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cerebrovascular reserve

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905100/the-severity-of-anaemia-depletes-cerebrovascular-dilatory-reserve-in-children-with-sickle-cell-disease-a-quantitative-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#1
Przemyslaw D Kosinski, Paula L Croal, Jackie Leung, Suzan Williams, Isaac Odame, Gregory M T Hare, Manohar Shroff, Andrea Kassner
Overt ischaemic stroke is one of the most devastating complications in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). The compensatory response to anaemia in SCD includes an increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF) by accessing cerebrovascular dilatory reserve. Exhaustion of dilatory reserve secondary to anaemic stress may lead to cerebral ischaemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate CBF and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children with SCD and to correlate these with haematological markers of anaemia...
December 1, 2016: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889950/retinopathy-a-sign-of-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-in-diabetes
#2
Toshitaka Umemura, Takahiko Kawamura
Cardio-cerebrovascular disease greatly influences the prognosis of diabetic patients. Silent lacunar infarcts, white matter lesions (WMLs), and cerebral microbleeds are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) and as they are associated with stroke and dementia, prevention of their incidence and progression is important in clinical practice. The findings of previous autopsy and clinical studies suggest that lacunar infarcts are more prevalent in diabetic patients. On the other hand, the findings of studies on an association between diabetes and WMLs have been inconsistent...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874975/structural-and-functional-brain-alterations-in-a-murine-model-of-angiotensin-ii-induced-hypertension
#3
Anja Meissner, Jens Minnerup, Guadalupe Soria Rodriguez, Anna M Planas
Hypertension is a main risk factor for the development of cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) - a major contributor to stroke and the most common cause of vascular dementia. Despite the increasing socio-economic importance arising from cSVD, currently only a few specific treatment strategies with proven efficacy are known. Fundamental to the lack of specific treatments is poor understanding of the disease pathogenesis and a lack of appropriate animal models resembling all symptoms of the human disease. However, chronic hypertensive rat models have been shown to bear similarities to most key features of cSVD...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859886/collateral-blood-flow-in-different-cerebrovascular-hierarchy-provides-endogenous-protection-in-cerebral-ischemia
#4
Chuanming Luo, Fengyin Liang, Huixia Ren, Xiaoli Yao, Qiang Liu, Mingyue Li, Dajiang Qin, Ti-Fei Yuan, Zhong Pei, Huanxing Su
Collateral blood flow as vascular adaptions to focal cerebral ischemia is well recognized. However, few studies directly investigate the dynamics of collateral vessel recruitment in vivo and little is known about the effect of collateral blood flow in different cerebrovascular hierarchy on the neuropathology after focal ischemic stroke. Here, we report that collateral blood flow is critically involved in blood vessel compensations following regional ischemia. We occluded a pial arteriole using femtosecond laser ablating under the intact thinned skull and documented the changes of collateral flow around the surface communication network and between the surface communication network and subsurface microcirculation network using in vivo two photon microscopy imaging...
November 15, 2016: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813265/association-of-stroke-risk-biomarkers-with-stroke-symptoms-the-reasons-for-geographic-and-racial-differences-in-stroke-cohort
#5
K K Landry, K S Alexander, N A Zakai, S E Judd, D O Kleindorfer, V J Howard, G Howard, M Cushman
BACKGROUND: History of stroke symptoms in the absence of prior diagnosed stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) is associated with future stroke risk, as are biomarkers of inflammation, cardiac function and hemostasis. OBJECTIVE: To better elucidate pathobiology of stroke symptoms, we studied associations of these biomarkers with history of stroke symptoms. METHODS: The REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort enrolled 30,239 black and white Americans age 45 and older in 2003-7...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809345/bioequivalence-study-between-a-fixed-dose-single-pill-formulation-of-nebivolol-plus-hydrochlorothiazide-and-separate-formulations-in-healthy-subjects-using-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#6
Celso Francisco Pimentel Vespasiano, Tiago Luders Laurito, Renan Donomae Iwamoto, Ronilson Agnaldo Moreno, Gustavo D Mendes, Gilberto De Nucci
Systemic arterial hypertension is a major risk factor for cerebrovascular disease. Therefore, an adequate control of blood pressure is of enormous importance. One of the many fixed-dose single-pill antihypertensive formulations available on the market is the combination of nebivolol and hydrochlorothiazide. The objective of this study was to develop two distinct high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry methods to simultaneously quantify nebivolol and hydrochlorothiazide in human plasma...
