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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429670/expression-of-dominant-negative-k6w-ubiquitin-in-the-lens-epithelium-via-an-adenoviral-vector-delays-posterior-capsule-opacification-in-a-rabbit-model
#1
Xuan Bao, Min Hou, Ruiping Peng, Furong Luo, Mingxing Wu
PURPOSE: Ubiquitin is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, and the objective of this study is to investigate the potential of dominant negative Ubiquitin (Ub) with a lysine to tryptophan mutation at the 6 position (K6W) through an adenoviral expression vector in the prevention of posterior capsule opacification (PCO) in a rabbit PCO model. METHODS: Recombinant dominant negative K6W-Ub adenovirus (RAd-K6W-Ub) with green fluorescent protein (RAd-K6W-Ub/GFP) and RAd-GFP viruses (control) were generated with QBI-HEK 293A cells...
March 31, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413409/self-optical-coherence-tomography-and-angiography
#2
Ahmad M Mansour
PURPOSE: To present a new concept of self-optical coherence tomography (OCT) and self-OCT angiography. METHODS: The operator sits in the patient seat and manipulates the instrument body via the joystick with the dominant hand, while the dominant index is ready to press the capture button and while focusing on the fixation target. One senior ophthalmologist judged various OCT machines for ease of self-scan during a major ophthalmic convention. Separately, self-scans were also captured using a single OCT machine by one senior ophthalmologist and 5 junior optometrists and the scans were analyzed for both centration and image quality value (IQV), and compared to regular scans done by an operator...
January 2017: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412540/melanopsin-expressing-retinal-ganglion-cells-are-resistant-to-cell-injury-but-not-always
#3
Birgitte Georg, Anna Ghelli, Carla Giordano, Fred N Ross-Cisneros, Alfredo A Sadun, Valerio Carelli, Jens Hannibal, Chiara La Morgia
Melanopsin retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) are intrinsically photosensitive RGCs deputed to non-image forming functions of the eye such as synchronization of circadian rhythms to light-dark cycle. These cells are characterized by unique electrophysiological, anatomical and biochemical properties and are usually more resistant than conventional RGCs to different insults, such as axotomy and different paradigms of stress. We also demonstrated that these cells are relatively spared compared to conventional RGCs in mitochondrial optic neuropathies (Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy and Dominant Optic Atrophy)...
April 12, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411488/inter-joint-coordination-of-posture-on-a-seesaw-device
#4
Frédéric Noé, Xavier García-Massó, Thierry Paillard
Even though specific adjustments of the multi-joint control of posture have been observed when posture is challenged, multi-joint coordination on a seesaw device has never been accurately assessed. The current study was conducted in order to investigate the multi-joint coordination when subjects were standing on either a seesaw device or on a stable surface, with the eyes open or closed. Eighteen healthy active subjects were recruited. A principal component analysis and a Self-Organizing Maps analysis were performed on the joint angles in order to detect and characterize dominant coordination patterns...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409230/binocular-rivalry-transitions-predict-inattention-symptom-severity-in-adult-adhd
#5
Aiste Jusyte, Natalia Zaretskaya, Nina Maria Höhnle, Andreas Bartels, Michael Schönenberg
Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent childhood disorder that is often maintained throughout the development and persists into adulthood. Established etiology models suggest that deficient inhibition underlies the core ADHD symptoms. While experimental evidence for impaired motor inhibition is overwhelming, little is known about the sensory inhibition processes, their changes throughout the development, and the relationship to ADHD symptoms. Here, we used the well-established binocular rivalry (BR) paradigm to investigate for the very first time the inhibitory processes related to visual perception in adults with ADHD...
April 13, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408876/effects-of-age-related-macular-degeneration-on-postural-sway
#6
Hortense Chatard, Laure Tepenier, Olivier Jankowski, Antoine Aussems, Alain Allieta, Talal Beydoun, Sawsen Salah, Maria P Bucci
Purpose: To compare the impact of unilateral vs. bilateral age-related macular degeneration (AMD) on postural sway, and the influence of different visual conditions. The hypothesis of our study was that the impact of AMD will be different between unilateral and bilateral AMD subjects compared to age-matched healthy elderly. Methods: Postural stability was measured with a platform (TechnoConcept®) in 10 elderly unilateral AMD subjects (mean age: 71.1 ± 4.6 years), 10 elderly bilateral AMD subjects (mean age: 70...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406677/no-impact-of-affective-person-knowledge-on-visual-awareness-evidence-from-binocular-rivalry-and-continuous-flash-suppression
#7
Timo Stein, Caitlyn Grubb, Maria Bertrand, Seh Min Suh, Sara C Verosky
Stimuli with intrinsic emotional value, like emotional faces, and stimuli associated with reward and punishment are often prioritized in visual awareness relative to neutral stimuli. Recently, Anderson, Siegel, Bliss-Moreau, and Barrett (2011) demonstrated that simply associating a face with affective knowledge can also influence visual awareness. Using a binocular rivalry task (BR), where a face was shown to one eye and a house to the other, they found that faces paired with negative versus neutral and positive behaviors dominated visual awareness...
