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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723938/gender-differences-in-cerebral-metabolism-for-color-processing-in-mice-a-pet-mri-study
#1
Philip C Njemanze, Mathias Kranz, Mario Amend, Jens Hauser, Hans Wehrl, Peter Brust
INTRODUCTION: Color processing is a central component of mammalian vision. Gender-related differences of color processing revealed by non-invasive functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound suggested right hemisphere pattern for blue/yellow chromatic opponency by men, and a left hemisphere pattern by women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study measured the accumulation of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) in mouse brain using small animal positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) with statistical parametric mapping (SPM) during light stimulation with blue and yellow filters compared to darkness condition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715588/caucasian-families-exhibit-significant-linkage-of-myopia-to-chromosome-11p
#2
Anthony M Musolf, Claire L Simpson, Bilal A Moiz, Kyle A Long, Laura Portas, Federico Murgia, Elise B Ciner, Dwight Stambolian, Joan E Bailey-Wilson
Purpose: Myopia is a common visual disorder caused by eye overgrowth, resulting in blurry vision. It affects one in four Americans, and its prevalence is increasing. The genetic mechanisms that underpin myopia are not completely understood. Here, we use genotype data and linkage analyses to identify high-risk genetic loci that are significantly linked to myopia. Methods: Individuals from 56 Caucasian families with a history of myopia were genotyped on an exome-based array, and the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data were merged with microsatellite genotype data...
July 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713234/leftward-deviation-and-asymmetric-speed-of-egocentric-judgment-between-left-and-right-visual-fields
#3
Ying Zhou, Bing Li, Gang Wang, Mingsha Zhang, Yujun Pan
The egocentric reference frame is essential for body orientation and spatial localization of external objects. Recent neuroimaging and lesion studies have revealed that the right hemisphere of humans may play a more dominant role in processing egocentric information than the left hemisphere. However, previous studies of egocentric discrimination mainly focused on assessing the accuracy of egocentric judgment, leaving its timing unexplored. In addition, most previous studies never monitored the subjects' eye position during the experiments, so the influence of eye position on egocentric judgment could not be excluded...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712477/phytochemical-analysis-and-cytotoxicity-evaluation-of-kelussia-odoratissima-mozaff
#4
Amir Abbas Momtazi, Omid Askari-Khorasgani, Elham Abdollahi, Hojjat Sadeghi-Aliabadi, Forough Mortazaeinezhad, Amirhossein Sahebkar
BACKGROUND: Kelussia odoratissima Mozaff. (Apiaceae) is an edible, indigenous, and ethnomedicinal plant that grows only in Iran. Although antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of K. odoratissima have been reported, cytotoxic activity of this plant has not been investigated previously. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the cytotoxicity of K. odoratissima leaf extract against a panel of human cancer cell lines. A secondary aim was to perform a phytochemical analysis of the plant's leaf oil...
June 2017: Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702961/cutaneous-manifestations-in-steinert%C3%A2-s-disease-apropos-of-four-clinical-cases
#5
F Cona, J Lotti, M Fioranelli, M G Roccia, T Lotti, C Guarneri
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (MD1) (OMIM 160900, Steinert disease) is the most common muscular disease, with an estimated worldwide prevalence ranging from 0.5 to 18/10,000 (1). MD1 is an autosomal dominant multisystem disorder that affects skeletal and smooth muscles as well as eyes, heart, endocrine system, and central nervous system. Available data on skin and adnexal involvement that has been demonstrated as a hallmark of the neurological disease are still poor. The aim of this case report-based, mini review on MD1 and skin is to highlight the importance of such superficial signs to be easily detected in the physical examination, and to evaluate the occurrence of these cutaneous manifestations in presence of various degrees of the disease and gene mutations...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697705/sad-people-are-more-accurate-at-expression-identification-with-a-smaller-own-ethnicity-bias-than-happy-people
#6
Peter J Hills, Dominic M Hill
Sad individuals perform more accurately at face identity recognition (Hills, Werno, & Lewis, 2011), possibly because they scan more of the face during encoding. During expression identification tasks, sad individuals do not fixate on the eyes as much as happier individuals (Wu, Pu, Allen, & Pauli, 2012). Fixating on features other than the eyes leads to a reduced own-ethnicity bias (Hills & Lewis, 2006). This background indicates that sad individuals would not view the eyes as much as happy individuals and this would result in improved expression recognition and a reduced own-ethnicity bias...
July 12, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696323/attention-model-of-binocular-rivalry
#7
Hsin-Hung Li, James Rankin, John Rinzel, Marisa Carrasco, David J Heeger
When the corresponding retinal locations in the two eyes are presented with incompatible images, a stable percept gives way to perceptual alternations in which the two images compete for perceptual dominance. As perceptual experience evolves dynamically under constant external inputs, binocular rivalry has been used for studying intrinsic cortical computations and for understanding how the brain regulates competing inputs. Converging behavioral and EEG results have shown that binocular rivalry and attention are intertwined: binocular rivalry ceases when attention is diverted away from the rivalry stimuli...
