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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202779/fasting-mimicking-diet-and-markers-risk-factors-for-aging-diabetes-cancer-and-cardiovascular-disease
#1
Min Wei, Sebastian Brandhorst, Mahshid Shelehchi, Hamed Mirzaei, Chia Wei Cheng, Julia Budniak, Susan Groshen, Wendy J Mack, Esra Guen, Stefano Di Biase, Pinchas Cohen, Todd E Morgan, Tanya Dorff, Kurt Hong, Andreas Michalsen, Alessandro Laviano, Valter D Longo
Calorie restriction or changes in dietary composition can enhance healthy aging, but the inability of most subjects to adhere to chronic and extreme diets, as well as potentially adverse effects, limits their application. We randomized 100 generally healthy participants from the United States into two study arms and tested the effects of a fasting-mimicking diet (FMD)-low in calories, sugars, and protein but high in unsaturated fats-on markers/risk factors associated with aging and age-related diseases. We compared subjects who followed 3 months of an unrestricted diet to subjects who consumed the FMD for 5 consecutive days per month for 3 months...
February 15, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202015/variant-discovery-in-the-sheep-milk-transcriptome-using-rna-sequencing
#2
Aroa Suárez-Vega, Beatriz Gutiérrez-Gil, Christophe Klopp, Gwenola Tosser-Klopp, Juan José Arranz
BACKGROUND: The identification of genetic variation underlying desired phenotypes is one of the main challenges of current livestock genetic research. High-throughput transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) offers new opportunities for the detection of transcriptome variants (SNPs and short indels) in different tissues and species. In this study, we used RNA-Seq on Milk Sheep Somatic Cells (MSCs) with the goal of characterizing the genetic variation within the coding regions of the milk transcriptome in Churra and Assaf sheep, two common dairy sheep breeds farmed in Spain...
February 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191503/differences-in-gut-metabolites-and-microbial-composition-and-functions-between-egyptian-and-u-s-children-are-consistent-with-their-diets
#3
V Shankar, M Gouda, J Moncivaiz, A Gordon, N V Reo, L Hussein, O Paliy
Previous studies indicated that populations consuming a Mediterranean diet rich in fiber, vegetables, and fruits have a significantly lower risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases than populations of industrialized societies consuming diets enriched in processed carbohydrates, animal proteins, and fats. To explore the potential contributions of gut microbiota to the observed diet-related metabolic effects, we conducted an integrative analysis of distal gut microbiota composition and functions and intestinal metabolites in Egyptian and U...
January 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183305/controlling-of-growth-performance-lipid-deposits-and-fatty-acid-composition-of-chicken-meat-through-a-probiotic-lactobacillus-johnsonii-during-subclinical-clostridium-perfringens-infection
#4
Hesong Wang, Xueqin Ni, Lei Liu, Dong Zeng, Jing Lai, Xiaodan Qing, Guangyao Li, Kangcheng Pan, Bo Jing
BACKGROUND: Meat is considered as a major source of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) which is essential for humans, therefore its lipid level and fatty acid composition have drawn great attention. As no clinical sign can be found in chicks subclinically infected by Clostridium perfringens (CP), the meat may be purchased and eaten. The objective of the present study was to determine whether Lactobacillus johnsonii (LJ) can control the CP-caused impact on growth, lipid levels, fatty acid composition and other flavor or nutritional quality in the meat...
February 10, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183166/production-responses-of-holstein-dairy-cows-when-fed-supplemental-fat-containing-saturated-free-fatty-acids-a-meta-analysis
#5
Wenping Hu, Jacquelyn P Boerman, James M Aldrich
Objective: A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplemental fat containing saturated free fatty acids (FA) on milk performance of Holstein dairy cows. Methods: A database was developed from 21 studies published between 1991 and 2016 that included 502 dairy cows and a total of 29-30 comparisons between dietary treatment and control without fat supplementation. Only saturated free FA (> 80% of total FA) was considered as the supplemental fat...
February 1, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161167/ability-of-dairy-cows-to-ensure-pregnancy-according-to-breed-and-genetic-merit-for-production-traits-under-contrasted-pasture-based-systems
#6
N Bedere, C Disenhaus, V Ducrocq, S Leurent-Colette, L Delaby
The present study aimed to assess and measure the effects of breed, genetic merit for production traits, and feeding systems (FS) on the ability of dairy cows to ensure pregnancy through its components (fertilization, embryonic losses, recalving). An experiment was conducted over 9 yr on Normande and Holstein cows assigned to contrasted FS. Diets were based on maize silage in winter and grazing plus concentrate in spring in the high FS group, and on grass silage in winter and grazing with no concentrate during spring in the low FS group...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109597/weather-influences-feed-intake-and-feed-efficiency-in-a-temperate-climate
#7
Davina L Hill, Eileen Wall
A key goal for livestock science is to ensure that food production meets the needs of an increasing global population. Climate change may heighten this challenge through increases in mean temperatures and in the intensity, duration, and spatial distribution of extreme weather events, such as heat waves. Under high ambient temperatures, livestock are expected to decrease dry matter intake (DMI) to reduce their metabolic heat production. High yielding dairy cows require high DMI to support their levels of milk production, but this may increase susceptibility to heat stress...