April 13, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392901/mutation-analysis-of-connexin-50-gene-among-iranian-families-with-autosomal-dominant-cataracts
#8
Masoumeh Mohebi, Saeed Chenari, Abolfazl Akbari, Fariba Ghassemi, Mehran Zarei-Ghanavati, Ghasem Fakhraie, Nahid Babaie, Mansour Heidari
OBJECTIVES: Childhood cataract is a genetically heterogeneous eye disorder that results in visual impairment. The aim of this study was to identify the genetic mutations of connexin 50 gene among Iranian families suffered from autosomal dominant congenital cataracts (ADCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Families, having at least two members with bilateral familial congenital cataract, were selected for the study. Probands were evaluated by detailed ophthalmologist's examination, and the pedigree analysis was performed...
March 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391010/monocular-deprivation-of-fourier-phase-information-boosts-the-deprived-eye-s-dominance-during-interocular-competition-but-not-interocular-phase-combination
#9
Jianying Bai, Xue Dong, Sheng He, Min Bao
Ocular dominance has been extensively studied, often with the goal to understand neuroplasticity, which is a key characteristic within the critical period. Recent work on monocular deprivation, however, demonstrates residual neuroplasticity in the adult visual cortex. After deprivation of patterned inputs by monocular patching, the patched eye becomes more dominant. Since patching blocks both the Fourier amplitude and phase information of the input image, it remains unclear whether deprivation of the Fourier phase information alone is able to reshape eye dominance...
April 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389816/brain-architecture-of-the-pacific-white-shrimp-penaeus-vannamei-boone-1931-malacostraca-dendrobranchiata-correspondence-of-brain-structure-and-sensory-input
#10
Rebecca Meth, Christin Wittfoth, Steffen Harzsch
Penaeus vannamei (Dendrobranchiata, Decapoda) is best known as the "Pacific White Shrimp" and is currently the most important crustacean in commercial aquaculture worldwide. Although the neuroanatomy of crustaceans has been well examined in representatives of reptant decapods ("ground-dwelling decapods"), there are only a few studies focusing on shrimps and prawns. In order to obtain insights into the architecture of the brain of P. vannamei, we use neuroanatomical methods including X-ray micro-computed tomography, 3D reconstruction and immunohistochemical staining combined with confocal laser-scanning microscopy and serial sectioning...
April 7, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386436/a-novel-locus-on-chromosome-1-underlies-the-evolution-of-a-melanic-plumage-polymorphism-in-a-wild-songbird
#11
Yann X C Bourgeois, Boris Delahaie, Mathieu Gautier, Emeline Lhuillier, Pierre-Jean G Malé, Joris A M Bertrand, Josselin Cornuault, Kazumasa Wakamatsu, Olivier Bouchez, Claire Mould, Jade Bruxaux, Hélène Holota, Borja Milá, Christophe Thébaud
Understanding the mechanisms responsible for phenotypic diversification within and among species ultimately rests with linking naturally occurring mutations to functionally and ecologically significant traits. Colour polymorphisms are of great interest in this context because discrete colour patterns within a population are often controlled by just a few genes in a common environment. We investigated how and why phenotypic diversity arose and persists in the Zosterops borbonicus white-eye of Reunion (Mascarene archipelago), a colour polymorphic songbird in which all highland populations contain individuals belonging to either a brown or a grey plumage morph...
February 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380954/u-shaped-pn-junctions-for-efficient-silicon-mach-zehnder-and-microring-modulators-in-the-o-band
#12
Zheng Yong, Wesley D Sacher, Ying Huang, Jared C Mikkelsen, Yisu Yang, Xianshu Luo, Patrick Dumais, Dominic Goodwill, Hadi Bahrami, Patrick Guo-Qiang Lo, Eric Bernier, Joyce K S Poon
We demonstrate U-shaped silicon PN junctions for energy efficient Mach-Zehnder modulators and ring modulators in the O-band. This type of junction has an improved modulation efficiency compared to existing PN junction geometries, has low losses, and supports high-speed operation. The U-shaped junctions were fabricated in an 8" silicon photonics platform, and they were incorporated in travelling-wave Mach-Zehnder modulators and microring modulators. For the high-bandwidth Mach-Zehnder modulator, the DC V<sub>π</sub>L at -0...
