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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330461/comparing-olive-oil-and-c4-dietary-oil-a-prodrug-for-the-gpr119-agonist-2-oleoyl-glycerol-less-energy-intake-of-the-latter-is-needed-to-stimulate-incretin-hormone-secretion-in-overweight-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes
#1
Mette Johannsen Mandøe, Katrine Bagge Hansen, Johanne Agerlin Windeløv, Filip Krag Knop, Jens Frederik Rehfeld, Mette Marie Rosenkilde, Jens Juul Holst, Harald Severin Hansen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: After digestion, dietary triacylglycerol stimulates incretin release in humans, mainly through generation of 2-monoacylglycerol, an agonist for the intestinal G protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119). Enhanced incretin release may have beneficial metabolic effects. However, dietary fat may promote weight gain and should therefore be restricted in obesity. We designed C4-dietary oil (1,3-di-butyryl-2-oleoyl glycerol) as a 2-oleoyl glycerol (2-OG)-generating fat type, which would stimulate incretin release to the same extent while providing less calories than equimolar amounts of common triglycerides, e...
January 12, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321363/dominance-effects-estimation-of-tlr4-and-cacna2d1-genes-for-health-and-production-traits-using-logistic-regression
#2
Masoumeh Bagheri, Azadeh Zahmatkesh
Knowledge of nonadditive variance and genetic effects can be helpful in explaining the total genetic variation formost of the traits. The objective of this study was to estimate dominance effects of several single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes for the production traits and clinical mastitis residual (CMR), in Holstein dairy cattle in a case-control study. Records of 305 days lactation were obtained for production traits and CMR. Animals were selected based on extreme values for CMR from mixed model analyses...
December 2017: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305947/deviations-in-energy-sensing-predict-long-term-weight-change-in-overweight-native-americans
#3
Alessio Basolo, Susanne B Votruba, Sascha Heinitz, Jonathan Krakoff, Paolo Piaggi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Energy expenditure (EE), as reflective of body energy demand, has been proposed to be the key driver of food intake, possibly influencing weight change in humans. Variation in this energy-sensing link (overeating relative to weight-maintaining energy requirements) may lead to weight gain over time. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Sixty-one overweight otherwise healthy Native Americans (age: 34.0±7.9years, body fat: 39.7±9.5%, 36 males) were admitted to our clinical research unit for measurements of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and 24-h EE and respiratory quotient (RQ) in a whole-room indirect calorimeter during energy balance and weight stability...
January 3, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300725/association-between-intake-of-less-healthy-foods-defined-by-the-united-kingdom-s-nutrient-profile-model-and-cardiovascular-disease-a-population-based-cohort-study
#4
Oliver T Mytton, Nita G Forouhi, Peter Scarborough, Marleen Lentjes, Robert Luben, Mike Rayner, Kay Tee Khaw, Nicholas J Wareham, Pablo Monsivais
BACKGROUND: In the United Kingdom, the Food Standards Agency-Ofcom nutrient profiling model (FSA-Ofcom model) is used to define less-healthy foods that cannot be advertised to children. However, there has been limited investigation of whether less-healthy foods defined by this model are associated with prospective health outcomes. The objective of this study was to test whether consumption of less-healthy food as defined by the FSA-Ofcom model is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
January 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290449/lactation-response-to-soybean-meal-and-rumen-protected-methionine-supplementation-of-corn-silage-based-diets
#5
H Nursoy, M Gonzalez Ronquillo, A P Faciola, G A Broderick
Corn silage, an important forage fed to dairy cows in the United States, is energy rich but protein poor. The objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects on production of milk and milk components of feeding corn silage-based diets with 4 levels of dietary crude protein (CP) plus rumen-protected methionine (RPM). Thirty-six cows were blocked by days in milk into 9 squares and randomly assigned to 9 balanced 4 × 4 Latin squares with four 4-wk periods. All diets were formulated to contain, as a percent of dry matter (DM), 50% corn silage, 10% alfalfa silage, 4% soyhulls, 2...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290428/the-relationship-between-milk-metabolome-and-methane-emission-of-holstein-friesian-dairy-cows-metabolic-interpretation-and-prediction-potential
#6
S van Gastelen, E C Antunes-Fernandes, K A Hettinga, J Dijkstra
This study aimed to quantify the relationship between CH4 emission and fatty acids, volatile metabolites, and nonvolatile metabolites in milk of dairy cows fed forage-based diets. Data from 6 studies were used, including 27 dietary treatments and 123 individual observations from lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. These dietary treatments covered a large range of forage-based diets, with different qualities and proportions of grass silage and corn silage. Methane emission was measured in climate respiration chambers and expressed as production (g per day), yield (g per kg of dry matter intake; DMI), and intensity (g per kg of fat- and protein-corrected milk; FPCM)...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277345/implication-of-the-rs670-variant-of-apoa1-gene-with-lipid-profile-serum-adipokine-levels-and-components-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-adult-obese-subjects
#7
Daniel Antonio de Luis, Olatz Izaola, David Primo, Rocio Aller
BACKGROUND & AIMS: A G-to-A transition located 75 base pairs upstream (rs670) from transcription start site of the APOA1 gene is related with metabolic parameters. The aim of the present investigation was to describe the association of rs670 with metabolic syndrome and metabolic parameters. METHODS: The study involved a population of 1000 obese subjects. Measurements of anthropometric parameters, arterial blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), insulin concentration, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipid profile, adipokines levels and prevalence of MetS was recorded...
