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cerebrovascular reserve

Sven Haller, Greg Zaharchuk, David L Thomas, Karl-Olof Lovblad, Frederik Barkhof, Xavier Golay
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technique used to assess cerebral blood flow noninvasively by magnetically labeling inflowing blood. In this article, the main labeling techniques, notably pulsed and pseudocontinuous ASL, as well as emerging clinical applications will be reviewed. In dementia, the pattern of hypoperfusion on ASL images closely matches the established patterns of hypometabolism on fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) images due to the close coupling of perfusion and metabolism in the brain...
November 2016: Radiology
Christopher D Anderson, Guido J Falcone, Chia-Ling Phuah, Farid Radmanesh, H Bart Brouwers, Thomas W K Battey, Alessandro Biffi, Gina M Peloso, Dajiang J Liu, Alison M Ayres, Joshua N Goldstein, Anand Viswanathan, Steven M Greenberg, Magdy Selim, James F Meschia, Devin L Brown, Bradford B Worrall, Scott L Silliman, David L Tirschwell, Matthew L Flaherty, Peter Kraft, Jeremiasz M Jagiella, Helena Schmidt, Björn M Hansen, Jordi Jimenez-Conde, Eva Giralt-Steinhauer, Roberto Elosua, Elisa Cuadrado-Godia, Carolina Soriano, Koen M van Nieuwenhuizen, Catharina J M Klijn, Kristiina Rannikmae, Neshika Samarasekera, Rustam Al-Shahi Salman, Catherine L Sudlow, Ian J Deary, Andrea Morotti, Alessandro Pezzini, Joanna Pera, Andrzej Urbanik, Alexander Pichler, Christian Enzinger, Bo Norrving, Joan Montaner, Israel Fernandez-Cadenas, Pilar Delgado, Jaume Roquer, Arne Lindgren, Agnieszka Slowik, Reinhold Schmidt, Chelsea S Kidwell, Steven J Kittner, Salina P Waddy, Carl D Langefeld, Goncalo Abecasis, Cristen J Willer, Sekar Kathiresan, Daniel Woo, Jonathan Rosand
OBJECTIVE: In observational epidemiologic studies, higher plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) has been associated with increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). DNA sequence variants that decrease cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene activity increase plasma HDL-C; as such, medicines that inhibit CETP and raise HDL-C are in clinical development. Here, we test the hypothesis that CETP DNA sequence variants associated with higher HDL-C also increase risk for ICH...
September 22, 2016: Annals of Neurology
William K Karlsson, Caspar G Sørensen, Christina Kruuse
Endothelial dysfunction (ED), in particular cerebral ED, may be an essential biomarker for ischemic cerebrovascular disease. However, there is no consensus on methods to best estimate cerebral ED. In this systematic review, we evaluate the use of L-arginine and N(G) -monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) for assessment of cerebral ED. A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library was done. We included studies investigating cerebrovascular response to L-arginine or L-NMMA in human subjects with vascular risk factors or ischemic cerebrovascular disease...
October 5, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Patrick B Trotter, Matthew Robb, William Hulme, Dominic Summers, Christopher J E Watson, Andrew J Bradley, James Neuberger
BACKGROUND: Deceased organ donors, where the cause of death is meningitis or encephalitis, are a potential concern because of the risks of transmission of a potentially fatal infection to recipients. METHODS: Using the UK Transplant Registry, a retrospective cohort analysis of deceased organ donors in the UK was undertaken to better understand the extent to which organs from deceased donors with meningitis and encephalitis (M/E) (of both known and unknown cause) have been used for transplantation, and to determine the associated recipient outcomes...
October 4, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Paul G Ince, Thais Minett, Gill Forster, Carol Brayne, Stephen B Wharton
INTRODUCTION: Microinfarcts, small ischaemic foci common in ageing brain, are associated with dementia and gait dysfunction. We determined their relationship to dementia, mobility and cerebrovascular disease in an older population-representative brain donor cohort. These data on microinfarcts were evaluated in relation to pathological assessments of clinically significant cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). METHODS: Microinfarcts were assessed in the MRC Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (n=331)...
September 24, 2016: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
Chia-To Wang, Eric Chuang, Der-Jen Yen, Tien-Yow Chuang, Chih-Hsin Muo, Chia-Hung Kao
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to determine the prevalence, subtypes and risk factors of first-ever stroke following hip replacement (HR) in a large population of Taiwan. METHODS: Using the National Health Insurance system of Taiwan, we identified patients undergoing HR from 2000 to 2011 and randomly selected 4 : 1 age- and sex-matched controls for each HR patients. The index date for HR patients was defined the date for HR. All study subjects were followed from the index date until stroke occurred at admission...
