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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100903/rhodoccocus-equi-pneumonia-and-paradoxical-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-acquired-immune-deficiency-syndrome-aids
#1
Ritika Zijoo, Ahmed Dirweesh, Nigahus Karabulut
BACKGROUND Pulmonary infections are a major cause of mortality and morbidity in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and can progress rapidly to respiratory failure and death without appropriate therapy. Herein, we present a rare case of an advanced HIV infection and Rhodoccocus equi (R. equi) pneumonia in a young male who had severe paradoxical immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). CASE REPORT A 47-year-old nonsmoking Hispanic man with advanced HIV infection presented with severe acute necrotizing pneumonia secondary to R...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099739/associations-between-hiv-highly-active-anti-retroviral-therapy-and-hypertensive-disorders-of-pregnancy-among-maternal-deaths-in-south-africa-2011-2013
#2
Hannah M Sebitloane, Jagidesa Moodley, Benn Sartorius
OBJECTIVE: To explore potential relationships between HIV and highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). METHODS: A retrospective secondary analysis of maternal-deaths data from the 2011-2013 Saving Mothers Report from South Africa. The incidence of HIV infection amongst individuals who died owing to HDP was determined and comparisons were made based on HIV status and the use of HAART. RESULTS: Among 4452 maternal deaths recorded in the Saving Mothers report, a lower risk of a maternal deaths being due to HDP was observed among women who had HIV infections compared with women who did not have HIV (relative risk [RR] 0...
February 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099654/meanings-and-vulnerability-to-hiv-aids-among-long-distance-truck-drivers-in-brazil
#3
Laio Magno, Marcelo Eduardo Pfeiffer Castellanos
OBJECTIVE: To understand the meanings assigned by long-distance truck drivers to HIV/AIDS and its transmission and prevention, bearing in mind different contexts of vulnerability. METHODS: Qualitative research with 22 truck drivers. Semi-structured interviews and participant observation were conducted in highways of the state of Bahia in 2013. We selected male truck drivers, with one year or more of work experience in long-distance routes. We carried out the thematic analysis of the interviews, to identify different contexts of vulnerability...
December 22, 2016: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086929/early-virological-failure-and-hiv-drug-resistance-in-ugandan-adults-co-infected-with-tuberculosis
#4
Amrei von Braun, Christine Sekaggya-Wiltshire, Alexandra U Scherrer, Brian Magambo, Andrew Kambugu, Jan Fehr, Barbara Castelnuovo
PURPOSE: This cross-sectional study took place in the integrated tuberculosis (TB) clinic of a large outpatient clinic for HIV-infected patients in Kampala, Uganda. The purpose of this study was to describe the proportion of TB/HIV co-infected adults with virological failure, type and frequency of HIV drug resistance-associated mutations, and the proportion of patients with suboptimal efavirenz levels. METHODS: HIV-1 plasma viral loads, CD4 cell count measurements, and efavirenz serum concentrations were done in TB/HIV co-infected adults...
January 5, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079886/hiv-1-nef-is-released-in-extracellular-vesicles-derived-from-astrocytes-evidence-for-nef-mediated-neurotoxicity
#5
A Sami Saribas, Stephanie Cicalese, Taha Mohseni Ahooyi, Kamel Khalili, Shohreh Amini, Ilker Kudret Sariyer
Human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurological disorders (HANDs) affect the majority of AIDS patients and are a significant problem among HIV-1-infected individuals who live longer because of combined anti-retroviral therapies. HIV-1 utilizes a number of viral proteins and subsequent cytokine inductions to unleash its toxicity on neurons. Among HIV-1 viral proteins, Nef is a small protein expressed abundantly in astrocytes of HIV-1-infected brains and has been suggested to have a role in the pathogenesis of HAND...