July 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687039/carbon-nanodots-as-dual-mode-nanosensors-for-selective-detection-of-hydrogen-peroxide
#8
Cheng-Long Shen, Li-Xia Su, Jin-Hao Zang, Xin-Jian Li, Qing Lou, Chong-Xin Shan
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important product of oxidase-based enzymatic reactions, such as glucose/glucose oxidase (GOD) reaction. Therefore, the probing of generated H2O2 for achieving the detection of various carbohydrates and their oxidases is very significative. Herein, we report one kind of dual-emission carbon nanodots (CDs) that can serve as novel dual-mode nanosensors with both fluorometric and colorimetric output for the selective detection of H2O2. The dual-model nanosensors are established only by the undecorated dual-emission CDs, where significant fluorometric and colorimetric changes are observed with the addition of different concentrations of H2O2 in the CD solution, which benefit to the achievement of the naked-eye detection for H2O2...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683534/a-case-of-alagille-syndrome-presenting-with-chronic-cholestasis-in-an-adult
#9
Jihye Kim, Bumhee Yang, Namyoung Paik, Yon Ho Choe, Yong-Han Paik
Alagille syndrome (AGS) is a complex multisystem disorder that involves mainly the liver, heart, eyes, face, and skeleton. The main associated clinical features are chronic cholestasis due to a paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts, congenital heart disease primarily affecting pulmonary arteries, vertebral abnormalities, ocular embryotoxon, and peculiar facies. The manifestations generally become evident at a pediatric age. AGS is caused by defects in the Notch signaling pathway due to mutations in JAG1 or NOTCH2...
July 7, 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682215/could-slackline-training-complement-the-fifa-11-programme-regarding-training-of-neuromuscular-control
#10
Tobias Jäger, Julian Kiefer, Inge Werner, Peter A Federolf
The current study compared changes in neuromuscular control between slackline training and the stabilization training elements of the FIFA 11+ programme. Twenty-five students in 2 groups performed a 12-unit training programme. The slackline training group (n = 13) exclusively trained with a slackline. The stabilization training group (n = 12) practised exercises as described in the second part of the FIFA 11+ programme. Improvements in balance were assessed using three tests for dynamic, quasi-static, and perturbed postural control: the star excursion balance test (SEBT), the closed-eye single-leg stance, and the MFT S3-Check...
July 6, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681095/nail-patella-syndrome
#11
REVIEW
Ralph Witzgall
The pathognomonic symptoms of patients with nail-patella syndrome are their small or absent patellae and dysplastic or absent finger- and toenails. Many of the patients suffer from renal symptoms which also affect their prognosis. In 1998, mutations in the gene encoding the transcription factor LMX1B were identified as underlying this autosomal-dominant disease. The LMX1B gene is expressed in a variety of tissues, and the symptoms are reflected nicely by its expression pattern. LMX1B is essential for dorso-ventral pattern formation in the limbs, for differentiation of the anterior portions of the eyes, for development of certain neuron populations in the central nervous system, and for the differentiation and maintenance of podocytes...
July 5, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676758/loss-of-peripheral-sensory-function-explains-much-of-the-increase-in-postural-sway-in-healthy-older-adults
#12
Eric Anson, Robin T Bigelow, Bonnielin Swenor, Nandini Deshpande, Stephanie Studenski, John J Jeka, Yuri Agrawal
Postural sway increases with age and peripheral sensory disease. Whether, peripheral sensory function is related to postural sway independent of age in healthy adults is unclear. Here, we investigated the relationship between tests of visual function (VISFIELD), vestibular function (CANAL or OTOLITH), proprioceptive function (PROP), and age, with center of mass sway area (COM) measured with eyes open then closed on firm and then a foam surface. A cross-sectional sample of 366 community dwelling healthy adults from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging was tested...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671928/examiner-handedness-and-the-effects-on-intraocular-pressure-readings-using-the-tono-pen-xl
#13
Alexander G Hacopian, Lauren C Rushing, Alice Z Chuang, Nicholas P Bell, Kartik S Kumar, Robert M Feldman
PURPOSE: To assess the effect of examiner handedness on intraocular pressure (IOP) readings using the Tono-Pen XL in eyes without corneal pathology or previous ocular surgeries. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients 18 years of age or older were included in this prospective study. Participants who had a history of corneal conditions or other characteristics that would prevent reliable IOP measurements were excluded. Five experienced examiners, 2 right-hand dominant and 3 left-hand dominant, took bilateral IOP measurements with a Tono-Pen XL...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668999/heterozygous-deletion-of-the-opa1-gene-in-patients-with-dominant-optic-atrophy
#14
Takaaki Hayashi, Hiroyuki Sasano, Satoshi Katagiri, Kazushige Tsunoda, Shuhei Kameya, Mitsuru Nakazawa, Takeshi Iwata, Hiroshi Tsuneoka
PURPOSE: Several OPA1 variants cause dominant optic atrophy (DOA), the most common hereditary optic atrophy. Here, we describe a newly discovered OPA1 deletion in 3 patients with DOA. METHODS: A female proband, her brother, and her mother underwent complete ophthalmologic examinations that included optical coherence tomography and visual field assessments using a Humphrey Field Analyzer with both standard automated perimetry (SAP) and short-wavelength automated perimetry (SWAP)...