November 3, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806704/vascular-depression-consensus-report-a-critical-update
#7
EDITORIAL
Howard J Aizenstein, Andrius Baskys, Maura Boldrini, Meryl A Butters, Breno S Diniz, Manoj Kumar Jaiswal, Kurt A Jellinger, Lev S Kruglov, Ivan A Meshandin, Milija D Mijajlovic, Guenter Niklewski, Sarah Pospos, Keerthy Raju, Kneginja Richter, David C Steffens, Warren D Taylor, Oren Tene
BACKGROUND: Vascular depression is regarded as a subtype of late-life depression characterized by a distinct clinical presentation and an association with cerebrovascular damage. Although the term is commonly used in research settings, widely accepted diagnostic criteria are lacking and vascular depression is absent from formal psychiatric manuals such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5(th) edition - a fact that limits its use in clinical settings. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, showing a variety of cerebrovascular lesions, including extensive white matter hyperintensities, subcortical microvascular lesions, lacunes, and microinfarcts, in patients with late life depression, led to the introduction of the term "MRI-defined vascular depression"...
November 3, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804259/neuromodulation-by-cerebrovasculature-bdnf-is-it-much-greater-than-we-think
#8
EDITORIAL
C Joakim Ek
The findings published by Monnier et al. (2016) in this journal showing substantial cerebrovascular BDNF synthesis are very interesting and could change our way we perceive BDNF production in the brain under normal and disease states. BDNF is one of the classic neurotrophins first discovered in the 1950s and acts on TrkB and pan75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR) ) receptors. TrkB-signalling leads to increased proliferation and survival, whereas p75(NTR) -signalling is less clear but has mostly been associated with cell damage and apoptosis (Ibanez and Simi, 2012)...
November 2, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755938/arterial-spin-labeling-perfusion-of-the-brain-emerging-clinical-applications
#9
Sven Haller, Greg Zaharchuk, David L Thomas, Karl-Olof Lovblad, Frederik Barkhof, Xavier Golay
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technique used to assess cerebral blood flow noninvasively by magnetically labeling inflowing blood. In this article, the main labeling techniques, notably pulsed and pseudocontinuous ASL, as well as emerging clinical applications will be reviewed. In dementia, the pattern of hypoperfusion on ASL images closely matches the established patterns of hypometabolism on fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) images due to the close coupling of perfusion and metabolism in the brain...
November 2016: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717122/genetic-variants-in-cetp-increase-risk-of-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#10
Christopher D Anderson, Guido J Falcone, Chia-Ling Phuah, Farid Radmanesh, H Bart Brouwers, Thomas W K Battey, Alessandro Biffi, Gina M Peloso, Dajiang J Liu, Alison M Ayres, Joshua N Goldstein, Anand Viswanathan, Steven M Greenberg, Magdy Selim, James F Meschia, Devin L Brown, Bradford B Worrall, Scott L Silliman, David L Tirschwell, Matthew L Flaherty, Peter Kraft, Jeremiasz M Jagiella, Helena Schmidt, Björn M Hansen, Jordi Jimenez-Conde, Eva Giralt-Steinhauer, Roberto Elosua, Elisa Cuadrado-Godia, Carolina Soriano, Koen M van Nieuwenhuizen, Catharina J M Klijn, Kristiina Rannikmae, Neshika Samarasekera, Rustam Al-Shahi Salman, Catherine L Sudlow, Ian J Deary, Andrea Morotti, Alessandro Pezzini, Joanna Pera, Andrzej Urbanik, Alexander Pichler, Christian Enzinger, Bo Norrving, Joan Montaner, Israel Fernandez-Cadenas, Pilar Delgado, Jaume Roquer, Arne Lindgren, Agnieszka Slowik, Reinhold Schmidt, Chelsea S Kidwell, Steven J Kittner, Salina P Waddy, Carl D Langefeld, Goncalo Abecasis, Cristen J Willer, Sekar Kathiresan, Daniel Woo, Jonathan Rosand
OBJECTIVE: In observational epidemiologic studies, higher plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) has been associated with increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). DNA sequence variants that decrease cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene activity increase plasma HDL-C; as such, medicines that inhibit CETP and raise HDL-C are in clinical development. Here, we test the hypothesis that CETP DNA sequence variants associated with higher HDL-C also increase risk for ICH...