March 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109596/genotype-by-environment-climate-interaction-improves-genomic-prediction-for-production-traits-in-us-holstein-cattle
#8
F Tiezzi, G de Los Campos, K L Parker Gaddis, C Maltecca
Genotype by environment interaction (G × E) in dairy cattle productive traits has been shown to exist, but current genetic evaluation methods do not take this component into account. As several environmental descriptors (e.g., climate, farming system) are known to vary within the United States, not accounting for the G × E could lead to reranking of bulls and loss in genetic gain. Using test-day records on milk yield, somatic cell score, fat, and protein percentage from all over the United States, we computed within herd-year-season daughter yield deviations for 1,087 Holstein bulls and regressed them on genetic and environmental information to estimate variance components and to assess prediction accuracy...
March 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107380/novel-tools-in-determining-the-physiological-demands-and-nutritional-practices-of-ontario-firerangers-during-fire-deployments
#9
A H Robertson, C Larivière, C R Leduc, Z McGillis, T Eger, A Godwin, M Larivière, S C Dorman
INTRODUCTION: The seasonal profession of wildland fire fighting in Canada requires individuals to work in harsh environmental conditions that are physically demanding. The purpose of this study was to use novel technologies to evaluate the physiological demands and nutritional practices of Canadian FireRangers during fire deployments. METHODS: Participants (n = 21) from a northern Ontario Fire Base volunteered for this study and data collection occurred during the 2014 fire season and included Initial Attack (IA), Project Fire (P), and Fire Base (B) deployments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100882/efficient-fractionation-and-analysis-of-fatty-acids-and-their-salts-in-fat-oil-and-grease-fog-deposits
#10
Herman P Benecke, Sara K Allen, Daniel B Garbark
A fractionation methodology of fat, oil and grease (FOG) deposits was developed based on the insolubility of fatty acid salts in dichloromethane (DCM) and the relatively high solubility of fatty acids and triglycerides in DCM. Using this method, coupled with spectral analysis, it was shown that fatty acids rather than fatty acid salts were the predominant species in FOG deposits obtained from three metropolitan locations in the United States and that fatty acid triglycerides were either not detected or were present in very small concentrations...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093985/ketogenic-diet-and-other-dietary-intervention-strategies-in-the-treatment-of-cancer
#11
Matteo Vergati, Eriseld Krasniqi, Girolamo Del Monte, Silvia Riondino, Doriana Vallone, Fiorella Guadagni, Patrizia Ferroni, Mario Roselli
Pre-clinical and clinical studies have investigated the role of a dysregulated metabolism in the sustainability of tumor initiation and progression. One of the most familiar metabolic alterations encountered in several types of cancers is the upregulation of glycolysis, which is also maintained in conditions of normal oxygen tension (aerobic glycolysis, Warburg effect) while oxidative phosphorylation is apparently reduced. As a result, cancer cells convert most incoming glucose to lactate. Although more rapid, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production by glycolysis is less efficient in terms of ATP generated per unit of glucose consumed than oxidative phosphorylation...
January 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056770/genetic-architecture-of-kernel-composition-in-global-sorghum-germplasm
#12
Davina H Rhodes, Leo Hoffmann, William L Rooney, Thomas J Herald, Scott Bean, Richard Boyles, Zachary W Brenton, Stephen Kresovich
BACKGROUND: Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an important cereal crop for dryland areas in the United States and for small-holder farmers in Africa. Natural variation of sorghum grain composition (protein, fat, and starch) between accessions can be used for crop improvement, but the genetic controls are still unresolved. The goals of this study were to quantify natural variation of sorghum grain composition and to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with variation in grain composition concentrations...
January 5, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045202/raw-mechanically-separated-chicken-meat-and-salmon-protein-hydrolysate-as-protein-sources-in-extruded-dog-food-effect-on-protein-and-amino-acid-digestibility
#13
M T Tjernsbekk, A-H Tauson, O F Kraugerud, Ø Ahlstrøm
Protein quality was evaluated for mechanically separated chicken meat (MSC) and salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH), and for extruded dog foods where MSC or SPH partially replaced poultry meal (PM). Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in the protein ingredients and extruded foods was determined with mink (Neovison vison). The extruded dog foods included a control diet with protein from PM and grain, and two diets where MSC or SPH provided 25% of the dietary CP. Nutrient composition of the protein ingredients varied, dry matter (DM) was 944...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988117/technical-note-mammary-gland-ultrasonography-to-evaluate-mammary-parenchymal-composition-in-prepubertal-heifers
#14
R L Albino, S E F Guimarães, K M Daniels, M M S Fontes, A F Machado, G B Dos Santos, M I Marcondes
Bovine mammary gland development studies are often terminal or involve invasive biopsy procedures. Therefore, noninvasive means of assessing mammary development should be considered as alternative methods in live animals. The objective was to test if mammary ultrasonography can be used as a noninvasive way to estimate mammary parenchyma (PAR) composition in prepubertal dairy heifers with different average daily body weight gains. In the 84 d preceding, the ultrasound exam heifers were maintained in 1 of 3 treatment groups...
