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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212629/cardiometabolic-risk-in-a-population-of-older-adults-with-multiple-co-morbidities-in-rural-south-africa-the-haalsi-health-and-aging-in-africa-longitudinal-studies-of-indepth-communities-study
#1
Thomas A Gaziano, Shafika Abrahams-Gessel, F Xavier Gomez-Olive, Alisha Wade, Nigel J Crowther, Sartaj Alam, Jennifer Manne-Goehler, Chodziwadziwa W Kabudula, Ryan Wagner, Julia Rohr, Livia Montana, Kathleen Kahn, Till W Bärnighausen, Lisa F Berkman, Stephen Tollman
BACKGROUND: A consequence of the widespread uptake of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) is that the older South African population will experience an increase in life expectancy, increasing their risk for cardiometabolic diseases (CMD), and its risk factors. The long-term interactions between HIV infection, treatment, and CMD remain to be elucidated in the African population. The HAALSI cohort was established to investigate the impact of these interactions on CMD morbidity and mortality among middle-aged and older adults...
February 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209523/tb-iris-proteomic-analysis-of-in-vitro-pbmc-responses-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-response-modulation-by-dexamethasone
#2
Liam Bell, Janique M Peyper, Shaun Garnett, Rabecca Tadokera, Robert Wilkinson, Graeme Meintjes, Jonathan M Blackburn
Paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) occurs in 8-54% of South African patients undergoing treatment for tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus co-infection. Improved TB-IRIS molecular pathogenesis understanding would enhance risk stratification, diagnosis, prognostication, and treatment. We assessed how TB-IRIS status and dexamethasone influence leukocyte proteomic responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Patient blood was obtained three weeks post-anti-retroviral therapy initiation...
February 13, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194585/prevalence-and-associations-of-psychological-distress-hiv-infection-and-hiv-care-service-utilization-in-east-zimbabwe
#3
Malebogo Tlhajoane, Jeffrey W Eaton, Albert Takaruza, Rebecca Rhead, Rufurwokuda Maswera, Nadine Schur, Lorraine Sherr, Constance Nyamukapa, Simon Gregson
The correlation between mental health and sexual risk behaviours for HIV infection remains largely unknown in low and middle income settings. The present study determined the prevalence of psychological distress (PD) in a sub-Saharan African population with a generalized HIV epidemic, and investigated associations with HIV acquisition risk and uptake of HIV services using data from a cross-sectional survey of 13,252 adults. PD was measured using the Shona Symptom Questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to measure associations between PD and hypothesized covariates...
February 13, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176231/prevalence-of-asymptomatic-microalbuminuria-in-hiv-positive-children-in-india
#4
Gorav Sharma, Sheila S Mathai
OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of covert or early renal involvement among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive children. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study was carried out on 250 HIV positive children (2-18 y) on follow-up in a tertiary care hospital from January 2014 through June 2015. Those who met the study criteria were evaluated for microalbuminuria and glomerular and tubular dysfunctions. RESULTS: Fifty-one out of two hundred fifty (20%) children were found to have microalbuminuria though none had any other evidence of renal dysfunction...
February 8, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173763/risk-factors-for-poor-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-treatment-outcomes-in-kyiv-oblast-ukraine
#5
Omowunmi Aibana, Mariya Bachmaha, Viatcheslav Krasiuk, Natasha Rybak, Timothy P Flanigan, Vasyl Petrenko, Megan B Murray
BACKGROUND: Ukraine is among ten countries with the highest burden of multidrug- resistant TB (MDR-TB) worldwide. Treatment success rates for MDR-TB in Ukraine remain below global success rates as reported by the World Health Organization. Few studies have evaluated predictors of poor MDR-TB outcomes in Ukraine. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients initiated on MDR-TB treatment in the Kyiv Oblast of Ukraine between January 01, 2012 and March 31st, 2015...
