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W Y Zhao, H L Yu, S D Ye, Y S Wu, M Wang, Y F Lao, S H He, Y Yang, X M Ling, Z F Liu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate adherence and the influence factors among patients who are on antiretrovirus therapy (ART) of 3 provinces in China. METHODS: This study selected 18-year-old and older AIDS patients as the survey objects who initiated anti-retrovirus therapy between April and September of 2014 and kept on the treatment for one year in Yunnan,Sichuan,and Hu'nan province. Information of demography, treatment and social support was collected by questionnaires...
April 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
M G Moskvitcheva, Kitmanova L Yu
The organizational technologies of increasing effectiveness ofdispensarization monitoring of HIV-infected persons are to targeted to development in patients commitment to get medical care. The cohort monitoring of registered patients receiving anti-retrovirus therapy permitted to evaluate effectiveness of organizational model of multi-professional team developing commitment ofpatients to anti-retrovirus therapy in conditions of center ofprevention and struggle with AIDS and infectious diseases. The criteria ofeffectiveness offunctioning ofmulti-professional team are developed and implemented The list of criteria include percentage of patients in cohort with optimal commitment (not lower than 95% of applied dosage of anti-retrovirus pharmaceuticals at 12th, 24th, 36th, 48th and 60th month), percentage ofpatients with achieved effect of anti-retrovirus therapy, percentage of patients proceeding anti-retrovirus therapy...
September 2015: Problemy Sot︠s︡ialʹnoĭ Gigieny, Zdravookhranenii︠a︡ i Istorii Medit︠s︡iny
Sebastián Quintremil, Carolina Alberti, Matías Rivera, Fernando Medina, Javier Puente, Luis Cartier, Eugenio Ramírez, Yuetsu Tanaka, M Antonieta Valenzuela
Human lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus causing HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), a neurodegenerative central nervous system (CNS) axonopathy. This virus mainly infects CD4(+) T lymphocytes without evidence of neuronal infection. Viral Tax, secreted from infected lymphocytes infiltrated in the CNS, is proposed to alter intracellular pathways related to axonal cytoskeleton dynamics, producing neurological damage. Previous reports showed a higher proteolytic release of soluble Semaphorin 4D (sSEMA-4D) from CD4(+) T cells infected with HTLV-1...
January 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Justin K Taylor, Christopher M Coleman, Sandra Postel, Jeanne M Sisk, John G Bernbaum, Thiagarajan Venkataraman, Eric J Sundberg, Matthew B Frieman
UNLABELLED: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged in November 2002 as a case of atypical pneumonia in China, and the causative agent of SARS was identified to be a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2; also known as CD317 or tetherin) was initially identified to be a pre-B-cell growth promoter, but it also inhibits the release of virions of the retrovirus human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by tethering budding virions to the host cell membrane...
December 2015: Journal of Virology
Yanhong Wu, Zhenling Deng, Yishu Tang, Shuren Zhang, Yu-Qian Zhang
BACKGROUND: Tumor employs various means to escape immunosurveillance and inhibit immune attack, and strategies have been developed to counteract the inhibitory signals. However, due to the complex suppressive mechanisms in the tumor microenvironment, blocking one or a few inhibitory signals has only limited effects on therapeutic efficacy. Instead of targeting tumor immunosuppression, we considered from another point of view, and hypothesized that manipulating T cells to make them resist any known or unknown suppressive mechanism may be more effective for cancer treatment...
August 27, 2015: BMC Cancer
Zhikui Cheng, Ge Sun, Wei Guo, Yayun Huang, Weihua Sun, Fei Zhao, Kanghong Hu
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the most serious and prevalent viral diseases in the world. Although several anti-HBV drugs have been used clinically, their side and adverse effects limit treatment efficacy. Therefore, it is necessary to identify novel potential anti-HBV agents. The flavonol quercetin has shown activity against some retroviruses, but its effect on HBV remains unclear. In the present study, quercetin was incubated with HepG2.2.15 cells, as well as HuH-7 cells transfected with an HBV plasmid...
August 2015: Virologica Sinica
Amnon Hizi, Eytan Herzig
Retroviruses are among the best studied viruses in last decades due to their pivotal involvement in cellular processes and, most importantly, in causing human diseases, most notably-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) that is triggered by human immunodeficiency viruses types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2, respectively). Numerous studied were conducted to understand the involvement of the three cardinal retroviral enzymes, reverse transcriptase, integrase and protease, in the life cycle of the viruses. These studies have led to the development of many inhibitors of these enzymes as anti-retroviral specific drugs that are used for routine treatments of HIV/AIDS patients...
