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Ocular dominance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439979/scattering-contribution-to-the-double-pass-psf-using-monte-carlo-simulations
#1
Dimitrios Christaras, Harilaos Ginis, Alexandros Pennos, Pablo Artal
PURPOSE: Scattering in the eye occurs mainly at two sites: the eye's optical media and the deeper retinal layers. Although the two phenomena are often treated collectively, their spatial domain of contribution to the double-pass Point Spread Function (PSF) is different: the fundus effect is limited to the narrow and middle part of the PSF whereas scattering in the eye's optics extends also to wide angles. The objective of this work was to determine the domain of contribution at the double-pass PSF of light scattered in the ocular media and the ocular fundus, using simulated and experimental data for two different wavelengths and for two different pigmentations...
May 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391010/monocular-deprivation-of-fourier-phase-information-boosts-the-deprived-eye-s-dominance-during-interocular-competition-but-not-interocular-phase-combination
#2
Jianying Bai, Xue Dong, Sheng He, Min Bao
Ocular dominance has been extensively studied, often with the goal to understand neuroplasticity, which is a key characteristic within the critical period. Recent work on monocular deprivation, however, demonstrates residual neuroplasticity in the adult visual cortex. After deprivation of patterned inputs by monocular patching, the patched eye becomes more dominant. Since patching blocks both the Fourier amplitude and phase information of the input image, it remains unclear whether deprivation of the Fourier phase information alone is able to reshape eye dominance...
April 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384719/exome-sequence-analysis-of-14-families-with-high-myopia
#3
Bethany A Kloss, Stuart W Tompson, Kristina N Whisenhunt, Krystina L Quow, Samuel J Huang, Derek M Pavelec, Thomas Rosenberg, Terri L Young
Purpose: To identify causal gene mutations in 14 families with autosomal dominant (AD) high myopia using exome sequencing. Methods: Select individuals from 14 large Caucasian families with high myopia were exome sequenced. Gene variants were filtered to identify potential pathogenic changes. Sanger sequencing was used to confirm variants in original DNA, and to test for disease cosegregation in additional family members. Candidate genes and chromosomal loci previously associated with myopic refractive error and its endophenotypes were comprehensively screened...
April 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383843/-marfan-syndrome-in-childhood-and-adolescence
#4
S Magotteaux, S Bulk, N Farhat, N Sakalihasan, J-O Defraigne, M-Ch Seghaye
The Marfan syndrome is a systemic connective tissue disorder with autosomal dominant inheritance. A mutation of the fibrillin-1 gene, a glycoprotein which is the main constituent of the extracellular matrix, is the cause of the disease. The cardinal features involve the skeletal, ocular and cardiovascular systems. The expression of the Marfan syndrome varies from the severe neonatal presentation to the classical manifestations of the child and young adult, but also comprises isolated features. In children, phenotypical manifestations are age dependent...
July 2016: Revue Médicale de Liège
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366503/benign-yellow-dot-maculopathy-a-new-macular-phenotype
#5
Arundhati Dev Borman, Aleksandra Rachitskaya, Martina Suzani, Robert A Sisk, Zubair M Ahmed, Graham E Holder, Valentina Cipriani, Gavin Arno, Andrew R Webster, Robert B Hufnagel, Audina Berrocal, Anthony T Moore
PURPOSE: To describe a novel macular phenotype that is associated with normal visual function. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational case series. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-six affected individuals from 23 unrelated families. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of patients who had a characteristic macular phenotype. Subjects underwent a full ocular examination, electrophysiologic studies, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), and fundus autofluorescence imaging...