February 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170410/disclosure-of-hiv-status-and-its-impact-on-the-loss-in-the-follow-up-of-hiv-infected-patients-on-potent-anti-retroviral-therapy-programs-in-a-post-conflict-setting-a-retrospective-cohort-study-from-goma-democratic-republic-of-congo
#6
Pierre Zalagile Akilimali, Patou Masika Musumari, Espérance Kashala-Abotnes, Patrick Kalambayi Kayembe, François B Lepira, Paulin Beya Mutombo, Thorkild Tylleskar, Mapatano Mala Ali
BACKGROUND: The study aimed to identify the impact of non-disclosure of HIV status on the loss to follow-up (LTFU) of patients receiving anti-retroviral therapy. METHODOLOGY: A historic cohort of HIV patients from 2 major hospitals in Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo was followed from 2004 to 2012. LTFU was defined as not taking an ART refill for a period of 3 months or longer since the last attendance, and had not yet been classified as 'dead' or 'transferred-out'...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162034/persons-living-with-hiv-infection-on-antiretroviral-therapy-also-consulting-traditional-healers-a-study-in-three-african-countries
#7
Jane N Wanyama, Sharon Tsui, Cynthia Kwok, Rhoda K Wanyenze, Julie A Denison, Olivier Koole, Eric van Praag, Barbara Castelnuovo, Fred Wabwire-Mangen, Gideon P Kwesigabo, Robert Colebunders
Traditional healers provide healthcare to a substantial proportion of people living with HIV infection (PLHIV) in high HIV burden countries in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the impact on the health of retained patients visiting traditional healers is unknown. In 2011, a study to asses adherence to anti-retroviral therapy (ART) performed in 18 purposefully selected HIV treatment centers in Tanzania, Zambia and Uganda showed that 'consulting a traditional healer/herbalist because of HIV' was an independent risk factor for incomplete ART adherence...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160272/suboptimal-exposure-to-anti-tb-drugs-in-a-tbm-hiv-population-is-not-related-to-anti-retroviral-therapy
#8
M E Török, G Aljayyoussi, D Waterhouse, Tth Chau, Nth Mai, N H Phu, T T Hien, W Hope, J J Farrar, S A Ward
A placebo-controlled trial that compares the outcomes of immediate versus deferred initiation of antiretroviral therapy in HIV+ve Tuberculous Meningitis (TBM) patients was conducted in Vietnam in 2011. Here, the pharmacokinetics of Rifampicin, Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide and Ethambutol were investigated in the presence and absence of anti-HIV treatment in 85 patients. Pharmacokinetic analyses show that HIV therapy has no significant impact upon the pharmacokinetics of TB drugs in this cohort. The same population, however, displayed generally low CSF and systemic exposures to rifampicin compared to previously reported HIV -ve cohorts...
February 4, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155724/structural-analyses-of-2015-updated-drug-resistant-mutations-in-hiv-1-protease-an-implication-of-protease-inhibitor-cross-resistance
#9
Chinh Tran-To Su, Wei-Li Ling, Wai-Heng Lua, Yu-Xuan Haw, Samuel Ken-En Gan
BACKGROUND: Strategies to control HIV for improving the quality of patient lives have been aided by the Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART), which consists of a cocktail of inhibitors targeting key viral enzymes. Numerous new drugs have been developed over the past few decades but viral resistances to these drugs in the targeted viral enzymes are increasingly reported. Nonetheless the acquired mutations often reduce viral fitness and infectivity. Viral compensatory secondary-line mutations mitigate this loss of fitness, equipping the virus with a broad spectrum of resistance against these drugs...
December 22, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155037/partner-support-willingness-to-sacrifice-and-hiv-medication-self-efficacy
#10
Laura E VanderDrift, Michael Ioerger, Luke D Mitzel, Peter A Vanable
When taken as prescribed, highly active anti-retroviral medications allow individuals with HIV to live long, healthy lives. Nevertheless, poor adherence is common. In the current study, we examined why some people fail to feel efficacious to adhere, focusing on their interpersonal relationships. Given past findings that some individuals with primary partners adhere better than those without, whereas others adhere worse, we examined whether relationship dynamics influence the association between support from a primary partner and adherence self-efficacy...
February 2, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143525/designing-an-optimal-hiv-programme-for-south-africa-does-the-optimal-package-change-when-diminishing-returns-are-considered
#11
Calvin Chiu, Leigh F Johnson, Lise Jamieson, Bruce A Larson, Gesine Meyer-Rath
BACKGROUND: South Africa has a large domestically funded HIV programme with highly saturated coverage levels for most prevention and treatment interventions. To further optimise its allocative efficiency, we designed a novel optimisation method and examined whether the optimal package of interventions changes when interaction and non-linear scale-up effects are incorporated into cost-effectiveness analysis. METHODS: The conventional league table method in cost-effectiveness analysis relies on the assumption of independence between interventions...
January 31, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133801/anti-retroviral-antibody-fc%C3%AE-r-mediated-effector-functions
#12
REVIEW
Stylianos Bournazos, Jeffrey V Ravetch
The antiviral activity of antibodies reflects the bifunctional properties of these molecules. While the Fab domains mediate highly specific antigenic recognition to block virus entry, the Fc domain interacts with diverse types of Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) expressed on the surface of effector leukocytes to induce the activation of distinct immunomodulatory pathways. Fc-FcγR interactions are tightly regulated to control IgG-mediated inflammation and immunity and are largely determined by the structural heterogeneity of the IgG Fc domain, stemming from differences in the primary amino acid sequence of the various subclasses, as well as the structure and composition of the Fc-associated N-linked glycan...
January 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125026/time-to-consider-moving-beyond-exclusive-breastfeeding-in-southern-africa
#13
Janet M Wojcicki
While there have been considerable advances in the reduction of mother to child transmission of HIV (MTCT) in sub-Saharan Africa with the advance of anti-retroviral therapies (ART), there remain challenges in the late postpartum period.  Structural issues including food insecurity and stigma make better maternal ART adherence and exclusive breastfeeding unreachable for some women. There are no other scientifically researched feeding options as there have been few studies on different types of mixed feeding practices and risk of HIV infection...
