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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723871/optimal-anti-retroviral-prophylaxis-in-infants-at-high-risk-of-acquiring-human-immunodeficiency-virus-a-systematic-review
#1
Sara Beste, Shaffiq Essajee, George Siberry, Alisse Hannaford, Jasmeen Dara, Nandita Sugandhi, Martina Penazzato
INTRODUCTION: The risk of perinatal HIV infection can be dramatically reduced through maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART) and infant antiretroviral (ARV) postnatal prophylaxis. The 2013 WHO guidelines recommended four to six weeks of nevirapine or zidovudine as post-natal prophylaxis, with possible extension to 12 weeks for high-risk breastfed infants. A systematic review was undertaken to determine if there is evidence for the WHO to recommend enhanced or extended prophylaxis for high-risk infants...
July 18, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716008/does-infection-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-have-any-impact-on-the-cardiovascular-outcomes-following-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Pravesh Kumar Bundhun, Manish Pursun, Wei-Qiang Huang
BACKGROUND: A direct link between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients and the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has been shown in recent scientific research. However, this issue is controversial since other previous reports showed no apparent impact of HIV or its anti-retroviral drugs on the cardiovascular system. We aimed to systematically compare the postinterventional adverse cardiovascular outcomes which were observed in patients with and without HIV infection during a mean follow up period ranging from 1 year to 3 years...
July 17, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710808/the-application-of-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modelling-to-assess-the-impact-of-antiretroviral-mediated-drug-drug-interactions-on-piperaquine-antimalarial-therapy-during-pregnancy
#3
Olusola Olafuyi, Michael Coleman, Raj K S Badhan
Antimalarial therapy during pregnancy poses important safety concerns due to potential teratogenicity and maternal physiological and biochemical changes during gestation. Piperaquine (PQ) has gained interest for use in pregnancy in response to increasing resistance towards sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in sub-Saharan Africa. Co-infection with HIV is common in many developing countries, however, little is known about the impact of anti-retroviral (ARV) mediated drug-drug interaction (DDI) on PQ pharmacokinetics during pregnancy...
July 14, 2017: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705181/the-impact-of-antiretroviral-therapy-on-symptom-burden-among-hiv-outpatients-with-low-cd4-count-in-rural-uganda-nested-longitudinal-cohort-study
#4
Katie Wakeham, Richard Harding, Jonathan Levin, Rosalind Parkes-Ratanshi, Anatoli Kamali, David G Lalloo
BACKGROUND: Individuals with HIV have a high prevalence of physical and psychological symptoms throughout their disease course. Despite the clinical and public health implications of unresolved pain and symptoms, little is known about the effect of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) on these outcomes. This study aimed to assess the impact on symptom burden for the year after ART initiation in individuals with a CD4 count <200 cells/uL in Uganda. METHODS: HIV-infected, ART-naıve adults referred from voluntary testing and counseling services in rural Uganda for enrollment into a randomized controlled trial to test fluconazole as primary prophylaxis against cryptococcal disease were invited to complete the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale-Short Form (MSAS-SF) prior to commencing ART and at two subsequent follow up visits...
July 13, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698149/gelatin-modified-lipid-nanoparticles-for-anti-retroviral-drug-delivery
#5
Joshy K S, Snigdha S, Nandakumar Kalarikkal, Laly A Pothen, Sabu Thomas
The major challenges to clinical application of zidovudine are its moderate aqueous solubility and relative short half-life and serious side effects due to frequent administrations. We investigated the preparation of zidovudine-loaded nanoparticles based on lipids which were further modified with the polymer gelatin. Formulation and stability of the modified nanoparticles were analysed from the physico-chemical characterizations. The interactions of nanoparticles with blood components were tested by hemolysis and aggregation studies...