March 30, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357142/aerobic-exercise-effects-on-ocular-dominance-plasticity-with-a-phase-combination-task-in-human-adults
#6
Jiawei Zhou, Alexandre Reynaud, Robert F Hess
Several studies have shown that short-term monocular patching can induce ocular dominance plasticity in normal adults, in which the patched eye becomes stronger in binocular viewing. There is a recent study showing that exercise enhances this plasticity effect when assessed with binocular rivalry. We address one question, is this enhancement from exercise a general effect such that it is seen for measures of binocular processing other than that revealed using binocular rivalry? Using a binocular phase combination task in which we directly measure each eye's contribution to the binocularly fused percept, we show no additional effect of exercise after short-term monocular occlusion and argue that the enhancement of ocular dominance plasticity from exercise could not be demonstrated with our approach...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341476/panel-based-clinical-genetic-testing-in-85-children-with-inherited-retinal-disease
#7
Rachel L Taylor, Neil R A Parry, Stephanie J Barton, Christopher Campbell, Claire M Delaney, Jamie M Ellingford, Georgina Hall, Claire Hardcastle, Jiten Morarji, Elisabeth J Nichol, Lindsi C Williams, Sofia Douzgou, Jill Clayton-Smith, Simon C Ramsden, Vinod Sharma, Susmito Biswas, I Chris Lloyd, Jane L Ashworth, Graeme C Black, Panagiotis I Sergouniotis
PURPOSE: To assess the clinical usefulness of genetic testing in a pediatric population with inherited retinal disease (IRD). DESIGN: Single-center retrospective case series. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-five unrelated children with a diagnosis of isolated or syndromic IRD who were referred for clinical genetic testing between January 2014 and July 2016. METHODS: Participants underwent a detailed ophthalmic examination, accompanied by electrodiagnostic testing (EDT) and dysmorphologic assessment where appropriate...
March 21, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339681/on-tear-film-breakup-tbu-dynamics-and-imaging
#8
Richard J Braun, Tobin A Driscoll, Carolyn G Begley, P Ewen King-Smith, Javed I Siddique
We report the results of some recent experiments to visualize tear film dynamics. We then study a mathematical model for tear film thinning and tear film breakup (TBU), a term from the ocular surface literature. The thinning is driven by an imposed tear film thinning rate which is input from in vivo measurements. Solutes representing osmolarity and fluorescein are included in the model. Osmolarity causes osmosis from the model ocular surface, and the fluorescein is used to compute the intensity corresponding closely to in vivo observations...
February 20, 2017: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336282/-management-of-upper-eyelid-retraction-associated-with-dysthyroid-orbitopathy-during-the-acute-inflammatory-phase-with-botulinum-toxin-type-a
#9
A Nava Castañeda, J L Tovilla Canales, L Garnica Hayashi, A Velasco Y Levy
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of transconjunctival botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) in the treatment of upper eyelid retraction in the active inflammatory phase of dysthyroid orbitopathy, establish the ideal dose, and evaluate side effects. METHODS: This is a comparative, prospective study in patients with thyroid orbitopathy, conducted at the Conde Ophthalmology Institute in Valenciana, Mexico. The patients included had dysthyroid orbitopathy in the inflammatory phase, and they were treated with subconjunctival injection of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) in the upper eyelid...
