Read by QxMD icon Read

Ocular dominance

Shu-Yu Wu, Ping Zou, Alexandra W Fuller, Sanjay Mishra, Zhen Wang, Kevin L Schey, Hassane S Mchaourab
The refractivity and transparency of the ocular lens is dependent on the stability and solubility of the crystallins in the fiber cells. A number of mutations of lens crystallins have been associated with dominant cataracts in humans and mice. Of particular interest were γB- and γD-crystallin mutants linked to dominant cataracts in mouse models. While thermodynamically destabilized and aggregation-prone, these mutants were found to have weak affinity to the resident chaperone α-crystallin in vitro To better understand the mechanism of the cataract phenotype, we transgenically expressed different γD-crystallin mutants in the zebrafish lens, and observed a range of lens defects that arise primarily from the aggregation of the mutant proteins...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
George S Vidal, Maja Djurisic, Kiana Brown, Richard W Sapp, Carla J Shatz
Synapse density on cortical pyramidal neurons is modulated by experience. This process is highest during developmental critical periods, when mechanisms of synaptic plasticity are fully engaged. In mouse visual cortex, the critical period for ocular dominance (OD) plasticity coincides with the developmental pruning of synapses. At this time, mice lacking paired Ig-like receptor B (PirB) have excess numbers of dendritic spines on L5 neurons; these spines persist and are thought to underlie the juvenile-like OD plasticity observed in adulthood...
September 2016: ENeuro
Lei Tong, Yang Xie, Hongbo Yu
Experiments on the adult visual cortex of cats, ferrets and monkeys have revealed organized spatial relationships between multiple feature maps which can also be reproduced by the Kohonen and elastic net self-organization models. However, attempts to apply these models to simulate the temporal kinetics of monocular deprivation during the critical period, and their effects on the spatial arrangement of feature maps, have led to conflicting results. In this study, we performed monocular deprivation (MD) and chronic imaging in the ferret visual cortex during the critical period of ocular dominance (OD) plasticity...
October 13, 2016: Neuroscience
Nicola Marchili, Eleonora Ortu, Davide Pietropaoli, Ruggero Cattaneo, Annalisa Monaco
Stomatognathic system is strictly correlated to other anatomical regions; many studies investigated relationship between temporomandibular joint and posture, several articles describe cranio-facial pain from dental causes, such as trigger points. Until now less interest has been given to connections between dental occlusion and ophthalmology, even if they are important and involving. Clinical experience in dental practice claims that mandibular latero-deviation is connected both to eye dominance and to defects of ocular convergence...
2016: Open Dentistry Journal
Rustam Zhurayev, Dorien Proost, Dmytro Zerbino, Viktor Fedorenko, Josephina A N Meester, Lut VAN Laer, Bart L Loeys
Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder, predominantly affecting the ocular, skeletal and cardiovascular systems. Here, we present the results of the first genetic testing in 40 Ukrainian Marfan (-like) patients and 10 relatives. We applied a targeted next generation sequencing panel comprising FBN1 and 13 thoracic aortic aneurysm genes. We identified 27 causal mutations in FBN1, obtaining a mutation yield of 67·5%. A significant difference in age at aortic surgery between mutation positive and negative patients was observed...
October 11, 2016: Genetics Research
Sadie Smith, Kavita Gadhok, Dmitri Guvakov
Goltz syndrome, also known as focal dermal hypoplasia, is a rare X-linked dominant multisystem syndrome presenting with cutaneous, skeletal, dental ocular, central nervous system and soft tissue abnormalities. This case report discusses an adult male patient with Goltz syndrome that was noted to have large, papillomatous, hypopharyngeal lesions upon induction of general anesthesia. We highlight challenges with airway management intraoperatively and postoperatively in patients with Goltz syndrome. Our aim is to increase awareness of the potential airway complications associated with this genetic disorder and to provide suggestions for optimal perioperative management for patients afflicted with Goltz syndrome...
