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fat protein unit

L Hanrahan, N McHugh, T Hennessy, B Moran, R Kearney, M Wallace, L Shalloo
The global dairy industry needs to reappraise the systems of milk production that are operated at farm level with specific focus on enhancing technical efficiency and competitiveness of the sector. The objective of this study was to quantify the factors associated with costs of production, profitability, and pasture use, and the effects of pasture use on financial performance of dairy farms using an internationally recognized representative database over an 8-yr period (2008 to 2015) on pasture-based systems...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Olivier Bouillanne, Jean-Claude Melchior, Cécile Faure, Muriel Paul, Florence Canouï-Poitrine, Yves Boirie, Didier Chevenne, Christine Forasassi, Ester Guery, Stéphane Herbaud, Philippe Le Corvoisier, Nathalie Neveux, Valérie Nivet-Antoine, Alain Astier, Agathe Raynaud-Simon, Stéphane Walrand, Luc Cynober, Christian Aussel
BACKGROUND: Citrulline (CIT), is not extracted by the splanchnic area, can stimulate muscle protein synthesis and could potentially find clinical applications in conditions involving low amino acid (AA) intake, such as in malnourished older subjects. OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to research the effects of CIT supplementation on protein metabolism in particular on non-oxidative leucine disposal (NOLD, primary endpoint), and splanchnic extraction of amino acids in malnourished older patients...
February 21, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Mariëtte Z Meulekamp, Peter van der Wurff, Alfred van der Meer, Cees Lucas
BACKGROUND: Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a condition of pain induced by exercise, and it is characterized by muscle swelling and impaired muscle function in the lower leg. Given the diversity in the diagnosis and treatment of CECS, it is desirable to determine variables pertaining to prognosis and recovery. The purpose of this study is to identify prognostic factors for conservative treatment outcomes in servicemen with CECS who were treated at a Military Rehabilitation Center...
November 28, 2017: Military Medical Research
Feng-Chih Shen, Shao-Wen Weng, Cheng-Feng Tsao, Hung-Yu Lin, Chia-Shiang Chang, Ching-Yi Lin, Wei-Shiung Lian, Jiin-Haur Chuang, Tsu-Kung Lin, Chia-Wei Liou, Pei-Wen Wang
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a crucial role in pathogenesis of insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes. In the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study and its 10-year post-trial monitoring, a beneficial effect of early optimization of blood glucose control is clearly demonstrated. In this study, we investigated whether ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and the time point of intervention can affect IR in a diet-induced obesity mouse model. Male C57B/L6 mice were fed chow diet (CD), high-fat high-sucrose diet (HFD), CD+NAC1-6  (NAC intervention 1st-6th month), HFD+NAC1-6 , and HFD+NAC3-6  (NAC intervention 3rd-6th month) for a 6-month treatment course...
March 4, 2018: Free Radical Research
J Caballero-Villalobos, J M Perea, E Angón, R Arias, A Garzón
Milk coagulation, especially in small ruminant species, is often hard to evaluate, as coagulation traits are normally considered individually and several factors related to udder health might distort yield calculation. Due to the lack of studies about these factors, our objective was to determine milk coagulation efficiency (CE) and its determinants using a deterministic technical efficiency approach, an ordinary least square regression model, and ANOVA. Milk from 300 Manchega ewes was collected and analyzed for composition, milk coagulation properties, and hygienic quality...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
EunSeok Cha, Sudeshna Paul, Betty J Braxter, Guillermo Umpierrez, Melissa Spezia Faulkner
Purpose The purpose of the study was to examine the associations between dietary behaviors and glucose metabolism in high-risk young adults to increase the precision of nutrition education to prevent early onset type 2 diabetes (T2D). Method Using a descriptive, cross-sectional study design, 106 overweight or obese sedentary young adults ages 18-29 years from the Atlanta metropolitan area were recruited to screen diabetes risk. Survey questionnaires, anthropometric assessment, blood pressure (BP), and laboratory data were collected in a clinical research unit...
