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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777648/reasons-for-discontinuation-of-implanon-among-users-in-buffalo-city-metropolitan-municipality-south-africa-a-cross-sectional-study
#1
Khungelwa Patricia Mrwebi, Daniel Ter Goon, Eyitayo Omolara Owolabi, Oladele Vincent Adeniyi, Eunice Seekoe, Anthony Idowu Ajayi
Early discontinuation of implanon, a long-acting, reversible contraceptive among reproductive age women in South Africa is a serious public health concern. The aim of this study was to examine the reasons for discontinuation of implanon among its previous users. This descriptive cross-sectional study involved 188 consecutively selected participants in two large family planning clinics in Buffalo Metropolitan Municipality, East London, South Africa. Descriptive statistics was conducted using SPSS version 22...
March 2018: African Journal of Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770360/biomarkers-associated-with-death-after-initiating-treatment-for-tuberculosis-and-hiv-in-patients-with-very-low-cd-4-cells
#2
Fred R Sattler, Daniel Chelliah, Xingye Wu, Alejandro Sanchez, Michelle A Kendall, Evelyn Hogg, David Lagat, Umesh Lalloo, Valdilea Veloso, Diane V Havlir, Alan Landay
Background: The risk of short-term death for treatment naive patients dually infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV may be reduced by early anti-retroviral therapy. Of those dying, mechanisms responsible for fatal outcomes are unclear. We hypothesized that greater malnutrition and/or inflammation when initiating treatment are associated with an increased risk for death. Methods: We utilized a retrospective case-cohort design among participants of the ACTG A5221 study who had baseline CD4 < 50 cells/mm3 ...
2018: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770076/the-use-of-technology-to-improve-health-care-to-saskatchewan-s-first-nations-communities
#3
I Khan, N Ndubuka, K Stewart, V McKinney, I Mendez
Background: Saskatchewan is a province of over one million people and over 13% are Indigenous peoples, many of whom live on reserve lands. Despite continued efforts, access to health care remains a significant challenge for these Indigenous people, especially those in the North. Objective: To address this challenge, Saskatchewan's health care providers have been incorporating the use of technology for various health services. This paper describes various ways technology has been used in First Nations communities in Saskatchewan...
June 1, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762365/multiplex-real-time-pcr-detection-of-intestinal-protozoa-in-hiv-infected-children-in-malawi-enterocytozoon-bieneusi-is-common-and-associated-with-gastrointestinal-complaints-and-may-delay-bmi-nutritional-status-recovery
#4
Minke H W Huibers, Peter Moons, Nelson Maseko, Monfort B Gushu, Oluwadamilola H Iwajomo, Robert S Heyderman, Michael Boele van Hensbroek, Eric A Brienen, Lisette van Lieshout, Job C J Calis
BACKGROUND: Intestinal protozoa are common opportunistic infections in HIV patients. Longitudinal studies on either the clinical relevance, or the effect of immune reconstitution by anti-retroviral therapy on intestinal protozoan infections are children is lacking however. This study investigates prevalence and clinical relevance of intestinal protozoa in HIV-infected Malawian children prior to and during their first year of ART. METHODS: Stool samples collected at enrolment and during follow-up were tested for non-opportunistic (Giardia lamblia, Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba histolytica) and opportunistic protozoa (Entroctytoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoon spp...
May 14, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762177/neuropsychological-phenotypes-among-men-with-and-without-hiv-disease-in-the-multicenter-aids-cohort-study
#5
Samantha A Molsberry, Yu Cheng, Lawrence Kingsley, Lisa Jacobson, Andrew J Levine, Eileen Martin, Eric N Miller, Cynthia A Munro, Ann Ragin, Ned Sacktor, James T Becker
OBJECTIVE: Mild forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remain prevalent in the combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) era. This study's objective was to identify neuropsychological subgroups within the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) based on the participant-based latent structure of cognitive function and to identify factors associated with subgroups. DESIGN: The MACS is a four-site longitudinal study of the natural and treated history of HIV disease among gay and bisexual men...
