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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527798/short-communication-effect-of-a-citrus-extract-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#1
Y Ying, M Niu, A R Clarke, K J Harvatine
Dry matter intake is a main driver of energy balance in lactating dairy cows, and some plant extracts have been commercially fed to dairy cows to stimulate feed intake. Citrus extracts contain several bioactive components and have been shown to modify metabolism in other animal models. Our hypothesis was that a citrus extract would increase dry matter intake. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of a citrus extract on intake and milk production in lactating dairy cows. In experiment one, 11 early-lactation dairy cows (experiment 1; 77 ± 15 d in milk, mean ± standard deviation) were used in a switchback design, and in experiment two, 15 mid-lactation Holstein cows (experiment 2; 157 ± 44 d in milk, mean ± standard deviation) were used in a crossover design...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521598/malnutrition-critical-illness-survivors-and-postdischarge-outcomes-a-cohort-study
#2
Kris M Mogensen, Clare M Horkan, Steven W Purtle, Takuhiro Moromizato, James D Rawn, Malcolm K Robinson, Kenneth B Christopher
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that preexisting malnutrition in patients who survived critical care would be associated with adverse outcomes following hospital discharge. METHODS: We performed an observational cohort study in 1 academic medical center in Boston. We studied 23,575 patients, aged ≥18 years, who received critical care between 2004 and 2011 and survived hospitalization. RESULTS: The exposure of interest was malnutrition determined at intensive care unit (ICU) admission by a registered dietitian using clinical judgment and on data related to unintentional weight loss, inadequate nutrient intake, and wasting of muscle mass and/or subcutaneous fat...
May 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515160/replacement-of-refined-starches-and-added-sugars-with-egg-protein-and-unsaturated-fats-increases-insulin-sensitivity-and-lowers-triglycerides-in-overweight-or-obese-adults-with-elevated-triglycerides
#3
Kevin C Maki, Orsolya M Palacios, Emily Lindner, Kristin M Nieman, Marjorie Bell, Jennifer Sorce
Background: Hypertriglyceridemia is a common condition in the United States and is often associated with other metabolic disturbances, including insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and a predominance of small dense LDL particles.Objective: The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of a combination of egg protein (Epro) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) substituted for refined starches and added sugars on insulin sensitivity (primary outcome) and other cardiometabolic health markers in overweight or obese adults with elevated triglyceride (TG) concentrations...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501402/thiamine-supplementation-facilitates-thiamine-transporter-expression-in-the-rumen-epithelium-and-attenuates-high-grain-induced-inflammation-in-low-yielding-dairy-cows
#4
X H Pan, L Yang, Y Beckers, F G Xue, Z W Tang, L S Jiang, B H Xiong
An experiment was conducted to uncover the effects of increasing dietary grain levels on expression of thiamine transporters in ruminal epithelium, and to assess the protective effects of thiamine against high-grain-induced inflammation in dairy cows. Six rumen-fistulated, lactating Holstein dairy cows (627 ± 16.9 kg of body weight, 180 ± 6 d in milk; mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design trial. Three treatments were control (20% dietary starch, dry matter basis), high-grain diet (HG, 33...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431149/next-generation-non-starch-polysaccharide-degrading-multi-carbohydrase-complex-rich-in-xylanase-and-arabinofuranosidase-to-enhance-broiler-feed-digestibility
#5
Pierre Cozannet, Michael T Kidd, Roberto Montanhini Neto, Pierre-André Geraert
This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of a multi-carbohydrase complex ( ) rich in xylanase ( ) and arabinofuranosidase ( ) on overall broiler feed digestibility in broilers. Energy utilization and digestibility of dry matter ( ), organic matter ( ), protein, starch, fat, and insoluble and soluble fibers were measured using the mass-balance method. The experiment was carried out on 120 broilers (3-week-old chickens). Broilers were distributed over 8 treatments to evaluate the effect of the dietary arabinoxylan content and nutrient density with and without MCC (Rovabio® Advance)...
