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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414990/medical-outcomes-associated-with-prescription-opioid-abuse-via-oral-and-non-oral-routes-of-administration
#1
Jody L Green, Becki Bucher Bartelson, M Claire Le Lait, Carl L Roland, Elizabeth T Masters, Jack Mardekian, J Elise Bailey, Richard C Dart
BACKGROUND: Prescription opioid abuse and misuse is a serious and growing public health issue. While the most common form of abuse is swallowing intact tablets/capsules, some abusers manipulate, or tamper with, these medications by altering the dosage form to allow for non-oral routes of administration (e.g., injection, inhalation) in order to achieve more rapid or enhanced psychoactive effects. Because administration of opioids via non-oral routes results in greater systemic availability and more rapid central nervous system penetration, we hypothesized that death and major medical outcomes occur more frequently with non-oral routes compared to oral route alone...
March 28, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399572/correction-of-selection-bias-in-survey-data-is-the-statistical-cure-worse-than-the-bias
#2
James A Hanley
In previous articles in the American Journal of Epidemiology (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(5):431-442) and American Journal of Public Health (Am J Public Health. 2013;103(10):1895-1901), Masters et al. reported age-specific hazard ratios for the contrasts in mortality rates between obesity categories. They corrected the observed hazard ratios for selection bias caused by what they postulated was the nonrepresentativeness of the participants in the National Health Interview Study that increased with age, obesity, and ill health...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383611/training-in-occupational-medicine-jurisprudential-malfunctions-in-the-italian-system-and-european-perspectives
#3
L Cegolon, W C Heymann, C Xodo, J H Lange
BACKGROUND: To practice occupational health in Europe, a medical doctor must qualify in occupational medicine. This requires a period of postgraduate specialist medical training lasting a minimum of four years, in conformity with European regulations, to obtain a certificate of completion of training which is then mutually recognized within the entire European Union. DISCUSSION: In 2002 an Italian law allowed doctors specialized in public health medicine and legal/forensic medicine to also practice as consultants in occupational medicine in the country...
May 2017: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380707/implementing-sustainable-evidence-based-interventions-in-the-community
#4
Carey Wexler Sherman, Sally C Steiner
Evidence-based (EB) programs provide a tested means for addressing serious public health concerns. While establishing and maintaining fidelity to these programs is critical for high-quality outcomes, unfortunately, implementation reports rarely describe the strategies used to train and monitor fidelity in community-based implementations. Thus, an essential translational ingredient is a clearly articulated model for establishing a systemic, sustainable fidelity framework. This article provides a detailed description of the fidelity-focused framework developed for Michigan's statewide implementation of the Savvy Caregiver Program...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Gerontology: the Official Journal of the Southern Gerontological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376904/academic-research-productivity-of-post-graduate-students-at-makerere-university-college-of-health-sciences-uganda-from-1996-to-2010-a-retrospective-review
#5
E A Obuku, J N Lavis, A Kinengyere, D K Mafigiri, F Sengooba, C Karamagi, N K Sewankambo
BACKGROUND: Research is a core business of universities globally, and is crucial in the scientific process as a precursor for knowledge uptake and use. We aimed to assess the academic productivity of post-graduate students in a university located in a low-income country. METHODS: This is an observational retrospective documentary analysis using hand searching archives, Google Scholar and PubMed electronic databases. The setting is Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Uganda...
April 4, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356325/return-on-investment-of-public-health-interventions-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Rebecca Masters, Elspeth Anwar, Brendan Collins, Richard Cookson, Simon Capewell
BACKGROUND: Public sector austerity measures in many high-income countries mean that public health budgets are reducing year on year. To help inform the potential impact of these proposed disinvestments in public health, we set out to determine the return on investment (ROI) from a range of existing public health interventions. METHODS: We conducted systematic searches on all relevant databases (including MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL; AMED; PubMed, Cochrane and Scopus) to identify studies that calculated a ROI or cost-benefit ratio (CBR) for public health interventions in high-income countries...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330400/academic-responses-to-fukushima-disaster
#7
Kiyotaka Yasui, Yuko Kimura, Kenji Kamiya, Rie Miyatani, Naohiro Tsuyama, Akira Sakai, Koji Yoshida, Shunichi Yamashita, Rethy Chhem, May Abdel-Wahab, Akira Ohtsuru
Since radiation accidents, particularly nuclear disasters, are rarer than other types of disasters, a comprehensive radiation disaster medical curriculum for them is currently unavailable. The Fukushima compound disaster has urged the establishment of a new medical curriculum in preparation for any future complex disaster. The medical education will aim to aid decision making on various health risks for workers, vulnerable people, and residents addressing each phase in the disaster. Herein, we introduce 3 novel educational programs that have been initiated to provide students, professionals, and leaders with the knowledge of and skills to elude the social consequences of complex nuclear disasters...
