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Amino acid AND chemotaxis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745538/sinorhizobium-meliloti-chemotaxis-to-multiple-amino-acids-is-mediated-by-the-chemoreceptor-mcpu
#1
Benjamin A Webb, K Karl Compton, Julia S Martin Del Campo, Doris Taylor, Pablo Sobrado, Birgit E Scharf
The legume symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti is chemoattracted to compounds exuded by germinating seeds of its host alfalfa. This response is mainly mediated by the S. meliloti chemoreceptor McpU. McpU also has a prominent contribution in sensing a synthetic amino acid (aa) mixture mimicking the amounts and composition observed in seed exudate. Here, we used the hydrogel capillary assay to quantify chemotactic responses of S. meliloti to individual aa exuded by germinating alfalfa seeds and to define the role of McpU in this behavior...
July 26, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687713/tlr9-is-upregulated-in-human-and-murine-nash-pivotal-role-for-inflammatory-recruitment-and-cell-survival
#2
Auvro R Mridha, Fahrettin Haczeyni, Matthew M Yeh, W Geoffrey Haigh, George N Ioannou, Vanessa Barn, Hussam Ajamieh, Leon Adams, Jeffrey M Hamdorf, Narci C Teoh, Geoffrey C Farrell
Background & Aims: TLR9 deletion protects against steatohepatitis due to choline-amino acid depletion and high-fat diet. We measured TLR9 in human NASH livers, and tested whether TLR9 mediates inflammatory recruitment in three murine models of NAFLD. Methods: We assayed TLR mRNA in liver biopsies from bariatric surgery patients. Wildtype (Wt) , appetite-dysregulated Alms1 mutant (foz/foz),Tlr9(-/-), and Tlr9(-/-).foz/foz C57BL6/J mice and bone marrow (BM) chimeras were fed 0.2% cholesterol, high-fat, high sucrose (atherogenic[Ath]) diet or chow, and NAFLD activity score (NAS)/NASH pathology, macrophage/neutrophil infiltration, cytokines/chemokines and cell death markers measured in livers...
July 7, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671965/characterization-of-the-emerging-zoonotic-pathogen-arcobacter-thereius-by-whole-genome-sequencing-and-comparative-genomics
#3
Francesca Rovetto, Aurélien Carlier, Anne-Marie Van den Abeele, Koen Illeghems, Filip Van Nieuwerburgh, Luca Cocolin, Kurt Houf
Four Arcobacter species have been associated with human disease, and based on current knowledge, these Gram negative bacteria are considered as potential food and waterborne zoonotic pathogens. At present, only the genome of the species Arcobacter butzleri has been analysed, and still little is known about their physiology and genetics. The species Arcobacter thereius has first been isolated from tissue of aborted piglets, duck and pig faeces, and recently from stool of human patients with enteritis. In the present study, the complete genome and analysis of the A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542527/genomic-and-transcriptomic-analyses-reveal-adaptation-mechanisms-of-an-acidithiobacillus-ferrivorans-strain-yl15-to-alpine-acid-mine-drainage
#4
Tangjian Peng, Liyuan Ma, Xue Feng, Jiemeng Tao, Meihua Nan, Yuandong Liu, Jiaokun Li, Li Shen, Xueling Wu, Runlan Yu, Xueduan Liu, Guanzhou Qiu, Weimin Zeng
Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans is an acidophile that often occurs in low temperature acid mine drainage, e.g., that located at high altitude. Being able to inhabit the extreme environment, the bacterium must possess strategies to copy with the survival stress. Nonetheless, information on the strategies is in demand. Here, genomic and transcriptomic assays were performed to illuminate the adaptation mechanisms of an A. ferrivorans strain YL15, to the alpine acid mine drainage environment in Yulong copper mine in southwest China...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464023/heat-shock-and-prolonged-heat-stress-attenuate-neurotoxin-and-sporulation-gene-expression-in-group-i-clostridium-botulinum-strain-atcc-3502
#5
Katja Selby, Gerald Mascher, Panu Somervuo, Miia Lindström, Hannu Korkeala
Foodborne pathogenic bacteria are exposed to a number of environmental stresses during food processing, storage, and preparation, and in the human body. In order to improve the safety of food, the understanding of molecular stress response mechanisms foodborne pathogens employ is essential. Many response mechanisms that are activated during heat shock may cross-protect bacteria against other environmental stresses. To better understand the molecular mechanisms Clostridium botulinum, the causative agent of botulism, utilizes during acute heat stress and during adaptation to stressfully high temperature, the C...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395865/metabolism-of-branched-chain-amino-acids-revealed-by-transcriptome-analysis-in-vibrio-alginolyticus
#6
Yiqin Deng, Xiongqi Ding, Xiaochun Huang, Yiying Yang, Chang Chen
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) play important roles in nitrogen metabolism. However, little is known about the metabolism of BCAAs in the fish pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus. In this study, the global gene expression patterns of V. alginolyticus ZJ-T cultured in M63 minimal medium supplemented with ammonium sulfate or with three BCAAs (isoleucine, leucine and valine) as nitrogen source were evaluated by transcriptome analysis. The results revealed that 311 genes are up-regulated (|log2(Fold Change)|>1), which are involved in the pathways of flagellar assembly, bacterial chemotaxis and oxidative phosphorylation etc, and meanwhile 251 genes are down-regulated, which are involved in the pathways of BCAAs biosynthesis, selenocompound metabolism and C5-branced dibasic acid metabolism etc...