March 1, 2018: Diabetes Educator
T Ouchi, S Morikawa, S Shibata, M Takahashi, M Yoshikawa, T Soma, H Miyashita, W Muraoka, K Kameyama, H Kawana, Y Arima, H Saya, H Okano, T Nakagawa, S Asoda
This study investigated a case of spindle cell carcinoma (SpCC) in tongue pathological lesions. The patient experienced a local recurrence and distant metastasis after surgical intervention. Although standard chemotherapy was administered, a granulomatous mass continued to develop. This aggressive growth led to survival of the tumor. Secondary debulking surgery was performed to improve the patient's quality of life at the request of the patient. Using a tissue sample derived from the secondary debulking surgery, we performed an analysis of the tumor's cell surface antigens, differentiation potential, metastatic ability, and inhibition potential by anticancer reagents...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Anuradha, Amitabh Krishna
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the mechanism by which embryonic development in Cynopterus sphinx is impaired during the period of increased accumulation of white adipose tissue during winter scarcity of food. The change in the mass of white adipose tissue during adipogenesis showed significant positive correlation with the circulating glucose level. But increase in circulating glucose level during the adipogenesis showed negative correlation with circulating progesterone and adiponectin levels...
February 20, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Sowmya Krishnan, Michael P Anderson, David A Fields, Madhusmita Misra
AIM: To determine the effect of childhood obesity and insulin resistance on bone health. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional study in pubertal adolescents and young adults 13-20 years old who were either overweight/obese or normal weight. Participants were Tanner 3 or above for pubertal stage, and had fasting blood work done to measure glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein and lipid levels. Homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated using the formula (Fasting Blood Glucose *Insulin/405)...
February 8, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
Sergio F Martinez-Huenchullan, Babu Raja Maharjan, Paul F Williams, Charmaine S Tam, Susan V Mclennan, Stephen M Twigg
Exercise regimens may have differing effects in the presence of obesity. In addition to being fat derived, adiponectin has recently been described as a myokine that regulates insulin sensitivity, which may link to exercise-related metabolic benefits in obesity. Whether skeletal muscle adiponectin varies in different exercise modalities is unclear. This study investigated the comparative effects of 10 weeks of endurance constant-moderate intensity exercise (END) with high intensity interval training (HIIT), on metabolic outcomes, including muscle adiponectin in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity...
February 2018: Physiological Reports
Jessica S Citronberg, Keith R Curtis, Emily White, Polly A Newcomb, Katherine Newton, Charlotte Atkinson, Xiaoling Song, Johanna W Lampe, Meredith Aj Hullar
The mechanisms by which obesity increases cancer risk are unclear, but some lines of evidence suggest that gut microbial communities (GMC) may contribute to chronic inflammation in obese individuals through raised systemic levels of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). We evaluated associations of the GMC in stool with plasma LPS-binding protein (LBP, a measure of LPS) and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations in 110 premenopausal women in the United States. Diet was assessed using 3-day food records and GMCs were evaluated using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene...
February 12, 2018: ISME Journal
Emmanuel Pacia Hernandez, Kodai Kusakisako, Melbourne Rio Talactac, Remil Linggatong Galay, Takeshi Hatta, Tomohide Matsuo, Kozo Fujisaki, Naotoshi Tsuji, Tetsuya Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Ticks are obligate hematophagous parasites important economically and to health. Ticks consume large amounts of blood for their survival and reproduction; however, large amounts of iron in blood could lead to oxidative stress. Ticks use several molecules such as glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), ferritins, and peroxiredoxins to cope with oxidative stress. This study aimed to identify and characterize the GSTs of the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis in order to determine if they have a role in coping with oxidative stress...
February 8, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Christopher A Taylor, Rosanna P Watowicz, Colleen K Spees, Neal H Hooker
This paper presents a simulation process to augment nutrition surveillance in the United States which incorporates product innovation data. Traditional point-estimates of nutritional quality in a food category are compared to those based on distributions of nutrient compositions using product-level variability seen in the market. Nationally representative consumption patterns provide dietary intakes. Cookies are used as an example food category. Nutrient composition data from Global New Product Database (GNPD) for 5259 cookies launched 2005 to 2012 were matched to dietary intakes from 2005 to 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) over the 2 y cycles of NHANES for 8284 cookie consumers...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Nina Rica Wium Geiker, Louise L Toennesen, Arne Astrup, Vibeke Backer
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: EFFORT Asthma study is a randomized controlled trial designed to assess the effects of diet and exercise in non-obese, untrained patients with asthma. We here present results from a subgroup of participants in the diet and control group to assess the feasibility of a high protein and low glycemic index (GI) diet and the effects on body composition. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Of the 149 subjects who were included in the study, 76 subjects (30 males) were randomized into either a diet group (n = 38) or a control group (n = 38) and included in the present analysis...