February 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988114/lactation-and-body-composition-responses-to-fat-and-protein-supplies-during-the-dry-period-in-under-conditioned-dairy-cows
#15
G Jaurena, J M Moorby
An experiment was designed to study the effect of precalving supplementation with protein (Pr) and rumen-inert fat (F) on body composition and subsequent milk production and composition. Forty Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments in the dry period (DP) based on a first-cut ryegrass silage, with 6 mature (in their third or greater pregnancy) and 4 young (in their second pregnancy) cows per treatment. These were low Pr, low F (silage alone); low Pr, high F (silage with 10% rumen-inert fat, mixed on a dry matter basis); high Pr, low F [silage with 5% high-protein corn gluten meal (CGM)]; and high Pr, high F (silage with 5% CGM and 10% rumen-inert fat)...
February 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966307/the-effects-of-sebum-configuration-on-demodex-spp-density
#16
Hatice Gamze Demirdağ, Hamdi Özcan, Şule Gürsoy, Gülçin Beker Akbulut
BACKGROUND/AIM: Demodex spp. are ectoparasites living in the pilosebaceous units, which feed on the host's sebum and cellular proteins. The protective barrier of the skin consists of sebum secretion, moisture, and the acid mantle. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of skin sebum, moisture, pH levels, and sebum configuration on Demodex spp. density. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-five patients who had demodicosis were enrolled in the study group, while the control group consisted of 40 subjects without demodicosis...
November 17, 2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939533/effect-of-incomplete-milking-on-milk-production-rate-and-composition-with-2-daily-milkings
#17
J F Penry, E L Endres, B de Bruijn, A Kleinhans, P M Crump, D J Reinemann, L L Hernandez
The primary aim of this study was to assess the effects of incomplete milking on milk secretion and milk composition at the quarter level. Twelve cows were enrolled beginning at 5 d in milk and remained on study through 47 d in milk. Half of each contralateral udder was incompletely milked (treatment), detaching the teat cup early to leave approximately 30% of the total milk yield behind. This target milk remaining in the gland was based on weekly calibration milking measurements of quarter total milk yield...
February 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915341/rs1501299-polymorphism-in-the-adiponectin-gene-and-their-association-with-total-adiponectin-levels-insulin-resistance-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-obese-subjects
#18
Daniel Antonio de Luis, Olatz Izaola, Beatriz de la Fuente, David Primo, Hilda Fernandez Ovalle, Enrique Romero
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the association of single nucleotide polymorphism rs1501299 in the ADIPOQ gene with body weight, insulin resistance, serum adipokine levels and metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: The study involved a population of 1,007 adult obese subjects. Parameters like body weight, fat mass, waist circumferences, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, C-reactive protein, insulin concentration, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipid profile and adipocytokines levels (leptin, adiponectin and resistin) were all measured...
2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910786/bioavailability-and-digestibility-of-nutrients-from-the-dried-oyster-culinary-medicinal-mushroom-pleurotus-ostreatus-agaricomycetes-in-vivo-experiments
#19
Julita Regula, Joanna Suliburska, Marek Siwulski
There is a limited number of publications on the bioavailability and digestibility of nutrients contained in macrofungi. The aim of this study was to assess the bioavailability and digestibility of macronutrients using in vivo experiments on laboratory animals. The experiments were conducted with the commercial oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. Semisynthetic diets were prepared based on the modified AIN-93M diet and were supplemented with 4% and 8% mushroom powder. Between days 4 and 13, apparent digestibility indexes were determined for all animals using the conventional balance method...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898907/apparent-total-tract-macronutrient-digestibility-fecal-characteristics-and-fecal-fermentative-end-product-concentrations-of-healthy-adult-dogs-fed-bioprocessed-soy-protein
#20
A N Beloshapka, M R C de Godoy, K B Detweiler, M Newcomb, K H Ellegård, G C Fahey, K S Swanson
Animal proteins are commonly used in extruded dog foods. Plant-based proteins have a more consistent nutrient profile than animal sources but may contain antinutritional factors, including trypsin inhibitors and oligosaccharides. Bioprocessed soy protein (SP; HP-300; Hamlet Protein, Inc., Findlay, OH) is a processed soy-based product with low antinutritional factor concentrations and high protein quality. The objective was to evaluate the effects of SP on apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end products...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
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