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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915341/rs1501299-polymorphism-in-the-adiponectin-gene-and-their-association-with-total-adiponectin-levels-insulin-resistance-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-obese-subjects
#1
Daniel Antonio de Luis, Olatz Izaola, Beatriz de la Fuente, David Primo, Hilda Fernandez Ovalle, Enrique Romero
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the association of single nucleotide polymorphism rs1501299 in the ADIPOQ gene with body weight, insulin resistance, serum adipokine levels and metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: The study involved a population of 1,007 adult obese subjects. Parameters like body weight, fat mass, waist circumferences, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, C-reactive protein, insulin concentration, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipid profile and adipocytokines levels (leptin, adiponectin and resistin) were all measured...
December 3, 2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910786/bioavailability-and-digestibility-of-nutrients-from-the-dried-oyster-culinary-medicinal-mushroom-pleurotus-ostreatus-agaricomycetes-in-vivo-experiments
#2
Julita Regula, Joanna Suliburska, Marek Siwulski
There is a limited number of publications on the bioavailability and digestibility of nutrients contained in macrofungi. The aim of this study was to assess the bioavailability and digestibility of macronutrients using in vivo experiments on laboratory animals. The experiments were conducted with the commercial oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. Semisynthetic diets were prepared based on the modified AIN-93M diet and were supplemented with 4% and 8% mushroom powder. Between days 4 and 13, apparent digestibility indexes were determined for all animals using the conventional balance method...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898907/apparent-total-tract-macronutrient-digestibility-fecal-characteristics-and-fecal-fermentative-end-product-concentrations-of-healthy-adult-dogs-fed-bioprocessed-soy-protein
#3
A N Beloshapka, M R C de Godoy, K B Detweiler, M Newcomb, K H Ellegård, G C Fahey, K S Swanson
Animal proteins are commonly used in extruded dog foods. Plant-based proteins have a more consistent nutrient profile than animal sources but may contain antinutritional factors, including trypsin inhibitors and oligosaccharides. Bioprocessed soy protein (SP; HP-300; Hamlet Protein, Inc., Findlay, OH) is a processed soy-based product with low antinutritional factor concentrations and high protein quality. The objective was to evaluate the effects of SP on apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end products...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898877/effects-of-full-fat-or-defatted-rice-bran-on-growth-performance-and-blood-characteristics-of-weanling-pigs
#4
G A Casas, H H Stein
The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of increased concentrations of full fat rice bran (FFRB) or defatted rice bran (DFRB) in diets without or with supplementation of an exogenous xylanase on growth performance and blood characteristics in weanling pigs. A total of 532 pigs (9.3 ± 0.5 kg initial BW) were allotted to 14 diets in 4 blocks and 8 replicate pens per diet in a randomized complete block design. There were 4 or 5 pigs per pen. A basal diet containing corn, soybean meal, and whey powder and 6 diets containing corn, soybean meal, whey powder, and 10, 20, or 30% FFRB or 10, 20, or 30% DFRB were used...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898678/leukocyte-telomere-length-in-relation-to-17-biomarkers-of-cardiovascular-disease-risk-a-cross-sectional-study-of-us-adults
#5
David H Rehkopf, Belinda L Needham, Jue Lin, Elizabeth H Blackburn, Ami R Zota, Janet M Wojcicki, Elissa S Epel
BACKGROUND: Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a putative biological marker of immune system age, and there are demonstrated associations between LTL and cardiovascular disease. This may be due in part to the relationship of LTL with other biomarkers associated with cardiovascular disease risk. However, the strength of associations between LTL and adiposity, metabolic, proinflammatory, and cardiovascular biomarkers has not been systematically evaluated in a United States nationally representative population...
November 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881409/intake-of-individual-saturated-fatty-acids-and-risk-of-coronary-heart-disease-in-us-men-and-women-two-prospective-longitudinal-cohort-studies
#6
Geng Zong, Yanping Li, Anne J Wanders, Marjan Alssema, Peter L Zock, Walter C Willett, Frank B Hu, Qi Sun
OBJECTIVES:  To investigate the association between long term intake of individual saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and the risk of coronary heart disease, in two large cohort studies. DESIGN:  Prospective, longitudinal cohort study. SETTING:  Health professionals in the United States. PARTICIPANTS:  73 147 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2012) and 42 635 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2010), who were free of major chronic diseases at baseline...