May 11, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762173/a-defucosylated-bispecific-multivalent-molecule-exhibits-broad-hiv-1-neutralizing-activity-and-enhanced-adcc-against-reactivated-hiv-1-latently-infected-cells
#6
Desheng Kong, Yan Wang, Ping Ji, Wei Li, Tianlei Ying, Jinghe Huang, Chen Wang, Yanling Wu, Yanping Wang, Weizao Chen, Yanling Hao, Kunxue Hong, Yiming Shao, Dimiter S Dimitrov, Shibo Jiang, Liying Ma
OBJECTIVE: Current treatments cannot completely eradicate HIV-1 owing to the presence of latently infected cells which harbor transcriptionally silent HIV-1. However, defucosylated antibodies can readily kill latently infected cells after their activation to express envelope glycoprotein (Env) through antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). We herein aimed to test a defucosylated bispecific multivalent molecule consisting of domain-antibody and single-domain CD4, LSEVh-LS-F, for its HIV-1 neutralizing activity and ADCC against the reactivated latently infected cells, compared with the non-defucosylated molecule LSEVh-LS...
May 11, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757986/medicinal-plants-used-in-the-treatment-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#7
REVIEW
Bahare Salehi, Nanjangud V Anil Kumar, Bilge Şener, Mehdi Sharifi-Rad, Mehtap Kılıç, Gail B Mahady, Sanja Vlaisavljevic, Marcello Iriti, Farzad Kobarfard, William N Setzer, Seyed Abdulmajid Ayatollahi, Athar Ata, Javad Sharifi-Rad
Since the beginning of the epidemic, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has infected around 70 million people worldwide, most of whom reside is sub-Saharan Africa. There have been very promising developments in the treatment of HIV with anti-retroviral drug cocktails. However, drug resistance to anti-HIV drugs is emerging, and many people infected with HIV have adverse reactions or do not have ready access to currently available HIV chemotherapies. Thus, there is a need to discover new anti-HIV agents to supplement our current arsenal of anti-HIV drugs and to provide therapeutic options for populations with limited resources or access to currently efficacious chemotherapies...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753928/dynamic-changes-of-th1-th2-th17-cytokines-and-human-beta-defensin-2-in-hiv-infected-patients-with-oral-candidiasis-during-the-first-year-of-highly-active-anti-retroviral-therapy
#8
Xiangzhi Yong, Zhenmin Liu, Lanlan Jiang, Renchuan Tao, Wei Liu, Linlin Zhang, Yuanyuan Peng, Xuefang Lin, Yuxiao Huang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the change of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines and human beta defensin 2 (HBD-2) in HIV-infected patients with oral candidiasis (OC) and gather information about OC-specific immunity. DESIGN: During the 1st year of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), 25 HIV-infected patients were followed up at the baseline, 3rd, 6th, 12th month. At each visit, oral manifestations were examined; oral rinses were collected and cultured for Candida; peripheral venous blood was taken to determine CD4 + T cell counts and HIV RNA viral load (VL); both unstimulated whole saliva and peripheral venous blood were taken to determine cytokine (IL-4, IL-17(A/F), IFN-γ) and HBD-2 levels...
May 3, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750804/temporal-compartmental-changes-in-viral-rna-and-neuronal-injury-in-a-primate-model-of-neuroaids
#9
R Gilberto González, Robert Fell, Julian He, Jennifer Campbell, Tricia H Burdo, Patrick Autissier, Lakshmanan Annamalai, Faramarz Taheri, Termara Parker, Jeffrey D Lifson, Elkan F Halpern, Mark Vangel, Eliezer Masliah, Susan V Westmoreland, Kenneth C Williams, Eva-Maria Ratai
Despite the advent of highly active anti-retroviral therapy HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) continue to be a significant problem. Furthermore, the precise pathogenesis of this neurodegeneration is still unclear. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between infection by the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and neuronal injury in the rhesus macaque using in vivo and postmortem sampling techniques. The effect of SIV infection in 23 adult rhesus macaques was investigated using an accelerated NeuroAIDS model...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719774/anti-retroviral-drugs-current-state-and-development-in-the-next-decade
#10
REVIEW
Xingquan Zhang
The pace of discovery of new antiretroviral (ARV) drugs has slowed, although the efficacy and safety of once-daily fixed dose combinations have been extensively investigated. Several traditional ARV drugs remain in phase III clinical trials. This review summarizes current information on ARV drugs in phase III clinical trials and focuses on the development of ARV drugs in the next decade.