November 2016: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704594/l-arginine-and-l-nmma-for-assessing-cerebral-endothelial-dysfunction-in-ischemic-cerebrovascular-disease-a-systematic-review
#11
William K Karlsson, Caspar G Sørensen, Christina Kruuse
Endothelial dysfunction (ED), in particular cerebral ED, may be an essential biomarker for ischemic cerebrovascular disease. However, there is no consensus on methods to best estimate cerebral ED. In this systematic review, we evaluate the use of L-arginine and N(G) -monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) for assessment of cerebral ED. A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library was done. We included studies investigating cerebrovascular response to L-arginine or L-NMMA in human subjects with vascular risk factors or ischemic cerebrovascular disease...
October 5, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699935/transplantation-of-organs-from-deceased-donors-with-meningitis-and-encephalitis-a-uk-registry-analysis
#12
Patrick B Trotter, Matthew Robb, William Hulme, Dominic M Summers, Christopher J E Watson, J Andrew Bradley, James Neuberger
BACKGROUND: Deceased organ donors, where the cause of death is meningitis or encephalitis, are a potential concern because of the risks of transmission of a potentially fatal infection to recipients. METHODS: Using the UK Transplant Registry, a retrospective cohort analysis of deceased organ donors in the UK was undertaken to better understand the extent to which organs from deceased donors with meningitis and/or encephalitis (M/E) (of both known and unknown cause) have been used for transplantation, and to determine the associated recipient outcomes...
October 4, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664944/microinfarcts-in-an-older-population-representative-brain-donor-cohort-mrc-cfas-prevalence-relation-to-dementia-and-mobility-and-implications-for-the-evaluation-of-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#13
Paul G Ince, Thais Minett, Gill Forster, Carol Brayne, Stephen B Wharton
INTRODUCTION: Microinfarcts, small ischaemic foci common in ageing brain, are associated with dementia and gait dysfunction. We determined their relationship to dementia, mobility and cerebrovascular disease in an older population-representative brain donor cohort. These data on microinfarcts were evaluated in relation to pathological assessments of clinically significant cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). METHODS: Microinfarcts were assessed in the MRC Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (n=331)...
September 24, 2016: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644771/first-ever-stroke-following-hip-replacement-surgeries-a-large-population-based-survey
#14
Chia-To Wang, Eric Chuang, Der-Jen Yen, Tien-Yow Chuang, Chih-Hsin Muo, Chia-Hung Kao
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to determine the prevalence, subtypes and risk factors of first-ever stroke following hip replacement (HR) in a large population of Taiwan. METHODS: Using the National Health Insurance system of Taiwan, we identified patients undergoing HR from 2000 to 2011 and randomly selected 4 : 1 age- and sex-matched controls for each HR patients. The index date for HR patients was defined the date for HR. All study subjects were followed from the index date until stroke occurred at admission...