March 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321295/getting-started-with-tables
#8
Hazel Inskip, Georgia Ntani, Leo Westbury, Chiara Di Gravio, Stefania D'Angelo, Camille Parsons, Janis Baird
BACKGROUND: Tables are often overlooked by many readers of papers who tend to focus on the text. Good tables tell much of the story of a paper and give a richer insight into the details of the study participants and the main research findings. Being confident in reading tables and constructing clear tables are important skills for researchers to master. METHOD: Common forms of tables were considered, along with the standard statistics used in them. Papers in the Archives of Public Health published during 2015 and 2016 were hand-searched for examples to illustrate the points being made...
2017: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278405/the-australian-master-of-applied-epidemiology-program-looking-back-moving-forward
#9
Stephanie Davis, Mahomed S Patel, Emily Fearnley, Kerri Viney, Martyn Kirk
The Master of Applied Epidemiology Program is Australia's Field Epidemiology Training Program. It was established in 1991 and was run out of the National Centre for Population Health (NCEPH) at the Australian National University. The Program has a strong track record in using field-based training to produce competent applied epidemiologists who have contributed to public health in Australia and globally. A new funding model for the program was implemented in 2012, backed by funds from field placement partners and NCEPH...
September 30, 2016: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272961/correction-of-selection-bias-in-survey-data-is-the-statistical-cure-worse-than-the-bias
#10
James A Hanley
In previous articles in the American Journal of Epidemiology (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(5):431-442) and American Journal of Public Health (Am J Public Health. 2013;103(10):1895-1901), Masters et al. reported age-specific hazard ratios for the contrasts in mortality rates between obesity categories. They corrected the observed hazard ratios for selection bias caused by what they postulated was the nonrepresentativeness of the participants in the National Health Interview Study that increased with age, obesity, and ill health...
April 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230663/mastery-in-bariatric-surgery-the-long-term-surgeon-learning-curve-of-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#11
Aristithes G Doumouras, Fady Saleh, Sama Anvari, Scott Gmora, Mehran Anvari, Dennis Hong
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of cumulative volume on all-cause morbidity and operative time. BACKGROUND: Gastric bypass is an important public health procedure, but it is difficult to master with little data about how surgeon cumulative volume affects outcomes longitudinally. METHODS: This was a longitudinal study of 29 surgeons during the first 6 years of performing bariatric surgery in a high-volume, regionalized center of excellence system...
February 22, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220721/increasing-community-research-capacity-to-address-health-disparities
#12
Goldie Komaie, Christine C Ekenga, Vetta L Sanders Thompson, Melody S Goodman
The Community Research Fellows Training program is designed to enhance capacity for community-based participatory research; program participants completed a 15-week, Master of Public Health curriculum. We conducted qualitative, semistructured interviews with 81 participants from two cohorts to evaluate the learning environment and how the program improved participants' knowledge of public health research. Key areas that provided a conducive learning environment included the once-a-week schedule, faculty and participant diversity, and community-focused homework assignments...
February 2017: Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: JERHRE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202926/dental-public-health-capacity-worldwide-results-of-a-global-survey
#13
Marta Lomazzi, Valerie Wordley, Raman Bedi
The World Federation of Public Health Associations' Oral Health Working Group (WFPHA OHWG) carried out a survey to establish the extent of global dental public health (DPH) capacity. Senior stakeholders in DPH completed 124 surveys, covering 73 countries and all WHO regions. The survey evaluated DPH workforce within the country, funding, education, current services, and integration between public health and DPH in countries across the world. In 62 per cent of countries, DPH is only partially integrated in the public health system, while in 25 per cent of countries it has not yet been formally integrated...