April 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418793/wide-variability-in-caloric-density-of-expressed-human-milk-can-lead-to-major-underestimation-or-overestimation-of-nutrient-content
#6
Charles W Sauer, Mallory A Boutin, Jae H Kim
BACKGROUND: Very-low-birth-weight infants continue to face significant difficulties with postnatal growth. Human milk is the optimal form of nutrition for infants but may exhibit variation in nutrient content. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to perform macronutrient analysis on expressed human milk from mothers whose babies are hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit. METHODS: Up to five human milk samples per participant were analyzed for protein, carbohydrate, and fat content using reference chemical analyses (Kjeldahl for protein, high pressure liquid chromatography for carbohydrates, and Mojonnier for fat)...
May 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411065/modifying-the-physicochemical-properties-of-pea-protein-by-ph-shifting-and-ultrasound-combined-treatments
#7
Shanshan Jiang, Junzhou Ding, Juan Andrade, Taha M Rababah, Ali Almajwal, Mahmoud M Abulmeaty, Hao Feng
The effect of a pH-shifting and ultrasound combined process on the functional properties and structure of pea protein isolate (PPI) was investigated. PPI dispersions were adjusted to pH 2, 4, 10, or 12, treated by power ultrasound for 5min, and incubated for 1h before the sample pH was brought back to neutral. After treatment, water solubility, protein aggregate size, solution turbidity, surface hydrophobicity (Ho), free sulfhydryl content (SH), and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of the soluble PPI were determined...
March 28, 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396154/nutrition-of-black-women-during-pregnancy
#8
Melissa Myles, Susan Gennaro, Nancy Dubois, Caitlin O'Connor, Kayla Roberts
OBJECTIVE: To examine the consistency and adequacy of nutritional intake in a population of Black women in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. DESIGN: This was a longitudinal descriptive study. Data were collected from women with low-risk pregnancies at 22- to 24-week prenatal visits and two subsequent visits. SETTING: Participants were recruited from urban prenatal clinics in one city in the Northeastern United States. PARTICIPANTS: Pregnant women who self-identified as Black (N = 195)...
May 2017: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390716/management-practices-physically-effective-fiber-and-ether-extract-are-related-to-bulk-tank-milk-de-novo-fatty-acid-concentration-on-holstein-dairy-farms
#9
M E Woolpert, H M Dann, K W Cotanch, C Melilli, L E Chase, R J Grant, D M Barbano
The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship of management practices and dietary factors with de novo fatty acid concentration in bulk tank milk from commercial dairy farms milking Holstein cows. Farms were selected based on de novo fatty acid concentration during the 6 mo before the farm visit and were categorized as high de novo (HDN; 24.61 ± 0.75 g/100 g of fatty acids, mean ± standard deviation; n = 19) or low de novo (LDN; 23.10 ± 0.88 g/100 g of fatty acids; n = 20). Farms were visited once in February, March, or April 2015 and evaluated based on management and facility design known to affect cow behavior, physical and chemical characteristics of the diet, and ration formulation and forage analyses obtained from the farm's nutritionist...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365549/greenhouse-gas-balance-of-mountain-dairy-farms-as-affected-by-grassland-carbon-sequestration
#10
Sara Salvador, Mirco Corazzin, Alberto Romanzin, Stefano Bovolenta
Recent studies on milk production have often focused on environmental impacts analysed using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. In grassland-based livestock systems, soil carbon sequestration might be a potential sink to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) balance. Nevertheless, there is no commonly shared methodology. In this work, the GHG emissions of small-scale mountain dairy farms were assessed using the LCA approach. Two functional units, kg of Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM) and Utilizable Agricultural Land (UAL), and two different emissions allocations methods, no allocation and physical allocation, which accounts for the co-product beef, were considered...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365114/a-meta-analysis-on-the-effect-of-dietary-application-of-exogenous-fibrolytic-enzymes-on-the-performance-of-dairy-cows