July 8, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697732/an-assessment-of-equity-in-the-distribution-of-non-financial-health-care-inputs-across-public-primary-health-care-facilities-in-tanzania
#6
August Kuwawenaruwa, Josephine Borghi, Michelle Remme, Gemini Mtei
BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence on how health care inputs are distributed from the sub-national level down to health facilities and their potential influence on promoting health equity. To address this gap, this paper assesses equity in the distribution of health care inputs across public primary health facilities at the district level in Tanzania. METHODS: This is a quantitative assessment of equity in the distribution of health care inputs (staff, drugs, medical supplies and equipment) from district to facility level...
July 11, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696079/impact-of-protease-inhibitor-based-anti-retroviral-therapy-on-outcomes-for-hiv-kidney-transplant-recipients
#7
Deirdre Sawinski, Brittany A Shelton, Shikha Mehta, Rhiannon D Reed, Paul A MacLennan, Sally Gustafson, Dorry L Segev, Jayme E Locke
Excellent outcomes have been demonstrated among select HIV-positive kidney transplant (KT) recipients with well-controlled infection, but to date no national study has explored outcomes among HIV+ KT recipients by antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen. IMS pharmacy fills (1/1/01 - 10/1/12) were linked with SRTR data. 332 recipients with pre- and post-transplant fills were characterized by ART at time of transplant as protease inhibitor (PI) or non-PI based ART (88 PI vs. 244 non-PI). Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for recipient and donor characteristics...
July 11, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691499/eradication-of-hiv-from-tissue-reservoirs-challenges-for-the-cure
#8
Rebecca R Rose, David J Nolan, Ekaterina Maidji, Cheryl Stoddart, Elyse J Singer, Susanna Lamers, Michael McGrath
The persistence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, even after lengthy and successful combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART), has precluded an effective cure. The anatomical locations in which and biological mechanisms through which the viral population is maintained remain unknown. Much research has focused nearly exclusively on circulating resting T-cells as the predominant source of persistent HIV, a strategy with limited success in developing an effective cure strategy. Here, we review research supporting the importance of tissues and other immune cells for HIV maintenance and expansion, including the central nervous system, lymph nodes, and macrophages...
July 9, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690867/determinants-of-uncontrolled-hypertension-among-clients-on-anti-retroviral-therapy-in-kadoma-city-zimbabwe-2016
#9
Pamela Nyaradzai Magande, Daniel Chirundu, Notion Tafara Gombe, More Mungati, Mufuta Tshimanga
BACKGROUND: Clients on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) are living longer and have risk of hypertension. Side effects of medicines and aging increase this risk. Hypertension prevalence among clients on ART in Kadoma City was estimated to be 30% in 2015. Of these, 61% had uncontrolled hypertension. This was high compared to 46% of hypertensives in the general population who had uncontrolled hypertension. We determined factors associated with uncontrolled hypertension among clients on ART...
2017: Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679184/influence-of-hiv-virus-in-the-hospital-stay-and-the-occurrence-of-postoperative-complications-classified-according-to-the-clavien-dindo-classification-and-in-comparison-with-the-charlson-comorbidity-index-in-patients-subjected-to-urologic-and-general-surgery
#10
Dimitrios Dimitroulis, Georgios Karaolanis, Ioannis Katafigiotis, Ioannis Anastasiou, Viktoria-Varvara Palla, Athanasios Kontos, Mordechai Duvdevani, Konstantinos Kontzoglou
OBJECTIVES: From the first time that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was discovered, till today both the quality of life and survival expectancy of HIV-infected patients have markedly improved. As the life expectancy of these patients increases due to the use of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) also increases the number of HIV-positive patient to be subjected to an operation. Different studies have examined the occurrence of complications in this particular group of patients and their possible susceptibility to infections or other complications that could lead to increased hospital stay, morbidity and mortality with controversial results...