December 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196493/factors-that-influence-full-time-mph-students-willingness-in-china-would-you-apply-again-for-an-mph-graduate-degree-if-you-had-another-opportunity
#14
Nan Wang, Jinzhong Jia, Ke Wu, Yuanyuan Wang, Chi Zhang, Wei Cao, Liping Duan, Zhifeng Wang
BACKGROUND: Current and emerging challenges to public health in the 21st century are vastly different from those faced in previous centuries. And the shortage of health personnel and their low level of educational qualifications hindered the development of Chinese public health services. In order to fulfill this requirement, the Ministry of Education initiated a full-time, Master of Public Health (MPH) graduate programme in 2009. This study aimed to evaluate the level of graduate students' satisfaction with full-time Master of Public Health (MPH) education in China, and whether they would apply again for an MPH graduate degree if they had another opportunity to do so, as well as to identify the factors influencing their decision-making process...
February 14, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128975/best-practice-to-order-authors-in-multi-interdisciplinary-health-sciences-research-publications
#15
Elise Smith, Zubin Master
Misunderstanding and disputes about authorship are commonplace among members of multi/interdisciplinary health research teams. If left unmanaged and unresolved, these conflicts can undermine knowledge sharing and collaboration, obscure accountability for research, and contribute to the incorrect attribution of credit. To mitigate these issues, certain researchers suggest quantitative authorship distributions schemes (e.g., point systems) while other wish to replace or minimize the importance of authorship by using "contributorship"-a system based on authors' self-reporting contributions...
January 27, 2017: Accountability in Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111637/reasons-for-polytobacco-use-among-young-adults-scale-development-and-validation
#16
Carla J Berg, Regine Haardörfer, Gillian Schauer, Getachew Betelihem, Matthew Masters, Bennett McDonald, Jill Shah, Jackelyn Payne, Raina Sarmah, Matthew Thomas, Michael Windle
INTRODUCTION: Limited research has examined reasons for polytobacco use, an increasing public health problem, particularly among young adults. We examined reasons for polytobacco use among users of more than one tobacco product in the past 4 months enrolled in an ongoing six-wave longitudinal study of 3,418 students aged 18-25 from seven US colleges and universities. METHODS: An expert panel generated items related to reasons for polytobacco use, included in Wave 3 (administered in Summer 2015)...
July 2016: Tobacco Prevention & Cessation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102993/status-report-the-public-health-and-planning-101-project-strengthening-collaborations-between-the-public-health-and-planning-professions
#17
A Mahendra, T Vo, C Einstoss, J Weppler, P Gillen, L Ryan, K Haley
INTRODUCTION: Land use planning is a complex field comprised of legislation, policies, processes and tools. A growing body of evidence supports the relationship between land use planning decisions, community design and health. The built environment has been shown to be associated with physical inactivity, obesity, cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease and mental illness. Consequently, there is a growing interest within public health to work with planners on land use planning initiatives such as official plans and transportation master plans...
January 2017: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096749/evidence-based-information-needs-of-public-health-workers-a-systematized-review
#18
REVIEW
Jill Barr-Walker
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed public health workers' evidence-based information needs, based on a review of the literature using a systematic search strategy. This study is based on a thesis project conducted as part of the author's master's in public health coursework and is considered a systematized review. METHODS: Four databases were searched for English-language articles published between 2005 and 2015: PubMed, Web of Science, Library Literature & Information Science Index, and Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts (LISTA)...
January 2017: Journal of the Medical Library Association: JMLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096037/the-future-is-here-but-there-is-no-reason-to-fear
#19
Nicole Fisher
Nicole Fisher, MPP, PhD, is the founder and chief executive officer at HHR Strategies, a health care and human rights focused advising firm. Additionally, she is a senior policy advisor and expert on health economics, technology, and reform, specifically as they affect vulnerable populations. Nicole runs a health innovation and policy page at Forbes, highlighting and advising companies, ideas, and people that are changing the health landscape. She also is currently pursuing her PhD at the University of North Carolina in the Health Policy and Management Department...
February 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095472/review-of-participatory-epidemiology-practices-in-animal-health-1980-2015-and-future-practice-directions
#20
Alberto Allepuz, Katinka de Balogh, Ryan Aguanno, Martin Heilmann, Daniel Beltran-Alcrudo
In this study we combined an inventory of the major applications, geographic regions and diseases covered by participatory epidemiology (PE) activities in the field of animal health since 1980, together with an email discussion forum with PE practitioners from different regions of the world. The inventory included the search of peer-reviewed papers, master and technical reports, conference proceedings, manuals, training materials and projects. The search resulted in a low number of PE activity results until the year 2000, followed by a considerable increase (especially from 2012)...
2017: PloS One
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