2015: Retrovirology
Robert A Dick, Siddhartha A K Datta, Hirsh Nanda, Xianyang Fang, Yi Wen, Marilia Barros, Yun-Xing Wang, Alan Rein, Volker M Vogt
UNLABELLED: Previously, no retroviral Gag protein has been highly purified in milligram quantities and in a biologically relevant and active form. We have purified Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) Gag protein and in parallel several truncation mutants of Gag and have studied their biophysical properties and membrane interactions in vitro. RSV Gag is unusual in that it is not naturally myristoylated. From its ability to assemble into virus-like particles in vitro, we infer that RSV Gag is biologically active...
October 2015: Journal of Virology
Qing Wu, Shi-Guo Tang, Zhong-Ming Yuan
The primary function of white adipose tissues is to store excess energy. The current study aimed to investigate the roles of Gremlin 2 (Grem2), a glycoprotein in adipogenesis. Using polymerase chain reaction‑based microarrays, it was determined that Grem2 was markedly downregulated in adipose tissues from obese animals and humans. In addition, 3T3‑L1 cells were used to investigate the details of the mechanisms underlying the anti‑adipogenic effects of Grem2. Grem2 expression was markedly decreased upon the induction of adipocyte differentiation, as demonstrated by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis...
October 2015: Molecular Medicine Reports
Sampa Santra, Georgia D Tomaras, Ranjit Warrier, Nathan I Nicely, Hua-Xin Liao, Justin Pollara, Pinghuang Liu, S Munir Alam, Ruijun Zhang, Sarah L Cocklin, Xiaoying Shen, Ryan Duffy, Shi-Mao Xia, Robert J Schutte, Charles W Pemble Iv, S Moses Dennison, Hui Li, Andrew Chao, Kora Vidnovic, Abbey Evans, Katja Klein, Amit Kumar, James Robinson, Gary Landucci, Donald N Forthal, David C Montefiori, Jaranit Kaewkungwal, Sorachai Nitayaphan, Punnee Pitisuttithum, Supachai Rerks-Ngarm, Merlin L Robb, Nelson L Michael, Jerome H Kim, Kelly A Soderberg, Elena E Giorgi, Lily Blair, Bette T Korber, Christiane Moog, Robin J Shattock, Norman L Letvin, Joern E Schmitz, M A Moody, Feng Gao, Guido Ferrari, George M Shaw, Barton F Haynes
HIV-1 mucosal transmission begins with virus or virus-infected cells moving through mucus across mucosal epithelium to infect CD4+ T cells. Although broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) are the type of HIV-1 antibodies that are most likely protective, they are not induced with current vaccine candidates. In contrast, antibodies that do not neutralize primary HIV-1 strains in the TZM-bl infection assay are readily induced by current vaccine candidates and have also been implicated as secondary correlates of decreased HIV-1 risk in the RV144 vaccine efficacy trial...
August 2015: PLoS Pathogens
Michio Nakaya
Apoptotic cells generated during development and immune responses in animals are rapidly engulfed by phagocytes, such as macrophages and dendritic cells. When the engulfment process malfunctions, the apoptotic cells undergo secondary necrosis, which results in the release of noxious cellular components into the extracellular space. Thus, the efficient clearance of apoptotic cells is indispensable for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying the engulfment of apoptotic cells remain largely unknown...
2015: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Donato Rigante, Susanna Esposito
Extensive work on experimental animal models clearly demonstrates that infectious agents can break immunological tolerance to self-antigens and induce autoimmune disorders, mainly systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The establishment of a causative link between infections and autoimmunity has been largely studied in a host of clinical studies, proving the role of infectious agents in the induction, as well as in the progression or exacerbation of SLE. However, we are far from a plain understanding of microbial-host interactions in the pathogenesis of SLE...
2015: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Elisabeth Littwitz-Salomon, Ilseyar Akhmetzyanova, Cecilia Vallet, Sandra Francois, Ulf Dittmer, Kathrin Gibbert
BACKGROUND: It is well established that effector T cell responses are crucial for the control of most virus infections, but they are often tightly controlled by regulatory T cells (Treg) to minimize immunopathology. NK cells also contribute to virus control but it is not known if their antiviral effect is influenced by virus-induced Tregs as well. We therefore analyzed whether antiretroviral NK cell functions are inhibited by Tregs during an acute Friend retrovirus infection of mice. RESULTS: Selective depletion of Tregs by using the transgenic DEREG mouse model resulted in improved NK cell proliferation, maturation and effector cell differentiation...
