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cerebrovascular reserve

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643877/cerebral-haemodynamic-response-to-somatosensory-stimulation-in-neonatal-lambs
#1
Shinji Nakamura, David W Walker, Flora Y Wong
The neurovascular coupling response has been defined for the adult brain but in the neonate non-invasive measurement of local cerebral perfusion using NIRS or BOLD fMRI have yielded variable and inconsistent results, including negative responses suggesting decreased perfusion and localised tissue tissue hypoxia. Also, the impact of permissive hypercapnia (Pa CO2  > 50 mmHg) in the management of neonates on cerebrovascular responses to somatosensory input is unknown. Using NIRS to measure changes in cerebral oxy- and deoxy-haemoglobin (ΔoxyHb, ΔdeoxyHb) in 8 anaesthetised newborn lambs, we studied the cerebral haemodynamic functional response to left median nerve stimulation using stimulus trains of 1...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597991/lack-of-linear-correlation-between-dynamic-and-steady-state-cerebral-autoregulation
#2
Daan L K de Jong, Takashi Tarumi, Jie Liu, Rong Zhang, Jurgen A H R Claassen
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between dynamic (dCA) and steady-state cerebral autoregulation (sCA). In 28 healthy older adults, sCA was quantified by a linear regression slope of proportionate (%) changes in cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) in response to proportionate (%) changes in mean blood pressure (BP) induced by stepwise sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and phenylephrine (PhE) infusion. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured at the internal carotid (ICA) and vertebral (VA) artery and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) at the middle cerebral artery (MCA)...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544528/micellar-electrokinetic-capillary-chromatography-fingerprints-combined-with-multivariate-statistical-analyses-to-evaluate-the-quality-consistency-and-predict-the-fingerprint-efficacy-relationship-of-salviae-miltiorrhizae-radix-et-rhizoma-danshen
#3
Yujing Zhang, Lanping Yang, Jing Zhang, Min Shi, Guoxiang Sun
Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography fingerprinting combined with quantification was successfully established and applied to evaluate the quality consistency of Danshen, which is a medicinal herb used to treat various diseases, especially coronary cerebrovascular diseases. A background electrolyte composed of 20 mmol/L sodium tetraborate, 90 mmol/L orthoboric acid, 25 mmol/L sodium phosphate monobasic dehydrate, and 65 mmol/L sodium dodecyl sulfate was used to separate compounds. To optimize micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography conditions, a response surface strategy was set up for orthogonal experimental design...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543703/self-rated-physical-fitness-and-estimated-maximal-oxygen-uptake-in-relation-to-all-cause-and-cause-specific-mortality
#4
Alina Solomon, Katja Borodulin, Tiia Ngandu, Miia Kivipelto, Tiina Laatikainen, Jenni Kulmala
This study investigated the longitudinal associations of self-rated physical fitness and estimated maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. A total of 59 741 participants in the Finnish National FINRISK Study Cohort had data on self-rated physical fitness and covariates. A subsample of 4 823 participants had estimated VO2max data. Follow-up ranged from 3 to 38 years. Associations of self-rated physical fitness and VO2max with mortality were analysed using multivariate Cox proportional hazard models...
May 24, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529871/subtle-alterations-in-cerebrovascular-reactivity-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-detected-by-graph-theoretical-analysis-and-not-by-the-standard-approach
#5
Carlos A Sánchez-Catasús, Gretel Sanabria-Diaz, Antoon Willemsen, Eduardo Martinez-Montes, Juan Samper-Noa, Angel Aguila-Ruiz, Ronald Boellaard, Peter De Deyn, Rudi A J O Dierckx, Lester Melie-Garcia
There is growing support that cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) in response to a vasodilatory challenge, also defined as the cerebrovascular reserve, is reduced in Alzheimer's disease dementia. However, this is less clear in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The current standard analysis may not reflect subtle abnormalities in CVR. In this study, we aimed to investigate vasodilatory-induced changes in the topology of the cerebral blood flow correlation (CBFcorr) network to study possible network-related CVR abnormalities in MCI...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494142/blood-pressure-circadian-rhythms-and-adverse-outcomes-in-type-2-diabetes-patients-diagnosed-with-orthostatic-hypotension
#6
Jing Chang, Yuan-Ping Hou, Jin-Ling Wu, Xiang-Yang Fang, Sheng-Li Li, Miao-Bing Liu, Qian-Mei Sun
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Patients with diabetes frequently develop orthostatic hypotension (OH). The present study was designed to examine the relationship of blood pressure (BP) circadian rhythms and outcomes in diabetes with OH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, 173 inpatients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled. Patients were divided into an OH group and a non-OH group according to the BP changes detected in the supine and standing position. Then, 24-h ambulatory BP was monitored...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454829/design-and-rationale-of-the-compare-acute-trial-fractional-flow-reserve-guided-primary-multivessel-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-to-improve-guideline-indexed-actual-standard-of-care-for-treatment-of-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction-in-patients-with-multivessel
#7
Pieter C Smits, Amira Assaf, Gert Richardt, Elmir Omerovic, Mohamed Abdel-Wahab, Franz-Joseph Neumann
What the best strategy is for nonculprit lesions in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients presenting with multivessel disease remains a clinical dilemma. Based on recent clinical studies suggesting that complete revascularization in the acute phase is beneficial, the European Society of Cardiology and American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines have been recently changed from class 3 discouragement to a class 2B recommendation concerning the treatment of the nonculprit lesions in the acute index procedure...