January 24, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124959/-prevalence-of-human-leukocyte-antigen-hla-b-57-01-in-hiv-infected-patients
#14
Aydın Deveci, Ahmet Yılmaz Çoban, Belma Durupınar
Deaths related with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections have been decreased by the introduction of combined anti-retroviral therapy (ART) into the clinical practice. Combined ART usually consists of two nucleoside/nucleotide analogs reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) that is called backbone and a third drug that belongs to either non-nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI), protease inhibitors (PI), integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTI) or entry inhibitors. During abacavir therapy which is a member of NRTI, hypersensitivity reactions can occur approximately 4-9% of the patients that lead difficulties for the management of HIV infections...
October 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123240/emotional-and-behavioral-disturbances-in-school-going-hiv-positive-children-attending-hiv-clinic
#15
Deepak Joshi, Mithilesh K Tiwari, Venkatnarayan Kannan, S S Dalal, S S Mathai
BACKGROUND: To study the emotional and behavioral disturbances (EBD) in school going HIV positive children attending HIV center in a tertiary care hospital. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 258 HIV infected children between 6 and 16 years of age, 200 were on Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and 58 were not on ART. They were evaluated for EBD by using Pictorial Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PPSC) screening tool. A cut-off score of 28 was taken as significant for detecting early EBD...
January 2017: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122574/natural-killer-t-cells-contribute-to-the-control-of-acute-retroviral-infection
#16
Elisabeth Littwitz-Salomon, Simone Schimmer, Ulf Dittmer
BACKGROUND: Natural killer T cells (NKT cells) play an important role in the immunity against viral infections. They produce cytokines or have direct cytolytic effects that can restrict virus replication. However, the exact function of NKT cells in retroviral immunity is not fully elucidated. Therefore, we analyzed the antiretroviral functions of NKT cells in mice infected with the Friend retrovirus (FV). RESULTS: After FV infection numbers of NKT cells remained unchanged but activation as well as improved effector functions of NKT cells were found...
January 26, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121711/hepatocellular-carcinoma-an-evolving-challenge-in-viral-hepatitis-and-hiv-co-infection
#17
David J Pinato, Alessia Dalla Pria, Rohini Sharma, Mark Bower
Liver-related morbidity and mortality is expanding in people living with HIV (PLHIV). Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the third most lethal malignancy on a global scale, is a dominant complication of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis in patients with coexisting hepatitis. HIV infection further complicates the clinical heterogeneity of HCC posing concurrent challenges stemming from the underlying immunological status of the patients and the ongoing need for combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART). In this paper we review the multiple clinical implications that characterize the multidisciplinary management of HCC in the context of HIV infection...
January 24, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121709/associations-of-the-vaginal-microbiota-with-hiv-infection-bacterial-vaginosis-and-demographic-factors
#18
Christel Chehoud, Daniel J Stieh, Aubrey G Bailey, Alice L Laughlin, Shannon A Allen, Kerrie L McCotter, Scott A Sherrill-Mix, Thomas J Hope, Frederic D Bushman
OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the effects of HIV infection on the vaginal microbiota, and associations with treatment and demographic factors. We thus compared vaginal microbiome samples from HIV+ and HIV- women collected at two Chicago area hospitals. DESIGN: We studied vaginal microbiome samples from 178 women analyzed longitudinally (n = 324 samples), and collected extensive data on clinical status and demographic factors. METHODS: We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to characterize the bacterial lineages present, then UniFrac, Shannon Diversity and other measures to compare community structure to sample metadata...
January 24, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119943/kaposi-s-sarcoma-of-the-rectum-in-a-homosexual-male-with-hiv-aids
#19
Anand Kumar, Deborah Nautsch
Visceral involvement in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma is common, but it is rarely seen in the absence of cutaneous disease. Most patients with gastrointestinal tract Kaposi's sarcoma remain asymptomatic and are often diagnosed on endoscopy or autopsy. We report a case of a 24-year-old homosexual man who presented with rectal pain and bleeding and was found to have skin-sparing, disseminated Kaposi's sarcoma with rectum, liver, lungs, and lymph node involvement. Despite treatment with highly active anti-retroviral therapy, he developed multiorgan failure resulting in death...
August 2016: ACG Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119046/concurrent-plasmodium-infection-anemia-and-their-correlates-among-newly-diagnosed-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-northern-ethiopia
#20
Habtamu Bedimo Beyene, Mulualem Tadesse, Haimanot Disassa, Melkamu B Beyene
The magnitude of concurrent malaria infection and the impact it has on hematological abnormalities, such as anemia in people living with HIV/AIDS, is not well studied in Ethiopian set up. In this cross sectional study, therefore, we assessed the prevalence of concurrent malaria infection and anemia among highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) naive people living with HIV/AIDS between October, 2012 to May, 2013 in Northern Ethiopia. After obtaining consent, socio demographic, clinical, immunological and behavioural data was obtained...
January 21, 2017: Acta Tropica
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