April 2017: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335564/passage-through-the-ocular-barriers-and-beneficial-effects-in-retinal-ischemia-of-topical-application-of-pacap1-38-in-rodents
#10
Dora Werling, William A Banks, Therese S Salameh, Timea Kvarik, Laszlo Akos Kovacs, Alexandra Vaczy, Edina Szabo, Flora Mayer, Rita Varga, Andrea Tamas, Gabor Toth, Zsolt Biro, Tamas Atlasz, Dora Reglodi
The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) has two active forms, PACAP1-27 and PACAP1-38. Among the well-established actions are PACAP's neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects, which have also been proven in models of different retinopathies. The route of delivery is usually intravitreal in studies proving PACAP's retinoprotective effects. Recently, we have shown that PACAP1-27 delivered as eye drops in benzalkonium-chloride was able to cross the ocular barriers and exert retinoprotection in ischemia...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331219/intragenic-multi-exon-deletion-in-the-fbn1-gene-in-a-child-with-mildly-dilated-aortic-sinus-a-retrotransposal-event
#11
Maggie Brett, George Korovesis, Angeline H M Lai, Eileen C P Lim, Ene-Choo Tan
Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder affecting mainly the skeletal, ocular and cardiovascular systems. Most cases are caused by mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene (FBN1), although there are some reports on deletions involving FBN1 and other additional genes. We report a male patient who was first evaluated at 4 years of age. Echocardiogram showed a mildly dilated aortic sinus. He also had a history of muscular ventral septal defect which was closed spontaneously and trivial mitral regurgitation...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330041/retinal-tractography-influence-of-diffusion-acquisition-ocular-laterality-and-ocular-dominance-in-healthy-subjects
#12
Clément Jean, Arnaud Attyé, Sylvie Grand, Augustin Lecler, Christophe Chiquet, Florent Aptel, Laurent Lamalle, Alexandre Krainik
PURPOSE: Exploration of the human retina has never been described with MRI tractography, supposedly because of ocular movement-related artifacts and imaging distortions with EPI diffusion acquisition. In this work, we used track-weighting imaging to assess retinal fascicles. Diffusion acquisition parameters influence was studied and the relationship between variability and ocular laterality and ocular dominance was explored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty healthy subjects underwent MRI, with retinal tractography calculated with the constrained spherical deconvolution model...
March 2017: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321846/molecular-analysis-of-patients-with-aniridia-in-russian-federation-broadens-the-spectrum-of-pax6-mutations
#13
Tatyana A Vasilyeva, Anna A Voskresenskaya, Barbara Käsmann-Kellner, Olga V Khlebnikova, Nadezhda A Pozdeyeva, Gulnara M Bayazutdinova, Sergey I Kutsev, Evgeny K Ginter, Elena V Semina, Andrey V Marakhonov, Rena A Zinchenko
Congenital aniridia is a severe autosomal dominant congenital panocular disorder, mainly associated with pathogenic variants in the PAX6 gene. The objective of the study was to investigate the mutational and clinical spectra of congenital aniridia in a cohort of 117 patients from Russia. Each patient underwent detailed ophthalmological examination. From 91 unrelated families, 110 patients were diagnosed with congenital aniridia and 7 with WAGR syndrome. The clinical presentation in aniridia patients varied from the complete bilateral absence of the iris (75...
March 21, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299356/an-exome-sequencing-study-of-moebius-syndrome-including-atypical-cases-reveals-an-individual-with-cfeom3a-and-a-tubb3-mutation
#14
Ronak M Patel, David Liu, Claudia Gonzaga-Jauregui, Shalini Jhangiani, James T Lu, V Reid Sutton, Susan D Fernbach, Mahshid Azamian, Lisa White, Jane C Edmond, Evelyn A Paysse, John W Belmont, Donna Muzny, James R Lupski, Richard A Gibbs, Richard Alan Lewis, Brendan H Lee, Seema R Lalani, Philippe M Campeau
Moebius syndrome is characterized by congenital unilateral or bilateral facial and abducens nerve palsies (sixth and seventh cranial nerves) causing facial weakness, feeding difficulties, and restricted ocular movements. Abnormalities of the chest wall such as Poland anomaly and variable limb defects are frequently associated with this syndrome. Most cases are isolated; however, rare families with autosomal dominant transmission with incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity have been described. The genetic basis of this condition remains unknown...