April 2017: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453191/naringenin-prevents-ischemic-stroke-damage-via-anti-apoptotic-and-anti-oxidant-effects
#8
Kaihua Wang, Zhenzhen Chen, Jianmin Huang, Longjian Huang, Ning Luo, Xiulin Liang, Mingkun Liang, Wei Xie
Apoptosis and oxidative stress are considered to be the major factors associated with the development and progression of many ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. Naringenin (NAR) is an abundant flavanone in citrus plants and has been found to exhibit anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic and anti-apoptotic effects. This study aimed to investigate the anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant effects of naringenin on ischemic stroke. In vitro, cortical neuron cells isolated from the brains of neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, oxygen and glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/Rep), NAR-L, NAR-M and NAR-H groups...
April 28, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439921/impact-of-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-and-intermittent-hypoxia-on-cardiovascular-and-cerebrovascular-regulation
#9
Andrew E Beaudin, Xavier Waltz, Patrick J Hanly, Marc J Poulin
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, a consequence attributed in part to chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) resulting from repetitive apnoeas during sleep. Although findings from experimental animal, and human, models have shown that IH is detrimental to vascular regulation, the severity of IH used in many of these animal studies (e.g. inspired fraction of oxygen (FI O2 ) = 2-3%; oxygen desaturation index (ODI) = 120 events h(-1) ) is considerably greater than that observed in the majority of patients with OSA...
April 24, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411395/a-longitudinal-study-of-smokeless-tobacco-use-and-mortality-in-the-united-states
#10
David S Timberlake, Dmitriy Nikitin, Norman J Johnson, Sean F Altekruse
Few studies in the United States have examined longitudinally the mortality risks associated with use of smokeless tobacco (SLT). The sample of our study was composed of participants from the National Longitudinal Mortality Study who completed a single Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey between the years 1985 and 2011. Using survival methods, SLT use at the baseline survey was examined as a predictor of all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortalities in models that excluded individuals who had ever smoked cigarettes, cigars or used pipes (final n = 349,282)...
July 15, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394022/limited-versus-full-sternotomy-for-aortic-valve-replacement
#11
REVIEW
Bilal H Kirmani, Sion G Jones, S C Malaisrie, Darryl A Chung, Richard Jnn Williams
BACKGROUND: Aortic valve disease is a common condition that is easily treatable with cardiac surgery. This is conventionally performed by opening the sternum longitudinally down the centre ("median sternotomy") and replacing the valve under cardiopulmonary bypass. Median sternotomy is generally well tolerated, but as less invasive options have become available, the efficacy of limited incisions has been called into question. In particular, the effects of reducing the visibility and surgical access has raised safety concerns with regards to the placement of cannulae, venting of the heart, epicardial wire placement, and de-airing of the heart at the end of the procedure...
April 10, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391400/altered-cerebral-blood-flow-and-cerebrovascular-function-after-voluntary-exercise-in-adult-mice
#12
Lindsay S Cahill, Jonathan Bishop, Lisa M Gazdzinski, Adrienne Dorr, Bojana Stefanovic, John G Sled
The beneficial effects of physical exercise on brain health are well documented, yet how exercise modulates cerebrovascular function is not well understood. This study used continuous arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging with a hypercapnic challenge to examine changes in cerebral blood flow and vascular function after voluntary exercise in healthy, adult mice. Thirty exercise mice and twenty-one control mice were imaged prior to the start of the exercise regime (at 12 weeks of age) and after 4 weeks of voluntary exercise...
April 8, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371437/percutaneous-coronary-intervention-versus-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-for-left-main-coronary-artery-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#13
Sharan P Sharma, Khagendra Dahal, Jaspreet Khatra, Alan Rosenfeld, Juyoung Lee
BACKGROUND: It is not clear whether Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) is as effective and safe as Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) for left main coronary artery disease. We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared PCI and CABG in left main coronary disease. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, Scopus and relevant references for RCTs (inception through, November 20, 2016 without language restrictions) and performed meta-analysis using random effects model...
March 30, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353154/physiome-approach-for-the-analysis-of-vascular-flow-reserve-in-the-heart-and-brain
#14
REVIEW
Kyung Eun Lee, Ah-Jin Ryu, Eun-Seok Shin, Eun Bo Shim
This work reviews the key aspects of coronary and neurovascular flow reserves with an emphasis on physiomic modeling characteristics by the use of a variety of numerical approaches. First, we explain the definition of fractional flow reserve (FFR) in coronary artery and introduce its clinical significance. Then, computational researches for obtaining FFR are reviewed, and their clinical outcomes are compared. In the case of cerebrovascular reserve (CVR), in spite of substantial progress in the simulation of cerebral hemodynamics, only a few computational studies exist...