#11
Kathy G Arriola, Andre S Oliveira, Zhengxin X Ma, Ian J Lean, Mihai C Giurcanu, Adegbola T Adesogan
The aim of this study was to use meta-analytical methods to estimate effects of adding exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) to dairy cow diets on their performance and to determine which factors affect the response. Fifteen studies with 17 experiments and 36 observations met the study selection criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. The effects were compared by using random-effect models to examine the raw mean difference (RMD) and standardized mean difference between EFE and control treatments after both were weighted with the inverse of the study variances...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356271/cashew-consumption-reduces-total-and-ldl-cholesterol-a-randomized-crossover-controlled-feeding-trial
#12
Eunice Mah, Jacqueline A Schulz, Valerie N Kaden, Andrea L Lawless, Jose Rotor, Libertie B Mantilla, DeAnn J Liska
Background: Cashews are the third most-consumed tree nut in the United States and are abundant with monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. Although a qualified Food and Drug Administration health claim exists for nuts and heart health, cashews have been exempt from its use because cashews exceed the disqualifying amount of saturated fatty acids. Approximately one-third of the saturated fat in cashews is stearic acid, which is relatively neutral on blood lipids, thereby suggesting that cashews could have effects that are similar to those of other nuts...
March 29, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349667/exercise-training-induced-improvement-in-skeletal-muscle-pgc-1%C3%AE-mediated-fat-metabolism-is-independent-of-dietary-glycemic-index
#13
Anny Mulya, Jacob M Haus, Thomas P J Solomon, Karen R Kelly, Steven K Malin, Michael Rocco, Hope Barkoukis, John P Kirwan
OBJECTIVE: This study hypothesized that a low-glycemic diet combined with exercise would increase expression of nuclear regulators of fat transport and oxidation in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle. METHOD: Nineteen subjects (64 ± 1 y; 34 ± 1 kg/m(2) ) were randomized to receive isocaloric high-glycemic-index (HiGIX; 80 ± 0.6 units, n = 10) or low-glycemic-index (LoGIX; 40 ± 0.3 units, n = 9) diets combined with supervised exercise (1 h/d, 5 d/wk at ∼85% HRmax ) for 12 weeks...
April 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340762/reference-free-spectroscopic-determination-of-fat-and-protein-in-milk-in-the-visible-and-near-infrared-region-below-1000nm-using-spatially-resolved-diffuse-reflectance-fiber-probe
#14
Andrey Bogomolov, Valeria Belikova, Vladislav Galyanin, Anastasiia Melenteva, Hans Meyer
New technique of diffuse reflectance spectroscopic analysis of milk fat and total protein content in the visible (Vis) and adjacent near infrared (NIR) region (400-995nm) has been developed and tested. Sample analysis was performed through a probe having eight 200-µm fiber channels forming a linear array. One of the end fibers was used for the illumination and other seven - for the spectroscopic detection of diffusely reflected light. One of the detection channels was used as a reference to normalize the spectra and to convert them into absorbance-equivalent units...
May 15, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340236/diet-density-during-the-first-week-of-life-effects-on-energy-and-nitrogen-balance-characteristics-of-broiler-chickens
#15
D M Lamot, D Sapkota, P J A Wijtten, I van den Anker, M J W Heetkamp, B Kemp, H van den Brand
This study aimed to determine effects of diet density on growth performance, energy balance, and nitrogen balance characteristics of broiler chickens during the first wk of life. Effects of diet density were studied using a dose-response design consisting of 5 dietary fat levels (3.5, 7.0, 10.5, 14.0, and 17.5%). The relative difference in dietary energy level was used to increase amino acid levels, mineral levels, and the premix inclusion level at the same ratio. Chickens were housed in open-circuit climate respiration chambers from d 0 to 7 after hatch...