April 3, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380058/audio-visual-interactions-uniquely-contribute-to-resolution-of-visual-conflict-in-people-possessing-absolute-pitch
#13
Sujin Kim, Randolph Blake, Minyoung Lee, Chai-Youn Kim
Individuals possessing absolute pitch (AP) are able to identify a given musical tone or to reproduce it without reference to another tone. The present study sought to learn whether this exceptional auditory ability impacts visual perception under stimulus conditions that provoke visual competition in the form of binocular rivalry. Nineteen adult participants with 3-19 years of musical training were divided into two groups according to their performance on a task involving identification of the specific note associated with hearing a given musical pitch...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379584/neural-correlates-of-the-eye-dominance-effect-in-human-face-perception-the-left-visual-field-superiority-for-faces-revisited
#14
Wookyoung Jung, Joong-Gu Kang, Hyeonjin Jeon, Miseon Shim, Ji Sun Kim, Hyun-Sung Leem, Seung-Hwan Lee
Faces are processed best when they are presented in the left visual field (LVF), a phenomenon known as LVF superiority. Although one eye contributes more when perceiving faces, it is unclear how the dominant eye (DE), the eye we unconsciously use when performing a monocular task, affects face processing. Here, we examined the influence of the DE on the LVF superiority for faces using event-related potentials. Twenty left-eye-dominant (LDE group) and 23 right-eye-dominant (RDE group) participants performed the experiments...
April 4, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377700/two-types-of-receptive-field-dynamics-in-area-v4-at-the-time-of-eye-movements
#15
Till S Hartmann, Marc Zirnsak, Michael Marquis, Fred H Hamker, Tirin Moore
How we perceive the world as stable despite the frequent disruptions of the retinal image caused by eye movements is one of the fundamental questions in sensory neuroscience. Seemingly convergent evidence points towards a mechanism which dynamically updates representations of visual space in anticipation of a movement (Wurtz, 2008). In particular, receptive fields (RFs) of neurons, predominantly within oculomotor and attention related brain structures (Duhamel et al., 1992; Walker et al., 1995; Umeno and Goldberg, 1997), are thought to "remap" to their future, post-movement location prior to an impending eye movement...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376324/social-attention-and-autism-symptoms-in-high-functioning-women-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#16
Mieke P Ketelaars, Anne In't Velt, Audrey Mol, Hanna Swaab, Fenne Bodrij, Sophie van Rijn
BACKGROUND: Research has suggested a different, less visible, clinical manifestation of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in females. There is, however, limited research into possible underlying mechanisms explaining the female phenotype. AIMS: This study investigates social attention in females with ASD. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: 26 women diagnosed with ASD and 26 typical female controls were shown three video clips containing intense emotions...
April 1, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375317/interaction-of-aberrations-diffraction-and-quantal-fluctuations-determine-the-impact-of-pupil-size-on-visual-quality
#17
Renfeng Xu, Huachun Wang, Larry N Thibos, Arthur Bradley
Our purpose is to develop a computational approach that jointly assesses the impact of stimulus luminance and pupil size on visual quality. We compared traditional optical measures of image quality and those that incorporate the impact of retinal illuminance dependent neural contrast sensitivity. Visually weighted image quality was calculated for a presbyopic model eye with representative levels of chromatic and monochromatic aberrations as pupil diameter was varied from 7 to 1 mm, stimulus luminance varied from 2000 to 0...
April 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371026/interaction-and-developmental-activation-of-two-neuroendocrine-systems-that-regulate-light-mediated-skin-pigmentation
#18
Gabriel E Bertolesi, Yi Nong Song, Karen Atkinson-Leadbeater, Jung-Lynn Jonathan Yang, Sarah McFarlane
Lower vertebrates use rapid light-regulated changes in skin colour for camouflage (background adaptation) or during circadian variation in irradiance levels. Two neuroendocrine systems, the eye/alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and the pineal complex/melatonin circuits, regulate the process through their respective dispersion and aggregation of pigment granules (melanosomes) in skin melanophores. During development, Xenopus laevis tadpoles raised on a black background or in the dark perceive less light sensed by the eye and darken in response to increased α-MSH secretion...
March 30, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366503/benign-yellow-dot-maculopathy-a-new-macular-phenotype
#19
Arundhati Dev Borman, Aleksandra Rachitskaya, Martina Suzani, Robert A Sisk, Zubair M Ahmed, Graham E Holder, Valentina Cipriani, Gavin Arno, Andrew R Webster, Robert B Hufnagel, Audina Berrocal, Anthony T Moore
PURPOSE: To describe a novel macular phenotype that is associated with normal visual function. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational case series. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-six affected individuals from 23 unrelated families. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of patients who had a characteristic macular phenotype. Subjects underwent a full ocular examination, electrophysiologic studies, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), and fundus autofluorescence imaging...
March 30, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362898/dynamic-modulation-of-illusory-and-physical-target-size-on-separate-and-coordinated-eye-and-hand-movements
#20
Christine M Gamble, Joo-Hyun Song
In everyday behavior, two of the most common visually guided actions-eye and hand movements-can be performed independently, but are often synergistically coupled. In this study, we examine whether the same visual representation is used for different stages of saccades and pointing, namely movement preparation and execution, and whether this usage is consistent between independent and naturalistic coordinated eye and hand movements. To address these questions, we used the Ponzo illusion to dissociate the perceived and physical sizes of visual targets and measured the effects on movement preparation and execution for independent and coordinated saccades and pointing...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
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