January 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065965/lessons-from-a-seven-year-experience-of-paediatric-hiv-in-pakistan-a-single-centre-experience
#6
Ejaz Ahmed Khan
OBJECTIVE: To describe demographic, clinical and immunologic features of children with human immunodeficiency virus. METHODS: This descriptive study was conducted at the Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, from 2005 to 2011, and comprised children with human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Patients with detailed physical examination and appropriate investigations and those eligible for therapy were included. SPSS 21 was used for data analysis...
January 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064549/mother-to-child-transmission-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-among-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-on-highly-active-anti-retroviral-therapy-with-premature-rupture-of-membranes-at-term
#7
George Uchenna Eleje, Emeka Stephen Edokwe, Joseph Ifeanyichukwu Ikechebelu, Chinyere Ukamaka Onubogu, Ebele Francesca Ugochukwu, Princeston Chukwuemeka Okam, Adaobi Maryann Ibekwe
PURPOSE: To determine mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rate and associated risk factors of human immune-deficiency virus (HIV) among HIV-infected pregnant women with term premature rupture of membranes (PROM) in comparison with those without PROM at term. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All optimally managed HIV-positive pregnant women of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, on highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) who had PROM at term were enrolled. Maternal HIV-1 viral load was not assessed...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061822/cardiovascular-risk-and-endothelial-function-in-people-living-with-hiv-aids-design-of-the-multi-site-longitudinal-endoafrica-study-in-the-western-cape-province-of-south-africa
#8
Hans Strijdom, Patrick De Boever, Gerhard Walzl, M Faadiel Essop, Tim S Nawrot, Ingrid Webster, Corli Westcott, Nyiko Mashele, Frans Everson, Stephanus T Malherbe, Kim Stanley, Harald H Kessler, Evelyn Stelzl, Nandu Goswami
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence of an interaction between HIV-infection, anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Epidemiological studies in Europe and North America have been observing a shift towards an increased incidence of coronary heart disease and acute myocardial infarctions in HIV-infected populations compared to the general population even after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Despite South Africa (and sub-Saharan Africa, SSA) being regarded as the epicentre of the global HIV epidemic, very little is known about the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and precursors of vascular disease in HIV-infected populations in this region...
January 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058107/toxoplasmosis-with-chorioretinitis-in-an-hiv-infected-child-with-no-visual-complaints-importance-of-fundus-examination
#9
Noella Maria Delia Pereira, Ira Shah, Mamatha Lala
Central nervous system lesions are common in HIV-infected patients. In the combination anti-retroviral therapy (ART) era, Toxoplasma reactivation has been observed only in patients with unrecognized HIV infection or refusing therapy. We present the case of 10-year-old girl with AIDS who initially presented with pneumonia. She was treated for pneumonia and thereafter started on ART as her CD4 count was low. However, 5 days after starting ART she presented with left ptosis and right-sided monoparesis. She was diagnosed with neurotoxoplasmosis and responded successfully to pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine therapy...
January 2017: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050758/effect-of-the-anti-retroviral-drugs-efavirenz-tenofovir-and-emtricitabine-on-endothelial-cell-function-role-of-parp
#10
Mary Faltz, Hild Bergin, Elly Pilavachi, Guy Grimwade, Jon G Mabley
Highly active anti-retroviral therapy has proved successful in reducing morbidity and mortality associated with HIV infection though it has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. To date, the direct effects of the anti-retroviral drugs Efavirenz, Tenofovir and Emtricitabine on the vasculature relaxant response have not been elucidated, which impaired may predispose individuals to cardiovascular disease. Increased cellular oxidative stress and overactivation of the DNA repair enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) have been identified as central mediators of vascular dysfunction...