March 2018: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705605/the-role-of-catecholamines-in-hiv-neuropathogenesis
#11
R Nolan, P J Gaskill
The success of anti-retroviral therapy has improved the quality of life and lifespan of HIV+ individuals, transforming HIV infection into a chronic condition. These improvements have come with a cost, as chronic HIV infection and long-term therapy have resulted in the emergence of a number of new pathologies. This includes a variety of the neuropathological and neurocognitive effects collectively known as HIVassociated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) or NeuroHIV. These effects persist even in the absence of viral replication, suggesting that they are mediated the long-term changes in the CNS induced by HIV infection rather than by active replication...
April 26, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699043/-dynamic-variations-of-bmi-and-influencing-factors-among-hiv-aids-patients-receiving-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-in-liuzhou-guangxi-zhuang-autonomous-region-2013-2014
#12
H H Chen, B T Fu, Q Y Zhu, H X Lu, L H Luo, L Chen, X H Liu, X J Zhou, J H Huang, X X Feng, G S Shan, Z Y Shen
Objective: To understand the dynamic variation of BMI and influencing factors among HIV/AIDS patients receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in Liuzhou, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Guangxi). Methods: HIV/AIDS patients receiving HAART for the first time since 1 January 2013 were selected. Data on BMI was analyzed among patients receiving HAART at baseline,6 months and 12 months after treatment. By using the general linear model repeated measures of analysis of variance, BMI dynamic variations and influencing factors were described and analyzed...
April 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698718/drug-induced-sarcoidosis-like-reactions-disr
#13
REVIEW
Amit Chopra, Amit Nautiyal, Alexander Kalkanis, Marc A Judson
A drug-induced sarcoidosis-like reaction (DISR) is a systemic granulomatous reaction that is indistinguishable from sarcoidosis and occurs in temporal relationship with initiation of an offending drug. DISRs typically improve or resolve after the withdrawal of offending drug. Four common categories of drugs that have been associated with the development of a DISR are immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), interferons (IFNs) and tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonists (TNF-alpha antagonists)...
April 23, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688853/gender-difference-in-health-related-quality-of-life-and-associated-factors-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-attending-anti-retroviral-therapy-at-public-health-facilities-western-ethiopia-comparative-cross-sectional-study
#14
Delelegn Yilma Gebremichael, Kokeb Tesfamariam Hadush, Ermiyas Mulu Kebede, Robel Tezera Zegeye
BACKGROUND: Though HIV/AIDS has multidimensional consequences on quality of life, there is a gap in measuring and monitoring health related quality of life of HIV/AIDS patients. Hence, this study intended to measure health related quality of life domains and associated determinants among people living with HIV/AIDS in western Ethiopia. METHODS: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among 520 HIV/AIDS patients on anti-retroviral therapy in public health facilities in West Shoa Zone, Western Ethiopia from April to May, 2016...
April 23, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678160/the-increasing-burden-and-complexity-of-multi-morbidity-and-polypharmacy-in-geriatric-hiv-patients-a-cross-sectional-study-of-people-aged-65-74-years-and-more-than-75-years
#15
G Guaraldi, A Malagoli, A Calcagno, C Mussi, B M Celesia, F Carli, S Piconi, G V De Socio, A M Cattelan, G Orofino, A Riva, E Focà, S Nozza, G Di Perri
BACKGROUND: Geriatric Patients Living with HIV/AIDS (GEPPO) is a new prospective observational multicentre cohort consisting of all the HIV-positive geriatric patients being treated at 10 clinics in Italy, and HIV-negative controls attending a single geriatric clinic. The aim of this analysis of the GEPPO cohort was to compare prevalence and risk factors of individual non-communicable diseases (NCD), multi-morbidity (MM) and polypharmacy (PP) amongst HIV positive and HIV negative controls at enrolment into the GEPPO cohort...
