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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105976/early-subretinal-allograft-rejection-is-characterized-by-innate-immune-activity
#1
Kevin P, Toby M, Deborah M, Cliona O Farrelly, David J
<p>Successful subretinal transplantation is limited by considerable early graft loss, despite pharmacological suppression of adaptive immunity. We postulated that early innate immune activity is a dominant factor in determining graft survival and chose a non-immunosuppressed mouse model of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell transplantation to explore this.</p><p>Expression of almost all measured cytokines by DH01 RPE cells increased significantly following graft preparation and the neutrophil chemoattractant, KC/GRO/CINC, was most significantly increased...
January 20, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101524/the-role-of-dopamine-in-anticipatory-pursuit-eye-movements-insights-from-genetic-polymorphisms-in-healthy-adults
#2
Jutta Billino, Jürgen Hennig, Karl R Gegenfurtner
There is a long history of eye movement research in patients with psychiatric diseases for which dysfunctions of neurotransmission are considered to be the major pathologic mechanism. However, neuromodulation of oculomotor control is still hardly understood. We aimed to investigate in particular the impact of dopamine on smooth pursuit eye movements. Systematic variability in dopaminergic transmission due to genetic polymorphisms in healthy subjects offers a noninvasive opportunity to determine functional associations...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101037/successful-restoration-of-visual-acuity-with-an-extended-range-of-vision-intraocular-lens-after-multifocal-laser-ablation
#3
Sondra Black
As our baby boomer population is aging and developing cataracts, so are our post-LASIK patients. These patients underwent LASIK surgery as they wished to be spectacle-free and are hoping to remain so after intraocular lens (IOL) surgery. Unfortunately, very little information is available regarding the suitability of presbyopia correcting IOLs for post-LASIK patients. This case represents successful implantation of an extended range of vision IOL in a 59-year-old patient who underwent multifocal ablation excimer laser surgery 12 years before...
September 2016: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093561/homeostatic-plasticity-mechanisms-in-mouse-v1
#4
REVIEW
Megumi Kaneko, Michael P Stryker
Mechanisms thought of as homeostatic must exist to maintain neuronal activity in the brain within the dynamic range in which neurons can signal. Several distinct mechanisms have been demonstrated experimentally. Three mechanisms that act to restore levels of activity in the primary visual cortex of mice after occlusion and restoration of vision in one eye, which give rise to the phenomenon of ocular dominance plasticity, are discussed. The existence of different mechanisms raises the issue of how these mechanisms operate together to converge on the same set points of activity...
March 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093276/asymmetry-in-visual-information-processing-depends-on-the-strength-of-eye-dominance
#5
Romain Chaumillon, Nadia Alahyane, Patrice Senot, Judith Vergne, Christelle Lemoine-Lardennois, Jean Blouin, Karine Doré-Mazars, Alain Guillaume, Dorine Vergilino-Perez
Unlike handedness, sighting eye dominance, defined as the eye unconsciously chosen when performing monocular tasks, is very rarely considered in studies investigating cerebral asymmetries. We previously showed that sighting eye dominance has an influence on visually triggered manual action with shorter reaction time (RT) when the stimulus appears in the contralateral visual hemifield with respect to the dominant eye (Chaumillon et al. 2014). We also suggested that eye dominance may be more or less pronounced depending on individuals and that this eye dominance strength could be evaluated through saccadic peak velocity analysis in binocular recordings (Vergilino-Perez et al...