November 23, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820852/osteoarthritis-in-the-knee-joints-of-g%C3%A3-ttingen-minipigs-after-resection-of-the-anterior-cruciate-ligament-missing-correlation-of-mri-gene-and-protein-expression-with-histological-scoring
#7
Gregor Reisig, Michael Kreinest, Wiltrud Richter, Mechthild Wagner-Ecker, Dietmar Dinter, Ulrike Attenberger, Barbara Schneider-Wald, Stefan Fickert, Markus L Schwarz
INTRODUCTION: The Göttingen Minipig (GM) is used as large animal model in articular cartilage research. The aim of the study was to introduce osteoarthritis (OA) in the GM by resecting the anterior cruciate ligament (ACLR) according to Pond and Nuki, verified by histological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scoring as well as analysis of gene and protein expression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The eight included skeletally mature female GM were assessed after ACLR in the left and a sham operation in the right knee, which served as control...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820654/the-consistency-in-macronutrient-oxidation-and-the-role-for-epinephrine-in-the-response-to-fasting-and-overfeeding
#8
Karyne Lima Vinales, Mathias Schlögl, Paolo Piaggi, Maximilian Hohenadel, Alexis Graham, Susan Bonfiglio, Jonathan Krakoff, Marie S Thearle
CONTEXT: In humans, dietary versus intra-individual determinants of macronutrient oxidation preference and the role of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) during short-term overfeeding and fasting are unclear. OBJECTIVE: To understand the influence of diet and the SNS during 24-h of overfeeding on metabolic changes. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: While residing on a clinical research unit, 64 participants with normal glucose regulation were assessed during energy balance, fasting, and four 24-h overfeeding diets, given in random order...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816854/diet-quality-is-associated-with-mental-health-social-support-and-neighborhood-factors-among-veterans
#9
Katherine D Hoerster, Sarah Wilson, Karin M Nelson, Gayle E Reiber, Robin M Masheb
United States Veterans have a higher prevalence of overweight and related chronic conditions compared to the general population. Although diet is a primary and modifiable contributor to these conditions, little is known about factors influencing diet quality among Veterans. The goal of this study is to examine individual, social environment, and physical environment correlates of general diet quality among Veterans. Study participants (N=653) received care at an urban VA Medical Center in Seattle, WA and completed a mailed survey in 2012 and 2013...
December 2016: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801820/a-comparison-of-nutritional-antioxidant-content-in-breast-milk-donor-milk-and-infant-formulas
#10
Corrine Hanson, Elizabeth Lyden, Jeremy Furtado, Matthew Van Ormer, Ann Anderson-Berry
Human milk is the optimal food for human infants, including infants born prematurely. In the event that a mother of a hospitalized infant cannot provide breast milk, donor milk is considered an acceptable alternative. It is known that the macronutrient composition of donor milk is different than human milk, with variable fat content and protein content. However, much less is known about the micronutrient content of donor milk, including nutritional antioxidants. Samples of breast milk from 12 mothers of infants hospitalized in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit until were collected and analyzed for concentrations of nutritional antioxidants, including α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein + zeaxanthin, retinol, and α-tocopherol...
October 28, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794543/effect-of-different-protein-ingredients-on-performance-egg-quality-organ-health-and-jejunum-morphology-of-laying-hens
#11
X C Wang, H J Zhang, H Wang, H Y Yue, J Wang, S G Wu, G H Qi
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different protein ingredients on performance, egg quality, organ health, and jejunum morphology of laying hens. A total of 216 32-wk-old Hy-Line W36 laying hens with similar egg production was randomly divided into 3 treatment groups with 6 replicates of 12 birds each. The experimental diets were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 2 655 kcal/kg) and isonitrogenous (crude protein, 16.5%). The control group was fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet (SBM), and the other 2 experimental diets consisted of a basal diet with 195...
October 28, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788523/association-of-neuropeptide-y-gene-rs16147-polymorphism-with-cardiovascular-risk-factors-adipokines-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-patients-with-obesity
#12
Daniel Antonio de Luis, Olatz Izaola, Beatriz de la Fuente, David Primo, Rocio Aller
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The NPY gene has 4 exons, and it is located at 7p15.1. The main genetic variant described in this gene is rs16147. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of NPY rs16147 with body weight, insulin resistance, serum adipokine levels, and risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: A population of 1,005 obese patients was analyzed in a cross-sectional survey. Weight, fat mass, waist circumference, blood pressure, basal glucose, C-reactive protein, insulin, insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]), lipid profile, and adipocytokine (leptin, adiponectin, and resistin) levels were measured...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780310/impacts-of-scarification-and-degermination-on-the-expansion-characteristics-of-select-quinoa-varieties-during-extrusion-processing
#13
Nicole A Aluwi, Bon-Jae Gu, Gaurav S Dhumal, Ilce G Medina-Meza, Kevin M Murphy, Girish M Ganjyal
Extrusion of 2 quinoa varieties, Cherry Vanilla and Black (scarified and unscarified) and a mixed quinoa variety, Bolivian Royal (scarified and degermed) were studied for their extrusion characteristics. A corotating twin-screw extruder with a 3 mm round die was used. Feed moisture contents of 15%, 20%, and 25% (wet basis) were studied. The extruder barrel temperature was kept constant at 140 °C and screw speeds were varied from 100, 150, and 200 revolutions per minutes. Process responses (specific mechanical energy, back pressure, and torque) and product responses (expansion ratio, unit density, and water absorption index/water solubility index) were evaluated...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756237/dietary-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-incidence-of-end-stage-renal-disease-in-the-southern-community-cohort-study
#14
Rakesh Malhotra, Kerri L Cavanaugh, William J Blot, T Alp Ikizler, Loren Lipworth, Edmond K Kabagambe
BACKGROUND: Whether polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are associated with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in populations with a high burden of risk factors for kidney disease is unknown. We sought to determine whether PUFA intake is associated with ESRD. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study of ESRD within the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS), a prospective cohort of low-income blacks and whites in the southeastern US (2002-2009). Through 2012, 1,074 incident ESRD cases were identified by linkage with the United States Renal Data System and matched to 3,230 controls by age, sex and race...