June 30, 2017: Archivio Italiano di Urologia, Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662762/fall-in-new-hiv-diagnoses-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-msm-at-selected-london-sexual-health-clinics-since-early-2015-testing-or-treatment-or-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep
#11
Alison E Brown, Hamish Mohammed, Dana Ogaz, Peter D Kirwan, Mandy Yung, Sophie G Nash, Martina Furegato, Gwenda Hughes, Nicky Connor, Valerie C Delpech, O Noel Gill
Since October 2015 up to September 2016, HIV diagnoses fell by 32% compared with October 2014-September 2015 among men who have sex with men (MSM) attending selected London sexual health clinics. This coincided with high HIV testing volumes and rapid initiation of treatment on diagnosis. The fall was most apparent in new HIV testers. Intensified testing of high-risk populations, combined with immediately received anti-retroviral therapy and a pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) programme, may make elimination of HIV achievable...
June 22, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658836/upper-gastrointestinal-bleeding-due-to-idiopathic-oesophageal-ulceration-in-the-era-of-haart-a-vanishing-yet-pernicious-aetiology
#12
Sofia Nigar, Tagore Sunkara, Mel A Ona, Vinaya Gaduputi, Madhavi Reddy
Oesophageal ulcers are a rare cause of upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding (GIB). In patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), oesophageal diseases including oesophageal ulcers are very common. Idiopathic Oesophageal Ulcers (IOU) comprises a subgroup of oesophageal ulcers with no identifiable cause. IOU mainly present as odynophagia, retrosternal chest pain, decreased oral intake, and weight loss. Upper GIB is a rare presentation. In the era of Highly Active Anti Retroviral Therapy (HAART), with improvement in CD4 count, this entity is almost forgotten...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649847/the-clinical-value-of-cystatin-c-as-a-marker-of-renal-function-in-hiv-patients-receiving-dolutegravir
#13
Yusuke Yoshino, Ichiro Koga, Kazunori Seo, Takatoshi Kitazawa, Yasuo Ota
Dolutegravir (DTG) is an integrase strand transfer inhibitor that is used for the treatment for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. DTG inhibits organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) on the basolateral side of proximal tubule cells of the kidney, and leads to increased serum creatinine levels without true renal function deterioration. In HIV patients who receive DTG, an alternative test to serum creatinine measurement is needed to determine the correct renal function. We retrospectively evaluated 18 HIV-infected men who had received combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART), including DTG, and who had available data on serum creatinine and cystatin C levels...
June 25, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649306/decreasing-prevalence-of-transmitted-drug-resistance-among-art-naive-hiv-1-infected-patients-in-iceland-1996-2012
#14
Malik Sallam, Gülşen Özkaya Şahin, Hlynur Indriðason, Joakim Esbjörnsson, Arthur Löve, Anders Widell, Magnus Gottfreðsson, Patrik Medstrand
Introduction: Resistance to antiretroviral drugs can complicate the management of HIV-1 infection and impair control of its spread. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence and transmission of HIV-1 drug resistance among 106 antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients diagnosed in Iceland (1996-2012). Methods: HIV-1 polymerase sequences were analysed using the Calibrated Population Resistance tool. Domestic spread of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) was investigated through maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648081/in-silico-and-in-vitro-screening-for-p-glycoprotein-interaction-with-tenofovir-darunavir-and-dapivirine-an-anti-retroviral-drug-combination-for-topical-prevention-of-colorectal-hiv-transmission
#15
Magda Swedrowska, Shirin Jamshidi, Abhinav Kumar, Charles Kelly, K Miraz Rahman, Ben Forbes
The aim of the study was to use in-silico and in vitro techniques to evaluate whether a triple formulation of antiretroviral drugs (tenofovir, darunavir and dapivirine) interacted with p-glycoprotein (P-gp) or exhibited any other permeability-altering drug-drug interactions in the colorectal mucosa. Potential drug interactions with P-gp were screened initially using molecular docking, followed by molecular dynamics simulations to analyse the identified drug-transporter interaction more mechanistically. The transport of tenofovir, darunavir and dapivirine was investigated in the Caco-2 cells models and colorectal tissue and their apparent permeability coefficient (Papp), efflux ratio (ER) and the effect of transporter inhibitors were evaluated...
