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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645089/drug-resistance-mechanism-of-l10f-l10f-n88s-and-l90m-mutations-in-crf01_ae-hiv-1-protease-molecular-dynamics-simulations-and-binding-free-energy-calculations
#1
C S Vasavi, Ramasamy Tamizhselvi, Punnagai Munusami
HIV-1 protease plays a crucial role in viral replication and maturation, which makes it one of the most attractive targets for anti-retroviral therapy. The majority of HIV infections in developing countries are due to non-B subtype. Subtype AE is spreading rapidly and infecting huge population worldwide. The mutations in the active site of subtype AE directly impair the interactions with the inhibitor. The non-active site mutations influence the binding of the inhibitor indirectly and their resistance mechanism is not well understood...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643392/retroviruses-and-microtubule-associated-motor-proteins
#2
REVIEW
Gloria Arriagada
Retroviruses are obligate intracellular parasites of eukaryotic cells. After reverse transcription, the viral DNA contained in the preintegration complex (PIC) is delivered to the nucleus of the host cell, where it integrates. Before reaching the nucleus, the incoming particle and the PIC must travel throughout the cytoplasm. Likewise the newly synthesized viral proteins and viral particles must transit the cytoplasm during exit. The cytoplasm is a crowded environment and simple diffusion is difficult. Therefore, viruses have evolved to utilize the cellular mechanisms of movement through the cytoplasm, where microtubules are the roads, and the ATP dependent motors dynein and kinesin are the vehicles for retrograde and anterograde trafficking...
June 22, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637198/multi-target-activity-of-hemidesmus-indicus-decoction-against-innovative-hiv-1-drug-targets-and-characterization-of-lupeol-mode-of-action
#3
Francesca Esposito, Manuela Mandrone, Claudia Del Vecchio, Ilaria Carli, Simona Distinto, Angela Corona, Mariacaterina Lianza, Dario Piano, Massimo Tacchini, Elias Maccioni, Filippo Cottiglia, Elisa Saccon, Ferruccio Poli, Cristina Parolin, Enzo Tramontano
Despite the availability of several anti-retrovirals there is still an urgent need for developing novel therapeutic strategies and finding new drugs against underexplored HIV-1 targets. Among them, there are the HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase (RT)-associated Ribonuclease H (RNase H) function and the cellular α-glucosidase, involved in the control mechanisms of N-linked glycoproteins formation in the endoplasmic reticulum. It is known that many natural compounds, such as pentacyclic triterpenes, are a promising class of HIV-1 inhibitors...
June 20, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622345/the-infection-staging-and-profile-of-genotypic-distribution-and-drug-resistance-mutation-among-the-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-infected-blood-donors-from-five-chinese-blood-centers-2012-2014
#4
Peibin Zeng, Yu Liu, Miao He, Jingxing Wang, Sheila Keating, Wei Mao, Mei Huang, Hongli Ma, Weilan He, Xinhong Bi, Dan Liao, Michael Busch, Paul Ness, Jing Liu, Hua Shan
The increasing complexity and diversity of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infections challenge the disease control and anti-retrovirus treatment in China. The infection stages and molecular characteristics of HIV-1 from infected Chinese blood donors were examined to shed light on the HIV genotype distribution and the status of drug resistance mutations (DRMs) in the changing HIV epidemic in China. Western blot (WB) confirmed HIV-1 positive plasma samples were collected from blood donors at five Chinese blood centers from April 16, 2012, through June 30, 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619387/evaluation-of-ameliorative-ability-of-silibinin-against-zidovudine-and-isoniazid-induced-hepatotoxicity-and-hyperlipidaemia-in-rats-role-of-silibinin-in-phase-i-and-ii-drug-metabolism
#5
Raghu Ramanathan, Karthikeyan Sivanesan
HIV/AIDS patients have suppressed immune system, making them vulnerable to many opportunistic infections including tuberculosis (TB). The patients who are co-infected with TB undergo combined regimens with anti-retroviral drugs such as zidovudine (AZT) and anti-tubercular drug such as isoniazid (INH) for therapy leading to hepatotoxicty. Silibinin (SBN), extracted from Silybum marianum commonly called as "Milk thistle" is used against several drugs-induced hepatotoxicity. The present study evaluates the ameliorative effect of SBN against AZT alone, INH alone, and INH + AZT-induced toxic insults to liver of rats...