March 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292832/functional-organization-of-vestibulo-ocular-responses-in-abducens-motoneurons
#15
Haike Dietrich, Stefan Glasauer, Hans Straka
Vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VORs) are the dominating contributors to gaze stabilization in all vertebrates. During horizontal head movements, abducens motoneurons form the final element of the reflex arc that integrates visuovestibular inputs into temporally precise motor commands for the lateral rectus eye muscle. Here, we studied a possible differentiation of abducens motoneurons into subtypes by evaluating their morphology, discharge properties, and synaptic pharmacology in semi-intact in vitro preparations of larval Xenopus laevis Extracellular nerve recordings during sinusoidal head motion revealed a continuum of resting rates and activation thresholds during vestibular stimulation...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271408/moving-or-being-moved-that-makes-a-difference
#16
Hans Straka, Boris P Chagnaud
During head/body movements, gaze stability is ensured by transformation of motion-related sensory signals into respective motor commands. Passively induced motion in all vertebrates including amphibians evokes a robust vestibulo-ocular reflex, suggesting an equally important role of this motor reaction during actively induced motion. However, during self-induced movements including locomotion, motor efference copies offer a convenient additional substrate for counteracting retinal image displacements. During such locomotor activity in Xenopus laevis tadpoles, spinal central pattern generator-derived efference copies elicit spatio-temporally specific eye movements, which are functionally appropriate to offset swimming-related retinal image displacements...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262490/monocular-perceptual-deprivation-from-interocular-suppression-temporarily-imbalances-ocular-dominance
#17
Hyun-Woong Kim, Chai-Youn Kim, Randolph Blake
Early visual experience sculpts neural mechanisms that regulate the balance of influence exerted by the two eyes on cortical mechanisms underlying binocular vision [1, 2], and experience's impact on this neural balancing act continues into adulthood [3-5]. One recently described, compelling example of adult neural plasticity is the effect of patching one eye for a relatively short period of time: contrary to intuition, monocular visual deprivation actually improves the deprived eye's competitive advantage during a subsequent period of binocular rivalry [6-8], the robust form of visual competition prompted by dissimilar stimulation of the two eyes [9, 10]...
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250773/meretoja-s-syndrome-lattice-corneal-dystrophy-gelsolin-type
#18
I Casal, S Monteiro, C Abreu, M Neves, L Oliveira, M Beirão
Lattice corneal dystrophy gelsolin type was first described in 1969 by Jouko Meretoja, a Finnish ophthalmologist. It is caused by an autosomal dominant mutation in gelsolin gene resulting in unstable protein fragments and amyloid deposition in various organs. The age of onset is usually after the third decade of life and typical diagnostic triad includes progressive bilateral facial paralysis, loose skin, and lattice corneal dystrophy. We report a case of a 53-year-old female patient referred to our Department of Ophthalmology by severe dry eye and incomplete eyelid closure...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250050/a-novel-mouse-model-of-anterior-segment-dysgenesis-asd-conditional-deletion-of-tsc1-disrupts-ciliary-body-and-iris-development
#19
Anna-Carin Hägglund, Iwan Jones, Leif Carlsson
Development of the cornea, lens, ciliary body and iris within the anterior segment of the eye involves coordinated interaction between cells originating from the ciliary margin of the optic cup, the overlying periocular mesenchyme and the lens epithelium. Anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD) encompasses a spectrum of developmental syndromes that affect these anterior segment tissues. ASD conditions arise as a result of dominantly inherited genetic mutations and result in both ocular-specific and systemic forms of dysgenesis that are best exemplified by aniridia and Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome, respectively...
March 1, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245802/characterization-of-two-novel-intronic-opa1-mutations-resulting-in-aberrant-pre-mrna-splicing
#20
Ramona Bolognini, Christina Gerth-Kahlert, Mathias Abegg, Deborah Bartholdi, Nicolas Mathis, Veit Sturm, Sabina Gallati, André Schaller
BACKGROUND: We report two novel splice region mutations in OPA1 in two unrelated families presenting with autosomal-dominant optic atrophy type 1 (ADOA1) (ADOA or Kjer type optic atrophy). Mutations in OPA1 encoding a mitochondrial inner membrane protein are a major cause of ADOA. METHODS: We analyzed two unrelated families including four affected individuals clinically suspicious of ADOA. Standard ocular examinations were performed in affected individuals of both families...
February 28, 2017: BMC Medical Genetics
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