March 11, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318578/relationships-between-body-condition-score-change-prior-mid-lactation-phenotypic-residual-feed-intake-and-hyperketonemia-onset-in-transition-dairy-cows
#16
Francesca M Rathbun, Ryan S Pralle, Sandra J Bertics, Louis E Armentano, K Cho, C Do, Kent A Weigel, Heather M White
Extensive efforts have been made to identify more feed-efficient dairy cows, yet it is unclear how selection for feed efficiency will influence metabolic health. The objectives of this research were to determine the relationships between residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, body condition score (BCS) change, and hyperketonemia (HYK) incidence. Blood and milk samples were collected twice weekly from cows 5 to 18 d postcalving for a total of 4 samples. Hyperketonemia was diagnosed at a blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) ≥1...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306522/infrared-analyzers-for-breast-milk-analysis-fat-levels-can-influence-the-accuracy-of-protein-measurements
#17
Celia Kwan, Gerhard Fusch, Aldin Bahonjic, Niels Rochow, Christoph Fusch
BACKGROUND: Currently, there is a growing interest in lacto-engineering in the neonatal intensive care unit, using infrared milk analyzers to rapidly measure the macronutrient content in breast milk before processing and feeding it to preterm infants. However, there is an overlap in the spectral information of different macronutrients, so they can potentially impact the robustness of the measurement. In this study, we investigate whether the measurement of protein is dependent on the levels of fat present while using an infrared milk analyzer...
March 15, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301844/the-placenta-maternal-diet-and-adipose-tissue-development-in-the-newborn
#18
Michael E Symonds, Ian Bloor, Shalini Ojha, Helen Budge
BACKGROUND: A majority of adipose tissue present in the newborn possess the unique mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein (UCP1). It is thus highly metabolically active and capable of producing 300 times more heat per unit mass than any other organ in the body. The extent to which maternal obesity and/or an obesogenic diet impacts on placental function thereby resetting the relative distribution of different types of fat in the fetus is unknown. SUMMARY: Developmentally the majority (if not all) fat in the fetus can be considered as classical brown fat, in which UCP1 is highly abundant...
March 17, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295818/accuracy-of-fully-automated-quantitative-volumetric-measurement-of-the-amount-of-fibroglandular-breast-tissue-using-mri-correlation-with-anthropomorphic-breast-phantoms
#19
Georg J Wengert, Katja Pinker, Thomas H Helbich, Wolf-Dieter Vogl, Sylvia M Spijker, Hubert Bickel, Stephan H Polanec, Pascal A Baltzer
To demonstrate the accuracy of fully automated, quantitative, volumetric measurement of the amount of fibroglandular breast tissue (FGT), using MRI, and to investigate the impact of different MRI sequences using anthropomorphic breast phantoms as the ground truth. In this study, 10 anthropomorphic breast phantoms that consisted of different known fractions of adipose and protein tissue, which closely resembled normal breast parenchyma, were developed. Anthropomorphic breast phantoms were imaged with a 1.5 T unit (Siemens, Avantofit) using an 18-channel breast coil...
March 10, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290940/effects-of-combat-deployment-on-anthropometrics-and-physiological-status-of-u-s-army-special-operations-forces-soldiers
#20
Emily K Farina, Jonathan C Taylor, Gary E Means, Kelly W Williams, Nancy E Murphy, Lee M Margolis, Stefan M Pasiakos, Harris R Lieberman, James P McClung
INTRODUCTION: U.S. Army Special Operations Forces (SOF) soldiers deploy frequently and conduct military operations through special warfare and surgical strike capabilities. Tasks required to execute these capabilities may induce physical and mental stress and have the potential to degrade soldier physiological status. No investigations have longitudinally characterized whether combat deployment alters anthropometrics or biochemical markers of physiological status in a SOF population of frequent deployers...
March 2017: Military Medicine
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