September 20, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Erica N Chirico, Vanessa Di Cataldo, Fabien Chauveau, Alain Geloën, David Patsouris, Benoît Thézé, Cyril Martin, Hubert Vidal, Jennifer Rieusset, Vincent Pialoux, Emmanuelle Canet-Soulas
BACKGROUND: Vascular brain lesions, present in advanced atherosclerosis, share pathological hallmarks with peripheral vascular lesions, such as increased inflammation and oxidative stress. Physical activity reduces these peripheral risk factors, but its cerebrovascular effect is less documented, especially by non-invasive imaging. OBJECTIVES: Through a combination of in-vivo and post-mortem techniques, we aimed at characterizing vascular brain damage in old ApoE(-/-) mice fed a high cholesterol (HC) diet with dietary controlled intake...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Fen Yang, Wenqian Shi, Jin Shi, Yingqian Zhang, Yanwei Yin, Huiping Shi, DaWei Chen
PURPOSE/AIM OF THE STUDY: Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) is an important marker for assessing cerebrovascular disease. This study assessed the CVR by perfusion computed tomography (CT) and CO2 inhalation tests in patients with unilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-one patients with unilateral MCA stenosis disease diagnosed by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were studied. Patients were divided into two groups according to the degree of stenosis: severe and moderate...
September 13, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
Anusha Mishra
Astrocytes are the most common glial cells in the brain with fine processes and endfeet that intimately contact both neuronal synapses and the cerebral vasculature. They play an important role in mediating neurovascular coupling (NVC) via several astrocytic Ca(2+) -dependent signalling pathways such as K(+) release through BK channels, and the production and release of arachidonic acid metabolites. They are also involved in maintaining the resting tone of the cerebral vessels by releasing ATP and COX-1 derivatives...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Guillaume Sarrabayrouse, Christine Pich, Iotefa Teiti, Anne Françoise Tilkin-Mariame
Melanoma is a highly lethal cutaneous tumor, killing affected patients through development of multiple poorly immunogenic metastases. Suboptimal activation of immune system by melanoma cells is often due to molecular modifications occurring during tumor progression that prevent efficient recognition of melanoma cells by immune effectors. Statins are HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, which block the mevalonate synthesis pathway, used by millions of people as hypocholesterolemic agents in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases...
September 12, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Christina D Bruce, Craig D Steinback, Uday V Chauhan, Jamie R Pfoh, Maria Abrosimova, Emily R Vanden Berg, Rachel J Skow, Margie H Davenport, Trevor A Day
The central respiratory chemoreflex contributes to blood gas homeostasis, particularly in response to accumulation of brainstem CO2 . Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) affects chemoreceptor stimulation inversely through CO2 washout from brainstem tissue. Voluntary breath-holding imposes alterations in blood gases, eliciting respiratory chemoreflexes, potentially contributing to breath-hold duration (i.e., break-point). However, the effects of cerebrovascular reactivity on break-point have yet to be determined...
September 12, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Harshan Ravi, Peiying Liu, Shin-Lei Peng, Hanli Liu, Hanzhang Lu
Hemodynamic mapping using gas inhalation has received increasing interest in recent years. Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), which reflects the ability of the brain vasculature to dilate in response to a vasoactive stimulus, can be measured by CO2 inhalation with continuous acquisition of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance images. Cerebral blood volume (CBV) can be measured by O2 inhalation. These hemodynamic mapping methods are appealing because of their absence of gadolinium contrast agent, their ability to assess both baseline perfusion and vascular reserve, and their utility in calibrating the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal...
November 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
Aileen Schroeter, Joanes Grandjean, Felix Schlegel, Bechara J Saab, Markus Rudin
Previously, we reported widespread bilateral increases in stimulus-evoked functional magnetic resonance imaging signals in mouse brain to unilateral sensory paw stimulation. We attributed the pattern to arousal-related cardiovascular changes overruling cerebral autoregulation thereby masking specific signal changes elicited by local neuronal activity. To rule out the possibility that interhemispheric neuronal communication might contribute to bilateral functional magnetic resonance imaging responses, we compared stimulus-evoked functional magnetic resonance imaging responses to unilateral hindpaw stimulation in acallosal I/LnJ, C57BL/6, and BALB/c mice...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Przemyslaw Puz, Anetta Lasek-Bal, Tomasz Urbanek, Zofia Kazibutowska
AIM: Carotid artery stenosis can result in the brain tissue injury related to the intracranial aterial flow disturbances as well as microembolic complications. The choice of the proper therapy in patients with carotid artery stenosis, especially asymptomatic, remains still a significant clinical problem. The study aim was an assessment of the cerebral embolism and brain vascular reserve parameters in patients with carotid artery stenosis regarding the occurrence of the clinical symptoms, the degree of stenosis as well as plaque morphology...
