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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904191/the-dose-of-retroviral-infection-determines-the-induction-of-anti-viral-nk-cell-responses
#1
Elisabeth Littwitz-Salomon, Simone Schimmer, Ulf Dittmer
Natural killer (NK) cells are part of the innate immune system and recognize virus-infected cells as well as tumor cells. Conflicting data about the beneficial or even detrimental role of NK cells in different infectious diseases were described. While the type of pathogen strongly influences NK cell functionality, less is known about how the infection dose influences the quality of a NK cell response against retroviruses. Here we used the well-established Friend retrovirus (FV) mouse model to investigate the impact of virus dose on the induction of anti-viral NK cell functions...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902919/factors-associated-with-pulmonary-impairment-in-hiv-infected-south-african-adults
#2
Akshay N Gupte, Michelle L Wong, Reginah Msandiwa, Grace L Barnes, Jonathan Golub, Richard E Chaisson, Christopher J Hoffmann, Neil A Martinson
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected individuals have increased risk of developing obstructive lung disease (OLD). Studies from developed countries report high viral load, low CD4 counts, and anti-retroviral therapy (ART) to be associated with OLD; but these findings may not be generalizable to populations in resource-limited settings. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of lung function in 730 HIV-infected black South African adults. Pre-bronchodilator spirometry was performed at enrollment and repeated annually for three years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902869/high-mortality-rates-in-men-initiated-on-anti-retroviral-treatment-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#3
Kogieleum Naidoo, Razia Hassan-Moosa, Nonhlanhla Yende-Zuma, Dhineshree Govender, Nesri Padayatchi, Halima Dawood, Rochelle Nicola Adams, Aveshen Govender, Tilagavathy Chinappa, Salim Abdool-Karim, Quarraisha Abdool-Karim
In attaining UNAIDS targets of 90-90-90 to achieve epidemic control, understanding who the current utilizers of HIV treatment services are will inform efforts aimed at reaching those not being reached. A retrospective chart review of CAPRISA AIDS Treatment Program (CAT) patients between 2004 and 2013 was undertaken. Of the 4043 HIV-infected patients initiated on ART, 2586 (64.0%) were women. At ART initiation, men, compared to women, had significantly lower median CD4+ cell counts (113 vs 131 cells/mm3, p <0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902848/the-effect-of-hiv-infection-and-hcv-viremia-on-inflammatory-mediators-and-hepatic-injury-the-women-s-interagency-hiv-study
#4
Sheila M Keating, Jennifer L Dodge, Philip J Norris, John Heitman, Stephen J Gange, Audrey L French, Marshall J Glesby, Brian R Edlin, Patricia S Latham, Maria C Villacres, Ruth M Greenblatt, Marion G Peters
Hepatitis C virus infection induces inflammation and while it is believed that HIV co-infection enhances this response, HIV control may reduce inflammation and liver fibrosis in resolved or viremic HCV infection. Measurement of systemic biomarkers in co-infection could help define the mechanism of inflammation on fibrosis and determine if HIV control reduces liver pathology. A nested case-control study was performed to explore the relationship of systemic biomarkers of inflammation with liver fibrosis in HCV viremic and/or seropositive women with and without HIV infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901908/performance-of-point-of-care-xpert-hiv-1-plasma-viral-load-assay-at-a-tertiary-hiv-care-centre-in-southern-india
#5
Chinnambedu Ravichandran Swathirajan, Ramachandran Vignesh, Jayaseelan Boobalan, Sunil Suhas Solomon, Shanmugam Saravanan, Pachamuthu Balakrishnan