2016: Case Reports in Anesthesiology
Franz Alisch, Alexander Weichert, Karim Kalache, Viola Paradiso, Ann Carolin Longardt, Christof Dame, Katrin Hoffmann, Denise Horn
Gordon syndrome or distal arthrogryposis type 3 is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by contractures of upper and lower limbs. It is distinguishable from other forms of distal arthrogryposis by cleft palate and short stature. Recently, Gordon syndrome has been associated to heterozygous mutations in the piezo-type mechanosensitive ion channel component 2 gene (PIEZO2). Different mutations of this gene also cause distal arthrogryposis type 5 and Marden-Walker syndrome. Dysfunction of this ion channel provides pleiotropic effects on joints, ocular muscles, and bone development...
October 7, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Evgenia Kalogeraki, Justyna Pielecka-Fortuna, Janika M Hüppe, Siegrid Löwel
The primary visual cortex (V1) is widely used to study brain plasticity, which is not only crucial for normal brain function, such as learning and memory, but also for recovery after brain injuries such as stroke. In standard cage (SC) raised mice, experience-dependent ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in V1 declines with age and is compromised by a lesion in adjacent and distant cortical regions. In contrast, mice raised in an enriched environment (EE), exhibit lifelong OD plasticity and are protected from losing OD plasticity after a stroke-lesion in the somatosensory cortex...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Yu Gu, Trinh Tran, Sachiko Murase, Andrew Borrell, Alfredo Kirkwood, Elizabeth M Quinlan
: Maturation of excitatory drive onto fast-spiking interneurons (FS INs) in the visual cortex has been implicated in the control of the timing of the critical period for ocular dominance plasticity. However, the mechanisms that regulate the strength of these synapses over cortical development are not understood. Here we use a mouse model to show that neuregulin (NRG) and the receptor tyrosine kinase erbB4 regulate the timing of the critical period. NRG1 enhanced the strength of excitatory synapses onto FS INs, which inhibited ocular dominance plasticity during the critical period but rescued plasticity in transgenics with hypoexcitable FS INs...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jiawei Zhou, Lixia Feng, Huimin Lin, Robert F Hess
Purpose: Do humans with uncorrected anisometropia who have not developed anisometropic amblyopia exhibit a shift in ocular dominance nonetheless, reflecting a more subtle form of deprivation? Also, is such a change in dominance, if it occurs, permanent or could it be rectified by an extended period of optical correction? Methods: A total of 25 normal controls (27.5 ± 2.1 years; mean ± SD); 28 anisometropes (20.7 ± 5.6 years) who were fully corrected for more than 16 weeks prior to this investigation; and 24 anisometropes who had never been corrected (21...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Carolina Courage, Christopher B Jackson, Dagmar Hahn, Liliya Euro, Jean-Marc Nuoffer, Sabina Gallati, André Schaller
Isolated defects of the mitochondrial respiratory complex II (succinate dehydrogenase, SDH) are rare, accounting for approximately 2% of all respiratory chain deficiency diagnoses. Here, we report clinical and molecular investigations of three family members with a heterozygous mutation in the large flavoprotein subunit SDHA previously described to cause complex II deficiency. The index patient presented with bilateral optic atrophy and ocular movement disorder, a progressive polyneuropathy, psychiatric involvement, and cardiomyopathy...
September 28, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
O F Iskanderani, B N Dominic, R Doucet, G Coulombe, D Pascale, D Roberge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Jared E Knickelbein, William R Tucker, Nirali Bhatt, Karen Armbrust, David Valent, Dominic Obiyor, Robert B Nussenblatt, H Nida Sen
PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and potential efficacy of gevokizumab, an anti-interleukin 1β (IL-1β) monoclonal antibody, in the treatment of active, non-infectious, non-necrotizing, anterior scleritis. DESIGN: Phase 1/2, open label, non-randomized, prospective, single-arm, pilot trial METHODS: Eight patients with active, non-infectious, non-necrotizing, anterior scleritis with a scleral inflammatory grade of +1 to +3 in at least one eye were enrolled. In one patient, both eyes were enrolled, for a total of nine eyes (four eyes with +1, one eye with +2, and four eyes with +3)...
September 20, 2016: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Yanjun Sun, Taruna Ikrar, Melissa F Davis, Nian Gong, Xiaoting Zheng, Z David Luo, Cary Lai, Lin Mei, Todd C Holmes, Sunil P Gandhi, Xiangmin Xu
Experience alters cortical networks through neural plasticity mechanisms. During a developmental critical period, the most dramatic consequence of occluding vision through one eye (monocular deprivation) is a rapid loss of excitatory synaptic inputs to parvalbumin-expressing (PV) inhibitory neurons in visual cortex. Subsequent cortical disinhibition by reduced PV cell activity allows for excitatory ocular dominance plasticity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying critical period synaptic plasticity are unclear...