January 14, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076400/mandarin-english-bilinguals-process-lexical-tones-in-newly-learned-words-in-accordance-with-the-language-context
#6
Carolyn Quam, Sarah C Creel
Previous research has mainly considered the impact of tone-language experience on ability to discriminate linguistic pitch, but proficient bilingual listening requires differential processing of sound variation in each language context. Here, we ask whether Mandarin-English bilinguals, for whom pitch indicates word distinctions in one language but not the other, can process pitch differently in a Mandarin context vs. an English context. Across three eye-tracked word-learning experiments, results indicated that tone-intonation bilinguals process tone in accordance with the language context...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071717/tryptophan-and-non-tryptophan-fluorescence-of-the-eye-lens-proteins-provides-diagnostics-of-cataract-at-the-molecular-level
#7
Anna Gakamsky, Rory R Duncan, Nicola M Howarth, Baljean Dhillon, Kim K Buttenschön, Daniel J Daly, Dmitry Gakamsky
The chemical nature of the non-tryptophan (non-Trp) fluorescence of porcine and human eye lens proteins was identified by Mass Spectrometry (MS) and Fluorescence Steady-State and Lifetime spectroscopy as post-translational modifications (PTM) of Trp and Arg amino acid residues. Fluorescence intensity profiles measured along the optical axis of human eye lenses with age-related nuclear cataract showed increasing concentration of fluorescent PTM towards the lens centre in accord with the increased optical density in the lens nucleolus...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071682/ocular-dominance-plasticity-inhibitory-interactions-and-contrast-equivalence
#8
Daniel P Spiegel, Alex S Baldwin, Robert F Hess
Brief monocular occlusion results in a transient change in ocular dominance, such that the previously patched eye makes a stronger contribution to the binocular percept after occlusion. The previously unpatched eye therefore makes a correspondingly weaker contribution to the binocular sum. To shed light on the mechanism underlying this change we investigate how the relationship between the perception of fusion, suppression, and diplopia changes after short-term monocular deprivation. Results show that fusible stimuli seen by the unpatched eye are actively suppressed as a result of patching and that this can be reversed by an interocular contrast imbalance...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068445/presbyopic-correction-using-monocular-bi-aspheric-ablation-profile-presbymax-in-hyperopic-eyes-1-year-outcomes
#9
Tommy C Y Chan, Peter S K Kwok, Vishal Jhanji, Victor C P Woo, Alex L K Ng
PURPOSE: To present the 1-year outcomes of combining monocular bi-aspheric ablation profile and contralateral monofocal LASIK in hyperopic patients with presbyopia. METHODS: In this retrospective case series, 36 consecutive patients (72 eyes) who underwent simultaneous bi-aspheric ablation (PresbyMAX: SCHWIND Eye-Tech-Solutions GmbH and Co KG, Kleinostheim, Germany) in the non-dominant eye and monofocal regular LASIK in the dominant eye for correction of hyperopia and presbyopia were reviewed for 1 year...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060904/past1-modulates-drosophila-eye-development
#10
Orly Dorot, Hermann Steller, Daniel Segal, Mia Horowitz
Endocytosis is a multi-step process involving a large number of proteins, both general factors, such as clathrin and adaptor protein complexes, and unique proteins, which modulate specialized endocytic processes, like the EHD proteins. EHDs are a family of Eps15 Homology Domain containing proteins that consists of four mammalian homologs, one C. elegans, one Drosophila melanogaster and two plants orthologs. These membrane-associated proteins are involved in different steps of endocytic trafficking pathways...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060146/combined-effect-of-ocular-and-multifocal-contact-lens-induced-aberrations-on-visual-performance-center-distance-versus-center-near-design
#11
Daniela Lopes-Ferreira, Paulo Fernandes, António Queirós, José M González-Meijome
PURPOSE: To evaluate the combined effects of inherent ocular aberrations and induced aberrations with a multifocal soft contact lens (MFCL) after 15 days of lens wear in presbyopic participants and their influence on visual performance at distance and near under high and low contrast conditions. METHODS: Forty presbyopic participants (mean age, 48.7±3.4) presenting a mean addition of 1.53±0.58 D were fitted with Biofinity Multifocal (CooperVision) and included in the study...
January 4, 2017: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057580/monocular-and-binocular-smooth-pursuit-in-central-field-loss
#12
Natela Shanidze, Stephen Heinen, Preeti Verghese
Macular degeneration results in heterogeneous central field loss (CFL) and often has asymmetrical effects in the two eyes. As such, it is not clear to what degree the movements of the two eyes are coordinated. To address this issue, we examined smooth pursuit quantitatively in CFL participants during binocular viewing and compared it to the monocular viewing case. We also examined coordination of the two eyes during smooth pursuit and how this coordination was affected by interocular ratios of acuity and contrast, as well as CFL-specific interocular differences, such as scotoma sizes and degree of binocular overlap...