March 28, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317428/fractional-flow-reserve-guided-multivessel-angioplasty-in-myocardial-infarction
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Pieter C Smits, Mohamed Abdel-Wahab, Franz-Josef Neumann, Bianca M Boxma-de Klerk, Ketil Lunde, Carl E Schotborgh, Zsolt Piroth, David Horak, Adrian Wlodarczak, Paul J Ong, Rainer Hambrecht, Oskar Angerås, Gert Richardt, Elmir Omerovic
BACKGROUND: In patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), the use of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to restore blood flow in an infarct-related coronary artery improves outcomes. The use of PCI in non-infarct-related coronary arteries remains controversial. METHODS: We randomly assigned 885 patients with STEMI and multivessel disease who had undergone primary PCI of an infarct-related coronary artery in a 1:2 ratio to undergo complete revascularization of non-infarct-related coronary arteries guided by fractional flow reserve (FFR) (295 patients) or to undergo no revascularization of non-infarct-related coronary arteries (590 patients)...
March 30, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283374/outcomes-after-a-left-anterior-descending-artery-endarterectomy-in-advanced-coronary-artery-disease
#16
Charalampos Katselis, George Samanidis, Anastasia Papasotiriou, George Karatasakis, Ioannis Nenekidis, Eftichia Demerouti, Theofani Antoniou, Konstantinos Perreas
BACKGROUND: Coronary endarterectomy albeit infrequently utilized remains a pivotal treatment modality for advanced atherosclerotic heart disease. Benefits of coronary endarterectomy are explored in terms of better mid-term survival, freedom of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events and improved left ventricular ejection fraction. METHODS: 50 patients with coronary artery disease including extensive diffuse LAD disease underwent a left anterior descending artery endarterectomy with coronary by-pass grafting and left internal mammary artery as conduit between 2006 and 2014...
February 21, 2017: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224671/outcomes-after-diagnosis-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-in-a-large-autopsy-series
#17
Erin L Abner, Richard J Kryscio, Frederick A Schmitt, David W Fardo, Daniela C Moga, Eseosa T Ighodaro, Gregory A Jicha, Lei Yu, Hiroko H Dodge, Chengjie Xiong, Randall L Woltjer, Julie A Schneider, Nigel J Cairns, David A Bennett, Peter T Nelson
OBJECTIVE: To determine clinical and neuropathological outcomes following a clinical diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: Data were drawn from a large autopsy series (N = 1,337) of individuals followed longitudinally from normal or MCI status to death, derived from 4 Alzheimer Disease (AD) Centers in the United States. RESULTS: Mean follow-up was 7.9 years. Of the 874 individuals ever diagnosed with MCI, final clinical diagnoses were varied: 39...
April 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207204/concise-review-increasing-the-validity-of-cerebrovascular-disease-models-and-experimental-methods-for-translational-stem-cell-research
#18
REVIEW
Johannes Boltze, Franziska Nitzsche, Jukka Jolkkonen, Gesa Weise, Claudia Pösel, Björn Nitzsche, Daniel-Christoph Wagner
Interspecies differences, anatomical and physiological aspects, as wells as simplified study designs contribute to an overestimation of treatment effects and limit the transferability of experimental results into clinical applications. Confounders of cell therapies for cerebrovascular disorders (CVD) include common CVD comorbidities, frequent medications potentially affecting endogenous and transplanted stem cells, as well as age- and immune-system-related effects. All those can contribute to a substantial modeling bias, ultimately limiting the prospective quality of preclinical research programs regarding the clinical value of a particular cell therapy...
February 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185318/cognitive-function-after-heart-transplantation-comparing-everolimus-based-and-calcineurin-inhibitor-based-regimens
#19
Britta S Bürker, Lars Gullestad, Einar Gude, Anne Relbo Authen, Ingelin Grov, Per K Hol, Arne K Andreassen, Satish Arora, Mary Amanda Dew, Arnt E Fiane, Ira R Haraldsen, Ulrik F Malt, Stein Andersson
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown conflicting results concerning the occurrence of cognitive impairment after successful heart transplantation (HTx). Another unresolved issue is the possible differential impact of immunosuppressants on cognitive function. In this study, we describe cognitive function in a cohort of HTx recipients and subsequently compare cognitive function between subjects on either everolimus- or calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-based immunosuppression. METHODS: Cognitive function, covering attention, processing speed, executive functions, memory, and language functions, was assessed with a neuropsychological test battery...
April 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152241/invalidation-of-fmri-experiments-secondary-to-neurovascular-uncoupling-in-patients-with-cerebrovascular-disease
#20
Andrea E Para, Kevin Sam, Julien Poublanc, Joseph A Fisher, Adrian P Crawley, David J Mikulis
PURPOSE: Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a technique used to infer neuronal activity from the observed changes in blood flow. Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) is the ability of arterioles to increase blood flow in response to vasodilatory stimulus. We hypothesize that in areas of disease where there is exhausted vascular reserve and impaired CVR there will be diminished blood flow response following neuronal activation, and that these areas would appear as false-negative tests on BOLD fMRI...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
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