January 3, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049455/effectiveness-of-isoniazid-preventative-therapy-in-reducing-incidence-of-active-tuberculosis-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-public-health-facilities-of-addis-ababa-ethiopia-a-historical-cohort-study
#11
Mahlet Semu, Teferi Gedif Fenta, Girmay Medhin, Dawit Assefa
BACKGROUND: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) pandemic has exacerbated tuberculosis disease especially in Sub-Saharan African countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) and Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) have recommended Isoniazid Preventive Therapy (IPT) for HIV infected patients to reduce the burden of tuberculosis (TB). Ethiopia has been implementing IPT since 2007. However, effectiveness of IPT in averting occurrence of active tuberculosis among HIV infected patients has not been assessed...
January 3, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030621/hiv-clinical-pathway-a-new-approach-to-combine-guidelines-and-sustainability-of-anti-retroviral-treatment-in-italy
#12
Davide Croce, Adriano Lazzarin, Giuliano Rizzardini, Nicola Gianotti, Francesca Scolari, Emanuela Foglia, Elisabetta Garagiola, Elena Ricci, Teresa Bini, Tiziana Quirino, Paolo Viganò, Tiziana Re, Antonella D'Arminio Monforte, Paolo Bonfanti
The present article describes the case study of a "real world" HIV practice within the debate concerning the strategic role of Clinical Governance (CG) tools in the management of a National Healthcare System's sustainability. The study aimed at assessing the impact of a Clinical Pathway (CP) implementation, required by the Regional Healthcare Service, in terms of effectiveness (virological and immunological conditions) and efficiency (economic resources absorption), from the budget holder perspective. Data derived from a multi-centre cohort of patients treated in 6 Hospitals that provided care to approximately 42% of the total HIV+ patients, in Lombardy Region, Italy...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030557/anthropometric-improvement-among-hiv-infected-pre-school-children-following-initiation-of-first-line-anti-retroviral-therapy-implications-for-follow-up
#13
Atnafu Mekonnen Tekleab, Birkneh Tilahun Tadesse, Ababi Zergaw Giref, Damte Shimelis, Meseret Gebre
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a lifesaving intervention for HIV infected children. There is a scarcity of data on immunological recovery and its relation with growth indicators among HIV infected young children. The current study aims to assess the pattern of anthropometric Z-score improvement following initiation of first-line ART among under-five children and the relationship between anthropometric Z-score improvement and immunologic recovery. METHODS: We included under-five children who were on first-line ART at five major hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027281/virologic-response-to-first-line-efavirenz-or-nevirapine-based-anti-retroviral-therapy-in-hiv-infected-african-children
#14
Adeodata Kekitiinwa, Alexander J Szubert, Moira Spyer, Richard Katuramu, Victor Musiime, Tawanda Mhute, Sabrina Bakeera-Kitaka, Oscar Senfuma, Ann Sarah Walker, Diana M Gibb
BACKGROUND: Poorer virologic response to nevirapine vs efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been reported in adult systematic reviews and pediatric studies. METHODS: We compared drug discontinuation and viral load (VL) response in ART-naïve Ugandan/Zimbabwean children ≥3 years of age initiating ART with clinician-chosen nevirapine vs efavirenz in the ARROW trial. Predictors of suppression <80, <400 and <1000 copies/ml at 36, 48 and 144 weeks were identified using multivariable logistic regression with backwards elimination (p=0...
December 23, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025070/a-recombinant-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-encoding-ccr5-tropic-hiv-1-receptors-targets-hiv-1-infected-cells-and-controls-hiv-1-infection
#15
Kazu Okuma, Koji Fukagawa, Takuya Kohma, Youichi Takahama, Yukio Hamaguchi, Mamoru Ito, Yuetsu Tanaka, Linda Buonocore, John K Rose, Isao Hamaguchi
Anti-retroviral therapy is useful to treat human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals, but has some major problems, such as the generation of multidrug-resistant viruses. To develop a novel supplemental or alternative therapeutic for CCR5-tropic (R5) HIV-1 infection, we generated a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) in which the gene encoding its envelope glycoprotein (G) was replaced with the genes encoding R5 HIV-1 receptors (human CD4 and CCR5), designated VSVΔG-CC5. Our present data demonstrate that this rVSV specifically infects cells that are transiently expressing R5 HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, but does not infect those expressing CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins...