February 6, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Şeyda Özkan Gülzari, Bouda Vosough Ahmadi, Alistair W Stott
Impaired animal health causes both productivity and profitability losses on dairy farms, resulting in inefficient use of inputs and increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions produced per unit of product (i.e. emissions intensity). Here, we used subclinical mastitis as an exemplar to benchmark alternative scenarios against an economic optimum and adjusted herd structure to estimate the GHG emissions intensity associated with varying levels of disease. Five levels of somatic cell count (SCC) classes were considered namely 50,000 (i...
February 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Mengxi Du, Selena H Liu, Cara Mitchell, Teresa T Fung
Background: Estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) breast cancer tends to have poorer prognosis than estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. A number of studies have examined the association between diet quality as measured by various diet quality scores and the risk of ER- breast cancer. Objective: This systematic review aimed to summarize existing evidence on this topic. Methods: Medline and Embase searches were conducted until 2 April 2017 for cohort and case-control studies on diet quality scores and ER- breast cancer...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Aoife J McCarthy, Runjan Chetty
This is a review of the morphological spectrum of fatty tumours containing a component of spindle cells, highlighting the immunohistochemical and cytogenetic workup that is now mandatory for accurate diagnosis, with the goal of providing a practical approach for practising surgical pathologists. There have been significant advances in recent years in classifying and understanding the pathogenesis of fatty tumours with spindle cells, based on the correlation of histological, immunohistochemical and cytogenetic/molecular findings...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Johanne L Arentoft, Camilla Hoppe, Elisabeth W Andersen, Kim Overvad, Inge Tetens
Diet is recognised as one modifiable lifestyle factor for ischaemic heart disease (IHD). We aimed at investigating the associations between adherence to the Danish Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) indicated by a Dietary Quality Index (DQI) and selected cardiometabolic risk factors in a cross-sectional study with 219 Danish adult participants (59 %women; age 31-65years) with a minimum of one self-rated risk marker of IHD. Information regarding diet was obtained using web-based dietary assessment software and adherence to the Danish FBDG was expressed by a DQI calculated from 5 food and nutrient indicators (whole grain, fish, fruit and vegetables, energy from saturated fat and from added sugar)...
January 21, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Munirah S Abd Rahim, Lisa A M Sommer, Anja Wacker, Martin Schaad, Sonja A Dames
FAT C-terminal (FATC) is a circa 33 residue-long domain. It controls the kinase functionality in phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase-related kinases (PIKKs). Recent NMR- and CD-monitored interaction studies indicated that the FATC domains of all PIKKs can interact with membrane mimetics albeit with different preferences for membrane properties such as surface charge and curvature. Thus they may generally act as membrane anchoring unit. Here, we present the 1H, 15N, and 13C chemical shift assignments of the DPC micelle immersed FATC domains of the human PIKKs ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM, residues 3024-3056) and DNA protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs, residues 4096-4128), both fused to the 56 residue long B1 domain of Streptococcal protein G (GB1)...
January 18, 2018: Biomolecular NMR Assignments
Ramith Ramu, Prithvi S Shirahatti, K R Anilakumar, Shivasharanappa Nayakavadi, Farhan Zameer, B L Dhananjaya, M N Nagendra Prasad
Background: The assessment of the nutritional composition and phytochemical screening of banana pseudostem (PB) and flower (FB) advocate this nonconventional food source for routine consumption, considering its various health benefits. Objectives: The aim is to assess the proximate nutrient composition, fatty acids, minerals, amino acid profile, and global antioxidant response (GAR) of PB and FB. Methods: Standard analytical procedures were used to determine the nutritional quality and GAR of PB and FB...
December 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
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