January 9, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056136/visual-suppression-at-the-offset-of-binocular-rivalry
#13
Tom Alexander de Graaf, Raymond van Ee, Dennis Croonenberg, Peter Christiaan Klink, Alexander Thomas Sack
Various paradigms can make visual stimuli disappear from awareness, but they often involve stimuli that are either relatively weak, competing with other salient inputs, and/or presented for a prolonged period of time. Here we explore a phenomenon that involves controlled perceptual disappearance of a peripheral visual stimulus without these limitations. It occurs when one eye's stimulus is abruptly removed during a binocular rivalry situation. This manipulation renders the remaining stimulus, which is still being presented to the other eye, invisible for up to several seconds...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050470/neurofibromatosis-type-1-presenting-with-ophthalmic-features-a-case-series
#14
Gunjan Jain, Vaibhav Kumar Jain, Indra Kumar Sharma, Reena Sharma, Neeraj Saraswat
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) is an autosomal dominant disorder involving multiple systems and affects approximately 1 out of 3000 persons. Ocular manifestations are lisch nodules, plexiform neurofibroma, optic pathway gliomas. The proper diagnosis of NF-1 is a crucial task for a clinician due to the various clinical manifestations including vision and life threatening malignancies in few patients, which may arise in the different phases of life. The authors report three cases of NF-1, presenting with ophthalmic symptoms in teenager boys...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041883/phase-locked-inhibition-but-not-excitation-underlies-hippocampal-ripple-oscillations-in-awake-mice-in%C3%A2-vivo
#15
Jian Gan, Shih-Ming Weng, Alejandro J Pernía-Andrade, Jozsef Csicsvari, Peter Jonas
Sharp wave-ripple (SWR) oscillations play a key role in memory consolidation during non-rapid eye movement sleep, immobility, and consummatory behavior. However, whether temporally modulated synaptic excitation or inhibition underlies the ripples is controversial. To address this question, we performed simultaneous recordings of excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs and IPSCs) and local field potentials (LFPs) in the CA1 region of awake mice in vivo. During SWRs, inhibition dominated over excitation, with a peak conductance ratio of 4...
January 18, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027954/simulating-social-interactions-for-the-experimental-investigation-of-joint-attention
#16
REVIEW
Nathan Caruana, Genevieve McArthur, Alexandra Woolgar, Jon Brock
Social interactions are, by their nature, dynamic and reciprocal - your behaviour affects my behaviour, which affects your behaviour in return. However, until recently, the field of social cognitive neuroscience has been dominated by paradigms in which participants passively observe social stimuli from a detached "third person" perspective. Here we consider the unique conceptual and methodological challenges involved in adopting a "second person" approach whereby social cognitive mechanisms and their neural correlates are investigated within social interactions (Schilbach et al...
December 24, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018441/a-neonate-with-joubert-syndrome-presenting-with-symptoms-of-horner-syndrome
#17
Narae Lee, Sang-Ook Nam, Young Mi Kim, Yun-Jin Lee
Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by the "molar tooth sign" (MTS) with cerebellar vermis agenesis, episodic hyperpnea, abnormal eye movements, and hypotonia. Ocular and oculomotor abnormalities have been observed; however, Horner syndrome (HS) has not been documented in children with JS. We present the case of a 2-month-old boy having ocular abnormalities with bilateral nystagmus, left-dominant bilateral ptosis, and unilateral miosis and enophthalmos of the left eye, which were compatible with HS. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed the presence of the MTS...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018435/a-familial-case-of-blau-syndrome-caused-by-a-novel-nod2-genetic-mutation
#18
Woojoong Kim, Eujin Park, Yo Han Ahn, Jiwon M Lee, Hee Gyung Kang, Byung Joo Kim, Il-Soo Ha, Hae Il Cheong
Blau syndrome (BS) is a rare autosomal dominant, inflammatory syndrome that is characterized by the clinical triad of granulomatous dermatitis, symmetric arthritis, and recurrent uveitis. Mutations in the nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) gene are responsible for causing BS. To date, up to 30 Blau-associated genetic mutations have been identified within this gene. We report a novel NOD2 genetic mutation that causes BS. A girl, aged 8 years, and her brother, aged 10 years, developed erythematous skin rashes and uveitis...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018434/a-nonsense-pax6-mutation-in-a-family-with-congenital-aniridia
#19
Kyoung Hee Han, Hye Jin Lee, Il-Soo Ha, Hee Gyung Kang, Hae Il Cheong
Congenital aniridia is a rare ocular malformation that presents with severe hypoplasia of the iris and various ocular manifestations. Most cases of congenital aniridia are known to be related to mutations in the paired box gene-6 (PAX6), which is an essential gene in eye development. Herein, we report a familial case of autosomal dominant congenital aniridia with four affected members in 3 consecutive generations and describe the detailed ophthalmologic findings for one of these members. As expected, mutational analysis revealed a nonsense mutation (p...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018166/motor-dysfunctions-and-neuropathology-in-mouse-models-of-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-2-a-comprehensive-review
#20
REVIEW
João M Da Conceição Alves-Cruzeiro, Liliana Mendonça, Luís Pereira de Almeida, Clévio Nóbrega
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is an autosomal dominant ataxia caused by an expansion of CAG repeats in the exon 1 of the gene ATXN2, conferring a gain of toxic function that triggers the appearance of the disease phenotype. SCA2 is characterized by several symptoms including progressive gait ataxia and dysarthria, slow saccadic eye movements, sleep disturbances, cognitive impairments, and psychological dysfunctions such as insomnia and depression, among others. The available treatments rely on palliative care, which mitigate some of the major symptoms but ultimately fail to block the disease progression...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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