July 1, 2017: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666553/binocular-rivalry-after-right-hemisphere-stroke-effects-of-attention-impairment-on-perceptual-dominance-patterns
#15
Kjersti Mæhlum Walle, Hillary Lynn Kyler, Jan Egil Nordvik, Frank Becker, Bruno Laeng
Binocular rivalry is when perception fluctuates while the stimuli, consisting of different images presented to each eye, remain unchanged. The fluctuation rate and predominance ratio of these images are regarded as information source for understanding properties of consciousness and perception. We administered a binocular rivalry task to 26 right-hemisphere stroke patients and 26 healthy control participants, using stimuli such as simple Gabor anaglyphs. Each single Gabor image was of unequal spatial frequency compared to its counterpart, allowing assessment of the effect of relative spatial frequency on rivalry predominance...
June 27, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665477/visual-acuity-and-image-quality-in-5-diffractive-intraocular-lenses
#16
Genís Cardona, Fidel Vega, Miguel A Gil, Consuelo Varón, José A Buil, María S Millán
PURPOSE: To compare objective image quality at distant, intermediate, and near foci with the corresponding visual acuity (VA) in patients symmetrically implanted with 5 different diffractive multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) (ReSTOR SV25T0, Tecnis ZKB00, Tecnis ZLB00, AT LISA 809, and AT LISA Tri 839MP) and a monofocal lens (Tecnis ZA9003) 3 months after cataract intervention. METHODS: Objective image quality, measured as the area under the modulation transfer function curve (AMTF), was tested in vitro in an eye model...
June 26, 2017: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665058/decoding-saccadic-directions-using-epidural-ecog-in-non-human-primates
#17
Jeyeon Lee, Hoseok Choi, Seho Lee, Baek Hwan Cho, Kyoung Ha Ahn, In Young Kim, Kyoung Min Lee, Dong Pyo Jang
A brain-computer interface (BCI) can be used to restore some communication as an alternative interface for patients suffering from locked-in syndrome. However, most BCI systems are based on SSVEP, P300, or motor imagery, and a diversity of BCI protocols would be needed for various types of patients. In this paper, we trained the choice saccade (CS) task in 2 non-human primate monkeys and recorded the brain signal using an epidural electrocorticogram (eECoG) to predict eye movement direction. We successfully predicted the direction of the upcoming eye movement using a support vector machine (SVM) with the brain signals after the directional cue onset and before the saccade execution...
August 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663911/quantifying-melanin-concentration-in-retinal-pigment-epithelium-using-broadband-photoacoustic-microscopy
#18
Xiao Shu, Hao Li, Biqin Dong, Cheng Sun, Hao F Zhang
Melanin is the dominant light absorber in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The loss of RPE melanin is a sign of ocular senescence and is both a risk factor and a symptom of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Quantifying the RPE melanin concentration provides insight into the pathological role of RPE in ocular aging and the onset and progression of AMD. The main challenge in accurate quantification of RPE melanin concentration is to distinguish this ten-micrometer-thick cell monolayer from the underlying choroid, which also contains melanin but carries different pathognomonic information...
June 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663728/object-localization-does-not-imply-awareness-of-object-category-at-the-break-of-continuous-flash-suppression
#19
Florian Kobylka, Malte Persike, Günter Meinhardt
In continuous flash suppression (CFS), a dynamic noise masker, presented to one eye, suppresses conscious perception of a test stimulus, presented to the other eye, until the suppressed stimulus comes to awareness after few seconds. But what do we see breaking the dominance of the masker in the transition period? We addressed this question with a dual-task in which observers indicated (i) whether the test object was left or right of the fixation mark (localization) and (ii) whether it was a face or a house (categorization)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661018/clinical-characterization-of-dystonia-in-adult-patients-with-huntington-s-disease
#20
N A van de Zande, T H Massey, D McLauchlan, A Pryce Roberts, R Zutt, M Wardle, G C Payne, C Clenaghan, M A J Tijssen, A E Rosser, K J Peall
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, neurodegenerative movement disorder, typically characterized by chorea. Dystonia is also recognized as part of the HD motor phenotype, although little work detailing its prevalence, distribution, severity and impact on functional capacity has been published to date. METHODS: Patients (>18 years of age) were recruited from the Cardiff (UK) HD clinic, each undergoing a standardized videotaped clinical examination and series of functional assessment questionnaires (Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale, Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale and modified version of the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale)...
June 29, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
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