December 24, 2016: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013196/assessment-and-management-of-musculoskeletal-disorders-among-patients-living-with-hiv
#16
REVIEW
Karen Walker-Bone, Erin Doherty, Kaushik Sanyal, Duncan Churchill
HIV is a global pandemic. However, anti-retroviral therapy has transformed the prognosis and, providing compliance is good, a normal life expectancy can be anticipated. This has led to increasing numbers of people with chronic prevalent, treated infection living to older ages. Musculoskeletal pain is commonly reported by HIV patients and, with resumption of near-normal immune function, HIV-infected patients develop inflammatory rheumatic diseases that require assessment and management in rheumatology clinics...
December 24, 2016: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012679/how-does-decision-complexity-affect-shared-decision-making-an-analysis-of-patient-provider-antiretroviral-initiation-dialogue
#17
Wynne Callon, Somnath Saha, Ira B Wilson, Michael Barton Laws, Michele Massa, P Todd Korthuis, Victoria Sharp, Jonathan Cohn, Richard D Moore, Mary Catherine Beach
OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed patient-provider dialogue regarding anti-retroviral therapy (ART) initiation, assessing the degree to which shared decision making (SDM) occurred. METHODS: We analyzed 24 audio-recorded dialogues between 14 HIV providers and their patients regarding ART initiation. We coded transcribed dialogues for seven SDM elements. We stratified dialogues into three levels of decision complexity (basic, intermediate, complex) based on patient CD4 counts and evaluated SDM criteria fulfillment at each level of decision complexity...
December 16, 2016: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008980/antiretroviral-treatment-with-efavirenz-disrupts-the-blood-brain-barrier-integrity-and-increases-stroke-severity
#18
Luc Bertrand, Levi Dygert, Michal Toborek
The introduction of antiretroviral drugs (ARVd) changed the prognosis of HIV infection from a deadly disease to a chronic disease. However, even with undetectable viral loads, patients still develop a wide range of pathologies, including cerebrovascular complications and stroke. It is hypothesized that toxic side effects of ARVd may contribute to these effects. To address this notion, we evaluated the impact of several non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI; Efavirenz, Etravirine, Rilpivirine and Nevirapine) on the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, and their impact on severity of stroke...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006698/type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-african-women
#19
REVIEW
Julia H Goedecke, Asanda Mtintsilana, Siphiwe N Dlamini, Andre Pascal Kengne
Compared to global estimates, Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has the highest projected rates of increase in type 2 diabetes (T2D) over the next 25years. This is attributed to the ageing population, increasing urbanisation and the associated lifestyle changes. Although the prevalence does not differ by gender, deaths attributable to T2D in SSA are greater in women, likely due to differences in beliefs and access to care. Women in SSA also have greater risk factor burden for T2D than men, in particular obesity, which is explained in part by sociocultural factors...
December 5, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997758/comprehensive-mass-cytometry-analysis-of-cell-cycle-activation-and-co-inhibitory-receptors-expression-in-cd4-t-cells-from-healthy-and-hiv-infected-individuals
#20
REVIEW
Aurélien Corneau, Antonio Cosma, Sophie Even, Christine Katlama, Roger Legrand, Véronique Frachet, Catherine Blanc, Brigitte Autran
RATIONALE: Mass cytometry allows large multiplex analysis of cell cycle stages together with differentiation, activation and exhaustion markers, allowing further assessment of the quiescence status of resting CD4 T cells. METHODS: peripheral blood CD4 T lymphocytes from 8 individuals, 4 healthy donors (HD) and 4 HIV-infected on anti-retroviral treatment (T) were stained with the same 26 monoclonal antibodies and dyes targeting surface and intra-cellular markers of differentiation, activation, exhaustion and cell cycle stages...
December 20, 2016: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
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