2015: Retrovirology
Tobias Derfuss, François Curtin, Claudia Guebelin, Claire Bridel, Maria Rasenack, Alain Matthey, Renaud Du Pasquier, Myriam Schluep, Jules Desmeules, Alois B Lang, Hervé Perron, Raphael Faucard, Hervé Porchet, Hans-Peter Hartung, Ludwig Kappos, Patrice H Lalive
GNbAC1 is a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting MSRV-Env, an endogenous retroviral protein, which is expressed in multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions, is pro-inflammatory and inhibits oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation. This paper describes the open-label extension up to 12months of a trial testing GNbAC1 in 10 MS patients at 2 and 6mg/kg. The primary objective was to assess GNbAC1 safety, and other objectives were pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic assessments. During the extended study, no safety issues occurred in the 8 remaining patients...
August 15, 2015: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Sebastian Frese, Matthias Ruebner, Frank Suhr, Thierry M Konou, Kim A Tappe, Marco Toigo, Hans H Jung, Christine Henke, Ruth Steigleder, Pamela L Strissel, Hanna Huebner, Matthias W Beckmann, Piet van der Keylen, Benedikt Schoser, Thorsten Schiffer, Laura Frese, Wilhelm Bloch, Reiner Strick
Myogenesis is defined as growth, differentiation and repair of muscles where cell fusion of myoblasts to multinucleated myofibers is one major characteristic. Other cell fusion events in humans are found with bone resorbing osteoclasts and placental syncytiotrophoblasts. No unifying gene regulation for natural cell fusions has been found. We analyzed skeletal muscle biopsies of competitive cyclists for muscle-specific attributes and expression of human endogenous retrovirus (ERV) envelope genes due to their involvement in cell fusion of osteoclasts and syncytiotrophoblasts...
2015: PloS One
Stephen H Hughes
The enzyme reverse transcriptase (RT) was discovered in retroviruses almost 50 years ago. The demonstration that other types of viruses, and what are now called retrotransposons, also replicated using an enzyme that could copy RNA into DNA came a few years later. The intensity of the research in both the process of reverse transcription and the enzyme RT was greatly stimulated by the recognition, in the mid-1980s, that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was a retrovirus and by the fact that the first successful anti-HIV drug, azidothymidine (AZT), is a substrate for RT...
April 2015: Microbiology Spectrum
Ulrike Jung, Kevin Urak, Maxime Veillette, Marie-Édith Nepveu-Traversy, Quang Toan Pham, Sophie Hamel, John J Rossi, Lionel Berthoux
Current HIV-1 gene therapy approaches aim at stopping the viral life cycle at its earliest steps, such as entry or immediate postentry events. Among the most widely adopted strategies are CCR5 downregulation/knockout and the use of broadly neutralizing antibodies. However, the long-term efficacy and side effects are still unclear. TRIM5α is an interferon-stimulated restriction factor that can intercept incoming retroviruses within one hour of cytosolic entry and potently inhibit the infectivity of restriction-sensitive viruses...
October 2015: Human Gene Therapy
John L Goodier, Gavin C Pereira, Ling E Cheung, Rebecca J Rose, Haig H Kazazian
Intrinsic immunity describes the set of recently discovered but poorly understood cellular mechanisms that specifically target viral pathogens. Their discovery derives in large part from intensive studies of HIV and SIV that revealed restriction factors acting at various stages of the retroviral life cycle. Recent studies indicate that some factors restrict both retroviruses and retrotransposons but surprisingly in ways that may differ. We screened known interferon-stimulated antiviral proteins previously untested for their effects on cell culture retrotransposition...
May 2015: PLoS Genetics
Weimin Wu, Kirsten K Dietze, Kathrin Gibbert, Karl S Lang, Mirko Trilling, Huimin Yan, Jun Wu, Dongliang Yang, Mengji Lu, Michael Roggendorf, Ulf Dittmer, Jia Liu
We have previously shown that Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists contribute to the control of viral infection by augmenting virus-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses. It is also well established that signaling by TLRs results in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 6 (IL-6). However, how these pro-inflammatory cytokines influence the virus-specific CD8(+) T-cell response during the TLR agonist stimulation remained largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of TLR-induced IL-6 in shaping virus-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses in the Friend retrovirus (FV) mouse model...
2015: Scientific Reports
P Potměšil, A Holý, Z Zídek
Acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs) are potent antiviral agents effective against replication of DNA viruses and retroviruses including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Prototype compound 9-(R)-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine (tenofovir) is a principal component of drugs widely used in the treatment of HIV infection (Viread, Truvada). Besides their antimetabolic mode of action, ANPs possess immunomodulatory properties. A number of them have been previously found to stimulate secretion of cytokines and anti-HIV effective chemokines...
2015: Folia Biologica (Praha)
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