April 20, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670213/quercetin-attenuates-azt-induced-neuroinflammation-in-the-cns
#16
Yi Yang, Xiaokang Liu, Ting Wu, Wenping Zhang, Jianhong Shu, Yulong He, Shao-Jun Tang
Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) is very effective in suppressing HIV-1 replication in patients. However, continuous HAART is required to prevent viral rebound, which may have detrimental effects in various tissues, including persistent neuroinflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). Here, we show that quercetin (3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxy flavones), a natural antioxidant used in Chinese traditional medicines, suppresses the neuroinflammation that is induced by chronic exposure to Zidovudine (azidothymidine, AZT), a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) that is commonly part of HAART regimens...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665069/generic-velpatasvir-plus-sofosbuvir-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-patients-with-or-without-human-immunodeficiency-virus-coinfection
#17
C-H Liu, H-Y Sun, C-J Liu, W-H Sheng, S-M Hsieh, Y-C Lo, W-C Liu, T-H Su, H-C Yang, C-M Hong, T-C Tseng, P-J Chen, D-S Chen, C-C Hung, J-H Kao
BACKGROUND: Data are limited regarding the effectiveness and safety of generic velpatasvir plus sofosbuvir (VEL/SOF) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) in patients with or without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of generic VEL/SOF-based therapy for HCV infection in patients with or without HIV coinfection in Taiwan. METHODS: Sixty-nine HIV/HCV-coinfected and 159 HCV-monoinfected patients receiving 12 weeks of generic VEL/SOF with or without ribavirin (RBV) for HCV were prospectively enrolled...
April 17, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664957/killer-cell-immunoglobulin-like-receptors-associate-with-hiv-1-infection-in-a-narrow-source-han-chinese-cohort
#18
Linghang Wang, Yonghong Zhang, Keyi Xu, Tao Dong, Sarah Rowland-Jones, Louis-Marie Yindom
BACKGROUND: The HIV pandemic remains the most serious challenge to public health worldwide. The hallmark characteristics of the disease is the eventual failure of the immune system to control opportunistic infections and death. However not everyone who has HIV develops the disease at the same rate and so we are studying how the immune system works to control the virus in those who have been infected for decades and remain relatively healthy without the need of anti-retroviral therapy (ART)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663828/effect-of-participation-in-a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-an-integrated-palliative-care-intervention-on-hiv-associated-stigma
#19
Keira Lowther, Richard Harding, Victoria Simms, Nancy Gikaara, Aabid Ahmed, Zipporah Ali, Hellen Kariuki, Lorraine Sherr, Irene J Higginson, Lucy Selman
We conducted in Kenya a mixed-methods randomised controlled trial (RCT) of a nurse-led palliative care intervention integrated with anti-retroviral therapy (ART) provision for the management of HIV. Here we report qualitative findings showing increased resistance to HIV-associated stigma among trial participants. A mixed method design was chosen to enable identification of the active ingredients of the intervention and exploration of participants' experiences of receiving the intervention. The RCT was conducted from July 2011 to November 2012 in a community hospital in the city of Mombasa, Kenya, with a sample of 120 adults with HIV on ART...
April 17, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662026/the-hard-way-towards-an-antibody-based-hiv-1-env-vaccine-lessons-from-other-viruses
#20
REVIEW
Oliver Ringel, Vincent Vieillard, Patrice Debré, Jutta Eichler, Hildegard Büning, Ursula Dietrich
Although effective antibody-based vaccines have been developed against multiple viruses, such approaches have so far failed for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Despite the success of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) that has turned HIV-1 infection into a chronic disease and has reduced the number of new infections worldwide, a vaccine against HIV-1 is still urgently needed. We discuss here the major reasons for the failure of "classical" vaccine approaches, which are mostly due to the biological properties of the virus itself...
April 15, 2018: Viruses
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