October 18, 2016: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743674/the-effect-of-spray-drying-parameters-on-the-flavor-of-nonfat-dry-milk-and-milk-protein-concentrate-70
#15
Curtis W Park, Mark A Stout, MaryAnne Drake
Unit operations during production influence the sensory properties of nonfat dry milk (NFDM) and milk protein concentrate (MPC). Off-flavors in dried dairy ingredients decrease consumer acceptance of ingredient applications. Previous work has shown that spray-drying parameters affect physical and sensory properties of whole milk powder and whey protein concentrate. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of inlet temperature and feed solids concentration on the flavor of NFDM and MPC 70% (MPC70)...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706704/chemical-and-genetic-diversity-of-high-seed-yield-sorghum-sorghum-bicolor-m-germplasms
#16
J Ryu, S B Im, S J Kwon, J W Ahn, S W Jeong, S Y Kang
This study evaluated the chemical and genetic diversity of high-seed-yield sorghum germplasms from Korea, the United States, and South Africa. We identified significant differences in the chemical contents of whole plants at the heading stage in all cultivars, including differences in crude protein, fat, fiber, ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, mineral, and fatty acid contents. Our results suggest that Banwoldang is the most appropriate cultivar for roughage because of its high protein yield...
September 2, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684560/methods-of-milk-expression-for-lactating-women
#17
Genevieve E Becker, Hazel A Smith, Fionnuala Cooney
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is important, however not all infants can feed at the breast and methods of expressing milk need evaluation. OBJECTIVES: To assess acceptability, effectiveness, safety, effect on milk composition, contamination and costs of methods of milk expression. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (21 March 2016), handsearched relevant journals and conference proceedings, and contacted experts in the field to seek additional published or unpublished studies...
September 29, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677271/ultrastructural-and-immunocytochemical-evidence-for-the-reorganisation-of-the-milk-fat-globule-membrane-after-secretion
#18
F B Peter Wooding, Ian H Mather
This paper reports a detailed ultrastructural and immunocytochemical investigation of the structure of the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) in a variety of species. The process follows the same pattern in all mammals so far investigated. The initial (or primary) MFGM immediately on release from the mammary cell is a continuous unit membrane with a thin underlying layer of cytoplasmic origin and a monolayer of phospholipid separating it from the core lipid. This structure changes rapidly as the milk fat globule (MFG) moves into the alveolar lumen...
September 27, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660702/influence-of-main-dietary-chemical-constituents-on-the-in-vitro-gas-and-methane-production-in-diets-for-dairy-cows
#19
Laura Maccarana, Mirko Cattani, Franco Tagliapietra, Lucia Bailoni, Stefano Schiavon
BACKGROUND: Modification of chemical composition of diets fed to dairy cows might be a good strategy to reduce methane (CH4) production in the rumen. Notable reductions of CH4 production compared to conventional high-roughages rations were more frequently observed for very concentrated diets or when fat supplements were used. In these cases, the reduction in the gas emission was mainly a consequence of an overall impairment of rumen function with a reduction of fiber digestibility. These strategies do not always comply with feeding standards used in intensive dairy farms and they are usually not applied owing to the risks of negative health and economic consequences...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632189/a-computational-model-of-hepatic-energy-metabolism-understanding-zonated-damage-and-steatosis-in-nafld
#20
William B Ashworth, Nathan A Davies, I David L Bogle
In non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), lipid build-up and the resulting damage is known to occur more severely in pericentral cells. Due to the complexity of studying individual regions of the sinusoid, the causes of this zone specificity and its implications on treatment are largely ignored. In this study, a computational model of liver glucose and lipid metabolism is presented which treats the sinusoid as the repeating unit of the liver rather than the single hepatocyte. This allows for inclusion of zonated enzyme expression by splitting the sinusoid into periportal to pericentral compartments...
September 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
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