSD on microbiota composition, gut inflammation, gut-brain vagal communication and body fat accumulation...
February 26, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244709/diet-quality-and-eating-behavioural-patterns-in-preschool-children-in-hong-kong
#12
Pui-Sze Yip, Vivian Wai-Yen Chan, Queenie Kwan-Yee Lee, Hang-Mei Lee
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To assess the diet quality and eating behaviour of preschool children, investigate parents' feeding practices, and obtain information on the kindergarten nutrition environment of Hong Kong children aged 30-60 months. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Dietary information was obtained using multiple 24-hour recalls. Questionnaires were developed to obtain information on children' seating behaviour, parents' feeding practices and preschool nutrition environment...
March 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244693/dapagliflozin-improves-insulin-resistance-and-glucose-intolerance-in-a-novel-transgenic-rat-with-chronic-glucose-overproduction-and-glucose-toxicity
#13
Christos N Joannides, Salvatore P Mangiafico, Matthew F Waters, Benjamin J Lamont, Sofianos Andrikopoulos
AIMS: Insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion are cardinal defects that contribute to hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. Recently, a new class of drugs called sodium-glucose linked transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors has been introduced that reduce blood glucose by inhibiting glucose reabsorption in the kidney and is not dependent on glucose metabolism or insulin action. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the excretion of glucose would improve insulin resistance, impaired insulin secretion or both...
February 28, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202779/fasting-mimicking-diet-and-markers-risk-factors-for-aging-diabetes-cancer-and-cardiovascular-disease
#14
Min Wei, Sebastian Brandhorst, Mahshid Shelehchi, Hamed Mirzaei, Chia Wei Cheng, Julia Budniak, Susan Groshen, Wendy J Mack, Esra Guen, Stefano Di Biase, Pinchas Cohen, Todd E Morgan, Tanya Dorff, Kurt Hong, Andreas Michalsen, Alessandro Laviano, Valter D Longo
Calorie restriction or changes in dietary composition can enhance healthy aging, but the inability of most subjects to adhere to chronic and extreme diets, as well as potentially adverse effects, limits their application. We randomized 100 generally healthy participants from the United States into two study arms and tested the effects of a fasting-mimicking diet (FMD)-low in calories, sugars, and protein but high in unsaturated fats-on markers/risk factors associated with aging and age-related diseases. We compared subjects who followed 3 months of an unrestricted diet to subjects who consumed the FMD for 5 consecutive days per month for 3 months...
February 15, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202015/variant-discovery-in-the-sheep-milk-transcriptome-using-rna-sequencing
#15
Aroa Suárez-Vega, Beatriz Gutiérrez-Gil, Christophe Klopp, Gwenola Tosser-Klopp, Juan José Arranz
BACKGROUND: The identification of genetic variation underlying desired phenotypes is one of the main challenges of current livestock genetic research. High-throughput transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) offers new opportunities for the detection of transcriptome variants (SNPs and short indels) in different tissues and species. In this study, we used RNA-Seq on Milk Sheep Somatic Cells (MSCs) with the goal of characterizing the genetic variation within the coding regions of the milk transcriptome in Churra and Assaf sheep, two common dairy sheep breeds farmed in Spain...
February 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191503/differences-in-gut-metabolites-and-microbial-composition-and-functions-between-egyptian-and-u-s-children-are-consistent-with-their-diets
#16
V Shankar, M Gouda, J Moncivaiz, A Gordon, N V Reo, L Hussein, O Paliy
Previous studies indicated that populations consuming a Mediterranean diet rich in fiber, vegetables, and fruits have a significantly lower risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases than populations of industrialized societies consuming diets enriched in processed carbohydrates, animal proteins, and fats. To explore the potential contributions of gut microbiota to the observed diet-related metabolic effects, we conducted an integrative analysis of distal gut microbiota composition and functions and intestinal metabolites in Egyptian and U...
January 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183305/controlling-of-growth-performance-lipid-deposits-and-fatty-acid-composition-of-chicken-meat-through-a-probiotic-lactobacillus-johnsonii-during-subclinical-clostridium-perfringens-infection
#17
Hesong Wang, Xueqin Ni, Lei Liu, Dong Zeng, Jing Lai, Xiaodan Qing, Guangyao Li, Kangcheng Pan, Bo Jing
BACKGROUND: Meat is considered as a major source of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) which is essential for humans, therefore its lipid level and fatty acid composition have drawn great attention. As no clinical sign can be found in chicks subclinically infected by Clostridium perfringens (CP), the meat may be purchased and eaten. The objective of the present study was to determine whether Lactobacillus johnsonii (LJ) can control the CP-caused impact on growth, lipid levels, fatty acid composition and other flavor or nutritional quality in the meat...
February 10, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183166/production-responses-of-holstein-dairy-cows-when-fed-supplemental-fat-containing-saturated-free-fatty-acids-a-meta-analysis
#18
Wenping Hu, Jacquelyn P Boerman, James M Aldrich
Objective: A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplemental fat containing saturated free fatty acids (FA) on milk performance of Holstein dairy cows. Methods: A database was developed from 21 studies published between 1991 and 2016 that included 502 dairy cows and a total of 29-30 comparisons between dietary treatment and control without fat supplementation. Only saturated free FA (> 80% of total FA) was considered as the supplemental fat...
February 1, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161167/ability-of-dairy-cows-to-ensure-pregnancy-according-to-breed-and-genetic-merit-for-production-traits-under-contrasted-pasture-based-systems
#19
N Bedere, C Disenhaus, V Ducrocq, S Leurent-Colette, L Delaby
The present study aimed to assess and measure the effects of breed, genetic merit for production traits, and feeding systems (FS) on the ability of dairy cows to ensure pregnancy through its components (fertilization, embryonic losses, recalving). An experiment was conducted over 9 yr on Normande and Holstein cows assigned to contrasted FS. Diets were based on maize silage in winter and grazing plus concentrate in spring in the high FS group, and on grass silage in winter and grazing with no concentrate during spring in the low FS group...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109597/weather-influences-feed-intake-and-feed-efficiency-in-a-temperate-climate
#20
Davina L Hill, Eileen Wall
A key goal for livestock science is to ensure that food production meets the needs of an increasing global population. Climate change may heighten this challenge through increases in mean temperatures and in the intensity, duration, and spatial distribution of extreme weather events, such as heat waves. Under high ambient temperatures, livestock are expected to decrease dry matter intake (DMI) to reduce their metabolic heat production. High yielding dairy cows require high DMI to support their levels of milk production, but this may increase susceptibility to heat stress...
March 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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