December 15, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224883/utilization-of-protein-in-red-clover-and-alfalfa-silages-by-lactating-dairy-cows-and-growing-lambs
#8
Glen A Broderick
Feeding trials were conducted with lactating cows and growing lambs to quantify effects of replacing dietary alfalfa silage (AS) with red clover silage (RCS) on nutrient utilization. The lactation trial had a 2 × 4 arrangement of treatments: AS or RCS fed with no supplement, rumen-protected Met (RPM), rumen-protected Lys (RPL), or RPM plus RPL. Grass silage was fed at 13% of dry matter (DM) with AS to equalize dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and crude protein contents. All diets contained (DM basis) 5% corn silage and 16% crude protein...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224878/short-communication-variability-in-milk-urea-nitrogen-and-dairy-total-mixed-ration-composition-in-the-northeastern-united-states
#9
A N Hristov, M Harper, J Oh, F Giallongo, J C Lopes, G Cudoc, J Clay, R Ward, L E Chase
The main objective of this survey was to examine variability in milk urea nitrogen (MUN) for Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHIA) herds in the northeastern United States (the Northeast), examine trends in dairy cow diet composition, and determine potential relationships for MUN and diet composition. Trends in milk fat and protein concentrations, milk yield, days in milk on test day, and lactation number of the cows were also evaluated. The data set for the survey included 10,839,461 DHIA dairy cow records from 2004 to 2015 for 13 states (CT, DE, MA, MD, ME, NH, NJ, NY, PA, RI, VA, VT, and WV) and was retrieved from Dairy Records Management Systems (Raleigh, NC)...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204367/protein-and-fat-meal-content-increase-insulin-requirement-in-children-with-type-1-diabetes-role-of-duration-of-diabetes
#10
M van der Hoogt, J C van Dyk, R C Dolman, M Pieters
Background and objective: Hyperglycaemia remains a challenge in type 1 diabetes since current regimes used to determine meal insulin requirements prove to be ineffective. This is particularly problematic for meals containing high amounts of protein and fat. We aimed to determine the post-prandial glycaemic response and total insulin need for mixed meals, using sensor-augmented insulin pumps in children with type 1 diabetes. Methods: Twenty-two children with type 1 diabetes, aged 4-17 years on insulin pump therapy completed this home-based, cross-over, randomised controlled trial...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical & Translational Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186804/neonatal-nutrition-predicts-energy-balance-in-young-adults-born-preterm-at-very-low-birth-weight
#11
(no author information available yet)
Epidemiological studies and animal models suggest that early postnatal nutrition and growth can influence adult health. However, few human studies have objective recordings of early nutrient intake. We studied whether nutrient intake and growth during the first 9 weeks after preterm birth with very low birth weight (VLBW, <1500 g) predict total energy intake, resting energy expenditure (REE), physical activity and food preferences in young adulthood. We collected daily nutritional intakes and weights during the initial hospital stay from hospital records for 127 unimpaired VLBW participants...
November 24, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178536/effects-of-an-energy-restricted-low-carbohydrate-high-unsaturated-fat-low-saturated-fat-diet-versus-a-high-carbohydrate-low-fat-diet-in-type-2-diabetes-a-2-year-randomized-clinical-trial
#12
Jeannie Tay, Campbell H Thompson, Natalie D Luscombe-Marsh, Thomas P Wycherley, Manny Noakes, Jonathan D Buckley, Gary A Wittert, William S Yancy, Grant D Brinkworth
AIM: To examine whether a low-carbohydrate, high unsaturated/low saturated fat diet (LC) improves glycemic control and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: 115 adults with T2D (mean[SD]; BMI:34.6[4.3]kg/m2 , age:58[7]yrs, HbA1c:7.3[1.1]%) were randomized to one of two planned energy-matched, hypocaloric diets combined with aerobic/resistance exercise (1hr,3d/wk) for 2 years:(1) LC:14% energy as carbohydrate, 28% protein, 58% fat [<10% saturated fat]) or (2) low fat, high-carbohydrate, low glycemic index diet (HC):53% CHO, 17% protein, 30% fat [<10% saturated fat])...