BACKGROUND: Sustainable suppression of HIV replication forms the basis of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) medication. Thus, reliable quantification of HIV viral load has become an essential factor to monitor the effectiveness of the ART. Longer turnaround-time (TAT), batch testing and technical skills are major drawbacks of standard real-time PCR assays. METHODS: The performance of the point-of-care Xpert HIV-1 viral load assay was evaluated against the Abbott RealTime PCR m2000rt system...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893281/rna-flow-cytometric-fish-for-investigations-into-hiv-immunology-vaccination-and-cure-strategies
#6
REVIEW
Amy E Baxter, Julia Niessl, Antigoni Morou, Daniel E Kaufmann
Despite the tremendous success of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) no current treatment can eradicate latent HIV reservoirs from HIV-infected individuals or generate, effective HIV-specific immunity. Technological limitations have hampered the identification and characterization of both HIV-infected cells and HIV-specific responses in clinical samples directly ex vivo. RNA-flow cytometric fluorescence in situ hybridisation (RNA Flow-FISH) is a powerful technique, which enables detection of mRNAs in conjunction with proteins at a single-cell level...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893280/eradication-of-hiv-1-latent-reservoirs-through-therapeutic-vaccination
#7
REVIEW
Joshua Pankrac, Katja Klein, Jamie F S Mann
Despite the significant success of combination anti-retroviral therapy to reduce HIV viremia and save lives, HIV-1 infection remains a lifelong infection that must be appropriately managed. Advances in the understanding of the HIV infection process and insights from vaccine development in other biomedical fields such as cancer, imaging, and genetic engineering have fueled rapid advancements in HIV cure research. In the last few years, several studies have focused on the development of "Kick and Kill" therapies to reverse HIV latency and kick start viral translational activity...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890504/an-alarmingly-high-proportion-of-anti-retroviral-drugs-resistant-hiv-1-infection-among-high-risk-groups-in-central-vietnam-a-sub-study-of-the-national-sentinel-survey
#8
Hung Thai Do, Dong Thanh Nguyen, Lan Anh Thi Nguyen, Duong Huy Do, Huy Xuan Le, Xuan Mai Thi Trinh, Hong Vy Nu Ton, Ikumi Sawada, Noriko Kitamura, Nhat Minh Le, Keisuke Yoshihara, Thu Huong Thi Phan, Chien Trong Bui, Koya Ariyoshi, Lay Myint Yoshida
We investigated the prevalence of HIV drug resistance among high risk groups such as injecting drug user (IDU), female sex worker (FSW) and men having sex with men (MSM) in central Vietnam. We used HIV positive samples from 2012-2013 sentinel surveillance surveys. Study subjects were screened for HIV infection by standardized screening assays and the positive samples were further tested for HIV viral load and drug resistant mutations by in-house assays. Drug resistant mutations (DRMs) were determined using the Stanford University online sequence analysis tool...
September 11, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889214/serping1-mrna-overexpression-in-monocytes-from-hiv-patients
#9
C Sanfilippo, D Cambria, A Longo, M Palumbo, R Avola, M Pinzone, G Nunnari, F Condorelli, G Musumeci, R Imbesi, P Castogiovanni, L Malaguarnera, Michelino Di Rosa
OBJECTIVE: The HIV-1 virus activates the complement system, an essential element of the immune system. SERPING1 is a protease inhibitor that disables C1r/C1s in the C1 complex of the classical complement pathway. METHODS: In this paper, we performed an analysis of several microarrays deposited in GEO dataset to demonstrate that SERPING1 mRNA is modulated in CD14(+) monocytes from HIV-1-infected individuals. In addition, data were validated on monocytes isolated from seronegative healthy volunteers, treated with IFNs...