June 13, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592989/outcome-of-hiv-associated-lymphoma-in-a-resource-limited-setting-of-jos-nigeria
#6
Olugbenga Akindele Silas, Chad J Achenbach, Lifang Hou, Robert L Murphy, Julie O Egesie, Solomon A Sagay, Oche O Agbaji, Patricia E Agaba, Jonah Musa, Agabus N Manasseh, Ezra D Jatau, Ayuba M Dauda, Maxwell O Akanbi, Barnabas M Mandong
BACKGROUND: Lymphoma is a leading cause of cancer-related death among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals in the current era of potent anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Globally, mortality after HIV-associated lymphoma has profound regional variation. Little is known about HIV-associated lymphoma mortality in Nigeria and other resource-limited setting in sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, we evaluated the all-cause mortality after lymphoma and associated risk factors including HIV at the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) Nigeria...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578326/targeting-jurkat-t-lymphocyte-leukemia-cells-by-an-engineered-interferon-alpha-hybrid-molecule
#7
Dehai Yu, Zhonghua Du, Wei Li, Huaqiu Chen, Songgen Ye, Andrew R Hoffman, Jiuwei Cui, Ji-Fan Hu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a very aggressive T cell malignancy that carries a poor prognosis, primarily due to its resistance to chemotherapy and to life-threatening infectious complications. Interferon-alpha (IFNα) has been used in combination with the anti-retroviral drug zidovudine to treat patients with ATL. However, the efficacy of long-term therapy is significantly limited due to the systemic toxicity of IFNα. METHODS: We utilized phage display library screening to identify short peptides that specifically bind to Jurkat T lymphocyte leukemia cells...
June 5, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574336/early-infant-diagnosis-of-hiv-in-myanmar-call-for-innovative-interventions-to-improve-uptake-and-reduce-turnaround-time
#8
Soe Thiha, Hemant Deepak Shewade, Sairu Philip, Thet Ko Aung, Nang Thu Thu Kyaw, Myo Minn Oo, Khine Wut Yee Kyaw, May Wint War, Htun Nyunt Oo
BACKGROUND: In collaboration with the national AIDS program, early infant diagnosis (EID) is implemented by Integrated HIV Care (IHC) program through its anti-retroviral therapy (ART) centers across 10 cities in five states and regions of Myanmar. Blood samples from the ART centers are sent using public transport to a centralized PCR facility. OBJECTIVES: Among HIV-exposed babies <9 months at enrolment into IHC program (2013-15), to describe the EID cascade (enrolment, sample collection for PCR, result receipt by mother, HIV diagnosis and ART initiation) and factors associated with delayed (>8 weeks of age) or no blood sample collection for EID...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549121/long-acting-injectable-anti-retroviral-therapy-an-opportunity-to-improve-hiv-treatment-and-reduce-hiv-transmission-among-persons-being-released-from-prison-facilities
#9
Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, David L Rosen, Paul Christopher, Lauri Bazerman, Curt G Beckwith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542255/detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-from-the-stool-of-hiv-sero-positive-individuals-suspected-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#10
Gizaw E Abaye, Tamrat Abebe, Adane Worku, Debela Tolessa, Gobena Ameni, Adane Mihret
BACKGROUND: The impact of tuberculosis (TB) is exacerbated in Africa because of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic. Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) diagnosis is difficult in HIV-infected patients and negative sputum results are more common which leads to diagnostic delay and increases morbidity and mortality. Extra-pulmonary samples such as stool may be easier to obtain and our approach may therefore significantly improve PTB detection in people living with HIV. OBJECTIVE: To detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the stool of HIV sero-positive individuals suspected of pulmonary TB...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520146/association-of-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-with-primary-allograft-survival-in-hiv-positive-kidney-transplant-recipients
#11
Suzanne M Boyle, Gregory Malat, Meera N Harhay, Dong H Lee, Lisa Pang, Sindhura Talluri, Akshay Sharma, Tiffany E Bias, Karthik Ranganna, Alden M Doyle
BACKGROUND: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is an anti-retroviral agent frequently used to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). There are concerns regarding its potential to cause acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, and proximal tubulopathy. Although TDF can effectively suppress HIV after kidney transplantation, it is unknown whether use of TDF-based anti-retroviral therapy (ART) after kidney transplant (KT) adversely affects allograft survival. METHODS: We examined 104 HIV+ KT recipients at our center between 2001 and 2014...