October 5, 2016: Neuron
M El-Husseiny, L Daas, A Viestenz, A Langenbucher, B Seitz
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The KAMRA™ inlay (AcuFocus, Irvine, California, USA) is an additional option for correcting presbyopia that has been used for many years in refractive surgery. Our objective is to report our three-month postoperative results of KAMRA™ inlay implantation in terms of near, intermediate and distance vision. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All 24 patients (average age 54.1 ± 6.0 years) were treated with the KAMRA™ inlay in the non-dominant eye (75 % in the left eye) by the same surgeon (MEH)...
September 8, 2016: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
Ju-Yeun Lee, Sungsoon Hwang, Shin Yeop Oh, Kyung-Ah Park, Sei Yeul Oh
The aim of this study was to determine whether objective ocular torsion in intermittent exotropia (IXT) changes after recession surgery, and to evaluate the relationship between change in ocular torsion and clinical parameters in IXT. Sixty patients between 3 and 14 years of age underwent lateral rectus (LR) recession for IXT. Digital fundus photographs were obtained from both eyes of each subject and the disc-foveal angle (ocular torsion) was calculated using image software. We compared the preoperative and postoperative amount of ocular torsion, and analyzed the correlation between the difference in ocular torsion (DOC) and clinical parameters including age, duration of strabismus, stereoacuity, amount of preoperative exodeviation, and mean dose response...
2016: PloS One
Christopher S Sáles, Edward E Manche
PURPOSE: To compare self-reported quality of vision (QoV) outcomes after myopic LASIK (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis) with two femtosecond lasers. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, eye-to-eye study. METHODS: Consecutive myopic patients were treated with wavefront-guided LASIK bilaterally. Eyes were randomized according to ocular dominance. The flap of one eye was made with the IntraLase FS 60 kHz femtosecond laser with a conventional 70° side-cut, and the flap of the fellow eye was made with the IntraLase iFS 150 kHz femtosecond laser with an inverted 130° side-cut...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
Pinakin Gunvant Davey, Silverio D Alvarez, Jessica Y Lee
PURPOSE: To evaluate short-term repeatability, intereye correlation, and effect of ocular dominance on macular pigment optical density (MPOD) measurements obtained using the QuantifEye Heterochromatic Flicker Photometer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 72 study participants were enrolled in this prospective, cross-sectional study. Participants underwent a comprehensive ocular evaluation, including visual acuity, evaluation of ocular dominance, slit lamp examination, intraocular pressure measurement, and optic nerve head and macula analysis using optical coherence tomography and fundus photography...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
Chiara Dordoni, Claudia Ciaccio, Graziano Santoro, Marina Venturini, Ugo Cavallari, Marco Ritelli, Marina Colombi
Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder that primarily involves skeletal, ocular, and cardiovascular systems with large inter- and intra-familial variability in terms of age of onset, severity, and aortic disease. The causal gene, FBN1, encodes for fibrillin 1, a multi-domain glycoprotein essential for many biological functions, including deposition and formation of elastic fibers. Reports describing chromosomal alterations involving FBN1 are rare, but in the last years their number has increased after copy number state analyses, such as multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization, were adopted as routine diagnostic tools...
September 12, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Hannah Happ, Eric Weh, Deborah Costakos, Linda M Reis, Elena V Semina
BACKGROUND: Congenital cataracts affect 3-6 per 10,000 live births and represent one of the leading causes of blindness in children. Congenital cataracts have a strong genetic component with high heterogeneity and variability. CASE PRESENTATION: Analysis of whole exome sequencing data in a patient affected with congenital cataracts identified a pathogenic deletion which was further defined by other techniques. A ~98-kb homozygous deletion of 6p24.3 involving the first three exons (two non-coding and one coding) of GCNT2 isoform A, the first exon (coding) of GCNT2 isoform B, and part of the intergenic region between GCNT2 and TFAP2A was identified in the patient and her brother while both parents were found to be heterozygous carriers of the deletion...
2016: BMC Medical Genetics
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"