September 20, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641234/magnetic-resonance-imaging-biomarkers-of-exercise-induced-improvement-of-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-the-brain-of-old-high-fat-fed-apoe-mice
#15
Erica N Chirico, Vanessa Di Cataldo, Fabien Chauveau, Alain Geloën, David Patsouris, Benoît Thézé, Cyril Martin, Hubert Vidal, Jennifer Rieusset, Vincent Pialoux, Emmanuelle Canet-Soulas
KEY POINTS: Vascular brain lesions and atherosclerosis are two similar conditions that are characterized by increased inflammation and oxidative stress. Non-invasive imaging in a murine model of atherosclerosis showed vascular brain damage and peripheral inflammation. In this study, exercise training reduced magnetic resonance imaging-detected abnormalities, insulin resistance and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in old ApoE(-/-) mice. Our results demonstrate the protective effect of exercise on neurovascular damage in the ageing brain of ApoE(-/-) mice...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619639/assessment-of-cerebrovascular-reserve-in-unilateral-middle-cerebral-artery-stenosis-using-perfusion-ct-and-co2-inhalation-tests
#16
Fen Yang, Wenqian Shi, Jin Shi, Yingqian Zhang, Yanwei Yin, Huiping Shi, DaWei Chen
PURPOSE/AIM OF THE STUDY: Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) is an important marker for assessing cerebrovascular disease. This study assessed the CVR by perfusion computed tomography (CT) and CO2 inhalation tests in patients with unilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-one patients with unilateral MCA stenosis disease diagnosed by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were studied. Patients were divided into two groups according to the degree of stenosis: severe and moderate...
September 13, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619153/binaural-blood-flow-control-by-astrocytes-listening-to-synapses-and-the-vasculature
#17
Anusha Mishra
Astrocytes are the most common glial cells in the brain with fine processes and endfeet that intimately contact both neuronal synapses and the cerebral vasculature. They play an important role in mediating neurovascular coupling (NVC) via several astrocytic Ca(2+) -dependent signalling pathways such as K(+) release through BK channels, and the production and release of arachidonic acid metabolites. They are also involved in maintaining the resting tone of the cerebral vessels by releasing ATP and COX-1 derivatives...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616679/regulatory-properties-of-statins-and-rho-gtpases-prenylation-inhibitiors-to-stimulate-melanoma-immunogenicity-and-promote-anti-melanoma-immune-response
#18
Guillaume Sarrabayrouse, Christine Pich, Iotefa Teiti, Anne Françoise Tilkin-Mariame
Melanoma is a highly lethal cutaneous tumor, killing affected patients through development of multiple poorly immunogenic metastases. Suboptimal activation of immune system by melanoma cells is often due to molecular modifications occurring during tumor progression that prevent efficient recognition of melanoma cells by immune effectors. Statins are HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, which block the mevalonate synthesis pathway, used by millions of people as hypocholesterolemic agents in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases...
September 12, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615115/quantifying-cerebrovascular-reactivity-in-anterior-and-posterior-cerebral-circulations-during-voluntary-breath-holding
#19
Christina D Bruce, Craig D Steinback, Uday V Chauhan, Jamie R Pfoh, Maria Abrosimova, Emily R Vanden Berg, Rachel J Skow, Margie H Davenport, Trevor A Day
What is the central question of this study? We developed and validated a 'stimulus index' (SI; ratio of end-tidal partial pressures of CO2 and O2 ) method to quantify cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) in anterior and posterior cerebral circulations during breath holding. We aimed to determine whether the magnitude of CVR is correlated with breath-hold duration. What is the main finding and its importance? Using the SI method and transcranial Doppler ultrasound, we found that the magnitude of CVR of the anterior and posterior cerebral circulations is not positively correlated with physiological or psychological break-point during end-inspiratory breath holding...
December 1, 2016: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598821/simultaneous-multi-slice-sms-acquisition-enhances-the-sensitivity-of-hemodynamic-mapping-using-gas-challenges
#20
Harshan Ravi, Peiying Liu, Shin-Lei Peng, Hanli Liu, Hanzhang Lu
Hemodynamic mapping using gas inhalation has received increasing interest in recent years. Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), which reflects the ability of the brain vasculature to dilate in response to a vasoactive stimulus, can be measured by CO2 inhalation with continuous acquisition of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance images. Cerebral blood volume (CBV) can be measured by O2 inhalation. These hemodynamic mapping methods are appealing because of their absence of gadolinium contrast agent, their ability to assess both baseline perfusion and vascular reserve, and their utility in calibrating the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal...
November 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
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