September 9, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886101/high-prevalence-of-gastric-intestinal-metaplasia-detected-by-confocal-laser-endomicroscopy-in-zambian-adults
#10
Violet Kayamba, Aaron Shibemba, Kanekwa Zyambo, Douglas C Heimburger, Douglas R Morgan, Paul Kelly
BACKGROUND: Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) may increase the detection of gastric premalignant lesions, and facilitate targeted biopsies for histology. The study aim was to analyse premalignant lesions in Zambian adults using CLE. METHODS: Using CLE and histology we analysed the antral mucosa for gastric premalignant lesions in asymptomatic adults living with HIV and in HIV seronegative adults. Fasting gastric pH and the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) were also evaluated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882882/how-i-treat-patients-with-hiv-related-hematological-malignancies-using-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#11
Joseph C Alvarnas, John A Zaia, Stephen J Forman
Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has now been shown to be safe and effective for selected HIV-infected patients with hematological malignancies. Autologous HCT is now standard of care for patients with HIV-related lymphomas who otherwise meet standard transplant criteria. Limited data also supports use of allogeneic HCT (alloHCT) in selected HIV-infected patients who meet standard transplant criteria. We recommend enrolling patients on clinical trials that offer access to CCR5Δ32 homozygous donors, if available...
September 7, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878233/a-chalcone-derivative-reactivates-latent-hiv-1-transcription-through-activating-p-tefb-and-promoting-tat-sec-interaction-on-viral-promoter
#12
Jun Wu, Ming-Tao Ao, Rui Shao, Hui-Ru Wang, Diao Yu, Mei-Juan Fang, Xiang Gao, Zhen Wu, Qiang Zhou, Yu-Hua Xue
The principal barrier to the eradication of HIV/AIDS is the existence of latent viral reservoirs. One strategy to overcome this barrier is to use latency-reversing agents (LRAs) to reactivate the latent proviruses, which can then be eliminated by effective anti-retroviral therapy. Although a number of LRAs have been found to reactivate latent HIV, they have not been used clinically due to high toxicity and poor efficacy. In this study, we report the identification of a chalcone analogue called Amt-87 that can significantly reactivate the transcription of latent HIV provirses and act synergistically with known LRAs such as prostratin and JQ1 to reverse latency...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877245/the-effect-of-engaging-unpaid-informal-providers-on-case-detection-and-treatment-initiation-rates-for-tb-and-hiv-in-rural-malawi-triage-plus-a-cluster-randomised-health-system-intervention-trial
#13
George Bello, Brian Faragher, Lifah Sanudi, Ireen Namakhoma, Hastings Banda, Rasmus Malmborg, Rachael Thomson, S Bertel Squire
BACKGROUND: The poor face barriers in accessing services for tuberculosis (TB) and Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV) disease. A cluster randomised trial was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of engaging unpaid informal providers (IPs) to promote access in a rural district. The intervention consisted of training unpaid IPs in TB and HIV disease recognition, sputum specimen collection, appropriate referrals, and raising community awareness. METHODS: In total, six clusters were defined in the study areas...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862830/plasma-levels-of-complement-factor-i-and-c4b-peptides-are-associated-with-hiv-suppression
#14
Boyue Wu, Zhengyu Ouyang, Christopher J Lyon, Wei Zhang, Tori Clift, Christopher R Bone, Boan Li, Zhen Zhao, Jason T Kimata, Xu G Yu, Ye Hu
Individuals who exhibit long-term HIV suppression and CD4 T-cell preservation without antiretroviral therapy are of great interest for HIV research. There is currently no robust method for rapid identification of these "HIV controller" subjects; however, HLA-B*57 (human leukocyte antigen (major histocompatibility complex), class I, B*57) genotype exhibits modest sensitivity for this phenotype. Complement C3b and C4b can influence HIV infection and replication, but studies have not examined their possible link to HIV controller status...
September 15, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854905/traditional-healer-treatment-of-hiv-persists-in-the-era-of-art-a-mixed-methods-study-from-rural-south-africa
#15
Carolyn M Audet, Sizzy Ngobeni, Ryan G Wagner
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) substantially contributes to the burden of disease and health care provision in sub-Saharan Africa, where traditional healers play a major role in care, due to both their accessibility and acceptability. In rural, northeastern South Africa, people living with HIV often ping-pong between traditional healers and allopathic providers. METHODS: We conducted 27 in-depth interviews and 133 surveys with a random sample of traditional healers living in Bushbuckridge, South Africa, where anti-retroviral therapy (ART) is publicly available, to learn: (1) healer perspectives about which HIV patients they choose to treat; (2) the type of treatment offered; (3) outcomes expected, and; (4) the cost of delivering treatment...