June 25, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647974/-cd-4-t-lymphocyte-responses-to-anti-retroviral-therapy-among-hiv-aids-patients-aged-18-and-over
#16
X X Guo, Y Ma, Z H Dou, Y S Wu, D C Zhao, W P Cai, Y Li, X X Dong
Objective: To compare the differences of CD(4) (+) T lymphocyte (CD(4)) counts between patients aged 18 and over, to explore the effect of age on treatment, 36 months after having received the China National Free AIDS Antiretroviral Treatment on HIV/AIDS. Methods: Through the National ART Information Ssystem, we selected those HIV/AIDS patients who initiated the ART 36 months after the ART, between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2012 in Guangzhou, Liuzhou and Kunming. Patients were divided into age groups as 18-49, 50-59 and 60 or over year olds, at the baseline of treatment...
June 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645263/microbiota-dependent-metabolite-and-cardiovascular-disease-marker-trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao-is-associated-with-monocyte-activation-but-not-platelet-function-in-untreated-hiv-infection
#17
Judith M Haissman, Anna K Haugaard, Sisse R Ostrowski, Rolf K Berge, Johannes R Hov, Marius Trøseid, Susanne D Nielsen
BACKGROUND: HIV infection is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease beyond that explained by traditional risk factors. Altered gut microbiota, microbial translocation, and immune activation have been proposed as potential triggers. The microbiota-dependent metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) predicts myocardial infarction (MI) in the general population and has recently been shown to induce platelet hyperreactivity. In the present study, we investigated if TMAO was associated with platelet function, microbial translocation, and immune activation in both untreated and combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) HIV infection...
June 23, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645089/drug-resistance-mechanism-of-l10f-l10f-n88s-and-l90m-mutations-in-crf01_ae-hiv-1-protease-molecular-dynamics-simulations-and-binding-free-energy-calculations
#18
C S Vasavi, Ramasamy Tamizhselvi, Punnagai Munusami
HIV-1 protease plays a crucial role in viral replication and maturation, which makes it one of the most attractive targets for anti-retroviral therapy. The majority of HIV infections in developing countries are due to non-B subtype. Subtype AE is spreading rapidly and infecting huge population worldwide. The mutations in the active site of subtype AE directly impair the interactions with the inhibitor. The non-active site mutations influence the binding of the inhibitor indirectly and their resistance mechanism is not well understood...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643392/retroviruses-and-microtubule-associated-motor-proteins
#19
REVIEW
Gloria Arriagada
Retroviruses are obligate intracellular parasites of eukaryotic cells. After reverse transcription, the viral DNA contained in the preintegration complex (PIC) is delivered to the nucleus of the host cell, where it integrates. Before reaching the nucleus, the incoming particle and the PIC must travel throughout the cytoplasm. Likewise the newly synthesized viral proteins and viral particles must transit the cytoplasm during exit. The cytoplasm is a crowded environment and simple diffusion is difficult. Therefore, viruses have evolved to utilize the cellular mechanisms of movement through the cytoplasm, where microtubules are the roads, and the ATP dependent motors dynein and kinesin are the vehicles for retrograde and anterograde trafficking...
June 22, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637198/multi-target-activity-of-hemidesmus-indicus-decoction-against-innovative-hiv-1-drug-targets-and-characterization-of-lupeol-mode-of-action
#20
Francesca Esposito, Manuela Mandrone, Claudia Del Vecchio, Ilaria Carli, Simona Distinto, Angela Corona, Mariacaterina Lianza, Dario Piano, Massimo Tacchini, Elias Maccioni, Filippo Cottiglia, Elisa Saccon, Ferruccio Poli, Cristina Parolin, Enzo Tramontano
Despite the availability of several anti-retrovirals there is still an urgent need for developing novel therapeutic strategies and finding new drugs against underexplored HIV-1 targets. Among them, there are the HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase (RT)-associated Ribonuclease H (RNase H) function and the cellular α-glucosidase, involved in the control mechanisms of N-linked glycoproteins formation in the endoplasmic reticulum. It is known that many natural compounds, such as pentacyclic triterpenes, are a promising class of HIV-1 inhibitors...
June 20, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
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