November 27, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164128/peptides-released-from-foremilk-and-hindmilk-proteins-by-breast-milk-proteases-are-highly-similar
#13
Søren D Nielsen, Robert L Beverly, David C Dallas
Human milk contains active proteases that initiate hydrolysis of milk proteins within the mammary gland. Milk expressed at the beginning of feeding is known as foremilk and that at the end of feeding is known as hindmilk. As hindmilk contains higher fat, vitamins A and E, and higher calories than foremilk, feeding only hindmilk initially and reserving foremilk for later are practiced in some neonatal intensive care units. This study investigated the difference in peptide profiles, predicted milk protease activities, and bioactive peptides between foremilk and hindmilk...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154467/central-and-peripheral-leptin-and-agouti-related-protein-during-and-after-pregnancy-in-relation-to-weight-change
#14
Ulrika Andersson Hall, Pernilla Svedin, Ulf Andreasson, Magnus Gren, Ameli Ingemansson, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Aurimantas Pelanis, Carina Mallard, Agneta Holmäng
OBJECTIVE: To study changes of neuropeptides and adipokines in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum from pregnancy to post-pregnancy in relation to weight changes, fat mass and glucose metabolism. CONTEXT: With high postpartum weight retention being a risk factor in future pregnancies and of life-long obesity we evaluated neuropeptide and adipokine changes in women who either gained weight or were weight stable. DESIGN: Women were followed for 5±1 years after pregnancy and divided into two groups, Weight-Stable and Weight-Gain, by weight change from start of pregnancy...
November 20, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153160/a-100-year-review-calf-nutrition-and-management
#15
A F Kertz, T M Hill, J D Quigley, A J Heinrichs, J G Linn, J K Drackley
The first calf paper, published in the May 1919 issue of the Journal of Dairy Science (JDS), described factors affecting birth body weight of different breeds of calves. Other studies were done on nonmilk ingredients, growth charts were developed, and early weaning was followed to conserve milk fed to calves. Calf papers did not report use of statistics to control or record variation or to determine whether treatment means were different. Many experiments were more observational than comparative. Typically fewer than 5 calves, and sometimes 1 or 2 calves, were used per treatment...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121639/a-subset-of-sweet-sensing-neurons-identified-by-ir56d-are-necessary-and-sufficient-for-fatty-acid-taste
#16
John M Tauber, Elizabeth B Brown, Yuanyuan Li, Maria E Yurgel, Pavel Masek, Alex C Keene
Fat represents a calorically potent food source that yields approximately twice the amount of energy as carbohydrates or proteins per unit of mass. The highly palatable taste of free fatty acids (FAs), one of the building blocks of fat, promotes food consumption, activates reward circuitry, and is thought to contribute to hedonic feeding underlying many metabolism-related disorders. Despite a role in the etiology of metabolic diseases, little is known about how dietary fats are detected by the gustatory system to promote feeding...
November 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108066/estimates-of-genetic-parameters-genetic-trends-and-inbreeding-in-a-crossbred-dairy-sheep-research-flock-in-the-united-states
#17
T W Murphy, Y M Berger, P W Holman, M Baldin, R L Burgett, D L Thomas
For the past 2 decades, the Spooner Agriculture Research Station (ARS) of the University of Wisconsin-Madison operated the only dairy sheep research flock in North America. The objectives of the present study were to 1) obtain estimates of genetic parameters for lactation and reproductive traits in dairy ewes, 2) estimate the amount of genetic change in these traits over time, and 3) quantify the level of inbreeding in this flock over the last 20 yr. Multiple-trait repeatability models (MTRM) were used to analyze ewe traits through their first 6 parities...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089844/cheese-as-functional-food-the-example-of-parmigiano-reggiano-and-grana-padano
#18
REVIEW
Andrea Summer, Paolo Formaggioni, Piero Franceschi, Federica Di Frangia, Federico Righi, Massimo Malacarne
Italian hard cooked types of cheese, like Parmigiano Reggiano and Grana Padano, are characterised by positive nutritional qualities. In fact, they contain substances that have particular biological activities, and therefore they can be fully considered, according to the definition given by the European Unit, as 'functional' foods. This short review concisely describes these components and the beneficial effects related to their activities. The description of the biologically active components has been organised in the following paragraphs: protein and peptides, fat and lipids, carbohydrates and prebiotics, probiotic bacteria, vitamins, mineral salts, and components of dairy products active in disease prevention...
September 2017: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072166/effect-of-an-intradialytic-protein-rich-meal-intake-in-nutritional-and-body-composition-parameters-on-hemodialysis-patients
#19
Cristina Caetano, Ana Valente, Francisco Jorge Silva, Jorge Antunes, Cristina Garagarza
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Protein intake is a key point to maintain an adequate nutritional status in hemodialysis (HD) patients. There are some studies that confirm the positive influence of intradialytic oral nutritional supplementation in several nutritional parameters in HD patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an intradialytic protein rich meal in nutritional and body composition parameters on HD patients. METHODS: This was a 6-months single center non-randomized study with 99 patients in HD from one Nephrocare dialysis unit in Portugal...
August 2017: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068397/diet-quality-associated-with-total-sodium-intake-among-us-adults-aged-%C3%A2-18-years-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2009-2012
#20
Carla I Mercado, Mary E Cogswell, Cria G Perrine, Cathleen Gillespie
Diet quality or macronutrient composition of total daily sodium intake (dNa) <2300 mg/day in the United States (US) is unknown. Using data from 2011-2014 NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey), we examined 24-h dietary recalls (n = 10,142) from adults aged ≥18 years and investigated how diet composition and quality are associated with dNa. Diet quality was assessed using components of macronutrients and Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010). Associations were tested using linear regression analysis adjusted for total energy (kcal), age, gender, and race/ethnicity...
October 25, 2017: Nutrients
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