May 18, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514280/ten-year-trends-in-anti-retroviral-therapy-persistence-among-us-medicaid-beneficiaries-2001-2010
#12
Bora Youn, Theresa I Shireman, Yoojin Lee, Omar Galárraga, Aadia I Rana, Amy C Justice, Ira B Wilson
OBJECTIVE: Whether the rate of HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) persistence has improved over time in the U.S. is unknown. We examined ART persistence trends between 2001 and 2010, using non-HIV medications as a comparator. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using Medicaid claims. We defined persistence as the duration of treatment from the first to the last fill date before a 90-day permissible gap, and used Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard models to assess crude and adjusted non-persistence...
May 16, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507108/safety-pharmacokinetics-and_antiviral-activity-of-a-novel-hiv-antiviral-abx464-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-infected-subjects-a-phase-ii-randomized-controlled-study
#13
Jean-Marc Steens, Didier Scherrer, Paul Gineste, P Noel Barrett, Supparatpino Kuanchai, Ratanasuwan Winai, Kiat Ruxrungtham, Jamal Tazi, Robert Murphy, Hartmut Ehrlich
We investigated the safety and anti-viral effects of an anti-HIV compound (ABX464) with a unique mechanism of viral replication inhibition. This was a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, dose- ranging study in treatment naïve HIV infected patients. Participants were assigned to eight groups; each group included 8 subjects receiving either the study compound, ABX464 (n=6) or corresponding placebo (n=2), according to a randomization code. The first dose administered was 25 mg, given once or 3 times a day over a 2 to 3-week period...
May 15, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506688/human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-fungal-infections
#14
REVIEW
Jeannette Guarner
The discovery of HIV was largely due to the presence of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in young patients that did not have the usual known causes of immune deficiencies in the early 1980s. Currently, treatment with highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) and the use of prophylaxis for PCP have lowered the frequency of fungal infections; however, these infections continue to cause morbidity and mortality in those patients that fall out or are not in care. The frequency of specific fungal diseases in HIV patients will depend on the prevalence of fungi in the particular geographic location...
April 8, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505204/compartment-specific-distribution-of-human-intestinal-innate-lymphoid-cells-is-altered-in-hiv-patients-under-effective-therapy
#15
Benjamin Krämer, Felix Goeser, Philipp Lutz, Andreas Glässner, Christoph Boesecke, Carolynne Schwarze-Zander, Dominik Kaczmarek, Hans Dieter Nischalke, Vittorio Branchi, Steffen Manekeller, Robert Hüneburg, Tobias van Bremen, Tobias Weismüller, Christian P Strassburg, Jürgen K Rockstroh, Ulrich Spengler, Jacob Nattermann
Innate lymphocyte cells (ILCs), a novel family of innate immune cells are considered to function as key orchestrators of immune defences at mucosal surfaces and to be crucial for maintaining an intact intestinal barrier. Accordingly, first data suggest depletion of ILCs to be involved in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated damage of the intestinal mucosa and subsequent microbial translocation. However, although ILCs are preferentially localized at mucosal surfaces, only little is known regarding distribution and function of ILCs in the human gastrointestinal tract...