2016: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
Nusrat Matin, Paulo W Pires, Hannah Garver, William F Jackson, Anne M Dorrance
OBJECTIVE: Chronic hypertension induces detrimental changes in the structure and function of surface cerebral arteries. Very little is known about parenchymal arterioles (PAs), which perfuse distinct neuronal populations in the cortex and may play a role in cerebrovascular disorders. We investigated the effect of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt induced hypertension on endothelial function and artery structure in PAs and middle cerebral arteries (MCAs). METHODS: Uninephrectomized male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with a subcutaneous pellet containing DOCA (150 mg/kg b...
September 2, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
Houchun H Hu, Zhiqiang Li, Amber L Pokorney, Jonathan M Chia, Niccolo Stefani, James G Pipe, Jeffrey H Miller
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the clinical feasibility of a new non-Cartesian cylindrically-distributed spiral 3D pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pulse sequence in pediatric patients in quantifying cerebral blood flow (CBF) response to an acetazolamide (ACZ) vasodilator challenge. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MRI exams were performed on two 3 Tesla Philips Ingenia systems using 32 channel head coil arrays. After local institutional review board approval, the 3D spiral-based pCASL technique was added to a standard brain MRI exam and evaluated in 13 pediatric patients (average age: 11...
August 28, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
M Czabanka, A Boschi, G Acker, P Peña-Tapia, G A Schubert, P Schmiedek, P Vajkoczy
BACKGROUND: Moyamoya disease (MMD) may be graded based on DSA, the presence of ischemia in MRI and cerebrovascular reserve capacity allowing the prediction of ischemic symptoms in patients. Cerebral ischemia represents a severe complication in revascularization surgery. Focusing on different clinical features of hemodynamic impairment, MMD grading may allow prediction of ischemic complications. It was the aim to analyze whether MMD grading stratifies for ischemic complications in revascularization surgery for MMD...
October 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
Andreas Oldag, Jens Neumann, Michael Goertler, Hermann Hinrichs, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Andreas Kupsch, Catherine M Sweeney-Reed, Klaus Kopitzki
The measurement of autoregulatory delay by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been proposed as an alternative technique to assess cerebral autoregulation, which is routinely assessed via transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) in most centers. Comparitive studies of NIRS and TCD, however, are largely missing. We investigated whether cerebrovascular reserve (CVR), as assessed via TCD, correlates with the delay of the autoregulatory response to changes in arterial blood pressure (ABP) as assessed by NIRS, i...
November 2016: Journal of Neurology
J David Spence
In recent years, there have been a number of advances in the pathogenesis and treatment of atherosclerosis and in assessing prognosis in carotid atherosclerosis. Risk stratification to improve vascular prevention by identifying patients most likely to benefit from intensive therapy is much improved by measuring carotid plaque burden. In patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis, a number of modalities can be used to identify the 10-15% who could benefit from endarterectomy or stenting. Transcranial Doppler embolus detection, echolucency and ulceration on 3D ultrasound, intraplaque hemorrhage on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and reduced cerebrovascular reserve are useful already; new approaches including plaque texture on ultrasound and imaging of plaque inflammation and early calcification on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) are in development...
2016: F1000Research
I Douvas, D Moris, G Karaolanis, C Bakoyiannis, S Georgopoulos
Cerebrovascular reserve capacity [CVRC] is a hemodynamic parameter indicating the brain's capacity to overcome ischemia. Transcranial Doppler [TCD] is a useful device to measure CVRC, with high availability and low cost. The aim of the study is to investigate asymptomatic patients with affected CVRC, who could benefit from CEA. One hundred and forty five consecutive patients (60 symptomatic and 65 asymptomatic), with internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis >70% and 20 healthy individuals without internal carotid stenosis underwent TCD-inhalation CO2 tests in order to measure the CVRC in both hemispheres of each patient...
August 19, 2016: Physiological Research
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