August 30, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854102/seroprevalence-of-hepatitis-b-and-delta-viruses-among-hiv-infected-population-attending-antiretroviral-clinic-in-selected-health-facilities-in-abuja-nigeria
#16
I M Ifeorah, A S Bakarey, J A Adeniji, F N Onyemelukwe
INTRODUCTION: Tri- infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis D virus (HDV) is rare. There is limited data on the seroprevalence of HIV/HBV/HDV tri-infection especially in Nigeria. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalences of HBsAg and HDV among HIV infected individuals attending Anti-retroviral (ARV) clinics in Abuja, Nigeria. METHODS: In this cohort study, blood samples were collected from 1102 (Male = 450; Female = 652) age ranged <20 to ≥51 years (Mean age = 34...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853517/hiv-violence-blame-and-shame-pathways-of-risk-to-internalized-hiv-stigma-among-south-african-adolescents-living-with-hiv
#17
Marija Pantelic, Mark Boyes, Lucie Cluver, Franziska Meinck
INTRODUCTION: Internalized HIV stigma is a key risk factor for negative outcomes amongst adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV), including non-adherence to anti-retroviral treatment, loss-to-follow-up and morbidity. This study tested a theoretical model of multi-level risk pathways to internalized HIV stigma among South African ALHIV. METHODS: From 2013 to 2015, a survey using total population sampling of ALHIV who had ever initiated anti-retroviral treatment (ART) in 53 public health facilities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa was conducted...
August 21, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840088/mechanisms-of-cognitive-aging-in-the-hiv-positive-adult
#18
Asante Kamkwalala, Paul Newhouse
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As of the year 2016, an estimated 50% of the United States' HIV-Positive population is aged 50 years or older. Due to a combination of increased rates of infection in older adults, and successful anti-retroviral (ART) regimens allowing HIV-positive adults to survive for decades with the disease, we are now faced with a steadily graying HIV-positive population, with only limited knowledge of how the cognitive and physiological effects of aging intersect with those of chronic HIV-infection...
September 2017: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837563/demographic-clinical-and-behavioural-determinants-of-hiv-serostatus-non-disclosure-to-sex-partners-among-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-in-the-eastern-cape-south-africa
#19
Oladele Vincent Adeniyi, Anthony Idowu Ajayi, Nonkosi Selanto-Chairman, Daniel Ter Goon, Gerry Boon, Yusimi Ordaz Fuentes, George Justus Hofmeyr, Gordana Avramovic, Craig Carty, John Lambert
OBJECTIVES: Drawing from a baseline sample of a cohort study, the study examines the extent and correlates of serostatus non-disclosure to sex partners and family members, and reasons for non-disclosure among HIV-infected pregnant women in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. METHODS: This longitudinal cohort study recruited 1709 pregnant women living with HIV who attended three of the largest maternity centres in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, for delivery between September 2015 and May 2016...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830406/exploring-attitudes-and-perceptions-of-patients-and-staff-towards-an-after-hours-co-pay-clinic-supplementing-free-hiv-services-in-kampala-uganda
#20
Adelline Twimukye, Rachel King, Walter Schlech, Faridah Mayanja Zawedde, Tom Kakaire, Rosalind Parkes-Ratanshi
BACKGROUND: There has been a rapid scale up of HIV services and access to anti-retroviral therapy in Africa over the last 10 years as a result of multilateral donor funding mechanisms. However, in order to continue to expand and to sustain these services it is important that "in country" options are explored. This study sought to explore attitudes and perceptions of people living with HIV (PLHIV) and health care staff towards using a fee-based "after hours" clinic (AHC) at the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI) in Kampala, Uganda...
August 22, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
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