May 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494859/hiv-reprograms-human-airway-basal-stem-progenitor-cells-to-acquire-a-tissue-destructive-phenotype
#16
Nancy P Y Chung, Xuemei Ou, K M Faisal Khan, Jacqueline Salit, Robert J Kaner, Ronald G Crystal
While highly active anti-retroviral therapy has dramatically improved the survival of HIV-infected individuals, there is an increased risk for other co-morbidities, such as COPD, manifesting as emphysema. Given that emphysema originates around the airways and that human airway basal cells (BCs) are adult airway stem/progenitor cells, we hypothesized that HIV reprograms BCs to a distinct phenotype that contributes to the development of emphysema. Our data indicate that HIV binds to but does not replicate in BCs...
May 9, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494325/hiv-1-integrase-inhibitor-resistance-among-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-in-the-west-of-scotland
#17
A Bradley-Stewart, C Urcia, A MacLean, C Aitken, R Gunson
BACKGROUND: Transmitted integrase inhibitor resistance is rare, with only a small number of cases reported world-wide to date. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess whether transmitted integrase inhibitor resistance has occurred in Scotland and if so, could there be a case for performing genotypic integrase resistance testing at baseline. STUDY DESIGN: The study population consisted of 106 treatment naïve, newly diagnosed, HIV positive patients...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490595/sensing-of-hiv-1-entry-triggers-a-type-i-interferon-response-in-human-primary-macrophages
#18
Jérémie Decalf, Marion Desdouits, Vasco Rodrigues, François-Xavier Gobert, Matteo Gentili, Santy Marques-Ladeira, Célia Chamontin, Marylène Mougel, Bruna Cunha de Alencar, Philippe Benaroch
Along with CD4+ T lymphocytes, macrophages are a major cellular source of HIV-1 replication, and a potential viral reservoir. Following entry and reverse transcription in macrophages, cloaking of the viral cDNA by the HIV-1 capsid limits its cytosolic detection, enabling efficient replication. However, whether incoming HIV-1 particles are sensed by macrophages prior to reverse-transcription, remains unclear. Here, we show that HIV-1 triggers a broad expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISG) in monocyte-derived macrophages within a few hours after infection...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482682/longitudinal-development-of-cognitive-visuomotor-and-adaptive-behavior-skills-in-hiv-uninfected-children-aged-3-5-years-of-age-exposed-pre-and-perinatally-to-anti-retroviral-medications
#19
Mary Lou Smith, Klajdi Puka, Ramandeep Sehra, Stanley E Read, Ari Bitnun
Little is known about the neurodevelopmental outcomes of children older than 3 years of age born to HIV infected mother but who are HIV-uninfected (HEU), and who have been exposed in utero and early in life to HIV and to antiretroviral medications (ARVs). We conducted a longitudinal study of cognitive, visuomotor and adaptive function of HEU children, who were assessed at two ages, 3.5 and 5.5 years. Sixty-four children (33 female) were assessed. In comparison with population norms for their age, at 3.5 years of age they had scores significantly below age expectations on aspects of adaptive behavior, but at age 5...
May 8, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480237/gag-specific-cd8-t-cell-proliferation-is-associated-with-higher-peripheral-blood-levels-of-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-and-gut-homing-t-cells-in-youths-perinatally-infected-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-the-anrs-ep38-immip-study
#20
Josiane Warszawski, Véronique Avettand-Fenoel, Christine Rouzioux, Daniel Scott-Algara, Thomas Montange, Céline Didier, Jérôme Le Chenadec, Jean-Paul Viard, Catherine Dollfus, Stéphane Blanche, Florence Buseyne
BACKGROUND: Gag-specific T lymphocytes play a key role in the control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication. Their restoration will be important for future reservoir targeting strategies. In this study, we aimed to identify immune correlates of Gag-specific CD8 T-cell proliferation in youths with perinatally acquired HIV-1 infection. METHODS: The ANRS-EP38-IMMIP study included youths of 15 to 24 years of age. Fifty-three were taking combination anti-retroviral therapy and aviremic at the time of the study and had undergone valid 5-6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succimidyl ester-based flow cytometry T-cell proliferation assays...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
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