April 5, 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322746/truncation-of-cxcl12-by-cd26-reduces-its-cxc-chemokine-receptor-4-and-atypical-chemokine-receptor-3-dependent-activity-on-endothelial-cells-and-lymphocytes
#7
Rik Janssens, Anneleen Mortier, Daiane Boff, Pieter Ruytinx, Mieke Gouwy, Bo Vantilt, Olav Larsen, Viktorija Daugvilaite, Mette M Rosenkilde, Marc Parmentier, Sam Noppen, Sandra Liekens, Jo Van Damme, Sofie Struyf, Mauro M Teixeira, Flávio A Amaral, Paul Proost
The chemokine CXCL12 or stromal cell-derived factor 1/SDF-1 attracts hematopoietic progenitor cells and mature leukocytes through the G protein-coupled CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). In addition, it interacts with atypical chemokine receptor 3 (ACKR3 or CXCR7) and glycosaminoglycans. CXCL12 activity is regulated through posttranslational cleavage by CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase 4 that removes two NH2-terminal amino acids. CD26-truncated CXCL12 does not induce calcium signaling or chemotaxis of mononuclear cells...
May 15, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296262/the-c-terminal-region-of-the-major-outer-sheath-protein-of-treponema-denticola-inhibits-neutrophil-chemotaxis
#8
M M Jones, S T Vanyo, M B Visser
Treponema denticola is an oral spirochete strongly associated with severe periodontal disease. A prominent virulence factor, the major outer sheath protein (Msp), disorients neutrophil chemotaxis by altering the cellular phosphoinositide balance, leading to impairment of downstream chemotactic events including actin rearrangement, Rac1 activation, and Akt activation in response to chemoattractant stimulation. The specific regions of Msp responsible for interactions with neutrophils remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of truncated Msp regions on neutrophil chemotaxis and associated signaling pathways...
March 13, 2017: Molecular Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250336/the-periplasmic-sensing-domain-of-pseudomonas-fluorescens-chemotactic-transducer-of-amino-acids-type-b-ctab-cloning-refolding-purification-crystallization-and-x-ray-crystallographic-analysis
#9
Abu Iftiaf Md Salah Ud-Din, Anna Roujeinikova
Pseudomonas fluorescens is a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium that provides nutrients for growth and induces systemic resistance against plant diseases. It has been linked with a number of human diseases including nosocomial infections and bacterial cystitis. Chemotactic motility of P. fluorescens towards root exudates plays a crucial role in establishing a symbiotic relationship with host plants. The P. fluorescens chemotactic transducer of amino acids type B (CtaB) mediates chemotaxis towards amino acids...
February 28, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250113/cxcl12-induced-macropinocytosis-modulates-two-distinct-pathways-to-activate-mtorc1-in-macrophages
#10
Regina Pacitto, Isabella Gaeta, Joel A Swanson, Sei Yoshida
Although growth factors and chemokines elicit different overall effects on cells-growth and chemotaxis, respectively-and activate distinct classes of cell-surface receptors, nonetheless, they trigger similar cellular activities and signaling pathways. The growth factor M-CSF and the chemokine CXCL12 both stimulate the endocytic process of macropinocytosis, and both activate the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a protein complex that regulates cell metabolism. Recent studies of signaling by M-CSF in macrophages identified a role for macropinocytosis in the activation of mTORC1, in which delivery of extracellular amino acids into lysosomes via macropinocytosis was required for activation of mTORC1...
March 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212413/scarless-deletion-of-up-to-seven-methyl-accepting-chemotaxis-genes-with-an-optimized-method-highlights-key-function-of-chem-in-salmonella-typhimurium
#11
Stefanie Hoffmann, Christiane Schmidt, Steffi Walter, Jennifer K Bender, Roman G Gerlach
Site-directed scarless mutagenesis is an essential tool of modern pathogenesis research. We describe an optimized two-step protocol for genome editing in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to enable multiple sequential mutagenesis steps in a single strain. The system is based on the λ Red recombinase-catalyzed integration of a selectable antibiotics resistance marker followed by replacement of this cassette. Markerless mutants are selected by expressing the meganuclease I-SceI which induces double-strand breaks in bacteria still harboring the resistance locus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125065/chytridiomycosis-of-marine-diatoms-the-role-of-stress-physiology-and-resistance-in-parasite-host-recognition-and-accumulation-of-defense-molecules
#12
Bettina Scholz, Frithjof C Küpper, Wim Vyverman, Halldór G Ólafsson, Ulf Karsten
Little is known about the role of chemotaxis in the location and attachment of chytrid zoospores to potential diatom hosts. Hypothesizing that environmental stress parameters affect parasite-host recognition, four chytrid-diatom tandem cultures (Chytridium sp./Navicula sp., Rhizophydium type I/Nitzschia sp., Rhizophydium type IIa/Rhizosolenia sp., Rhizophydium type IIb/Chaetoceros sp.) were used to test the chemotaxis of chytrid zoospores and the presence of potential defense molecules in a non-contact-co-culturing approach...
January 25, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885605/characterization-of-ligand-receptor-interactions-chemotaxis-biofilm-cell-culture-assays-and-animal-model-methodologies
#13
Rebecca M King, Victoria Korolik
Chemotactic motility is an essential virulence factor for the pathogenesis of Campylobacter spp. infection. In Chapter 6 , we described technologies that enable initial screening and identification of ligands able to interact with chemoreceptor sensory domains. These include amino acid and glycan arrays, NMR, and SPR that are utilized to identify potential ligands interacting with Campylobacter jejuni. Here we describe techniques that enable the characterization and evaluation of ligand-receptor binding in chemotaxis through the assessment of motility and directed chemotactic motility as well as the associated phenotypes-autoagglutination behavior, biofilm formation, ability to adhere and invade cultured mammalian cells, and colonization ability in avian hosts...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876778/differential-fecal-microbiota-are-retained-in-broiler-chicken-lines-divergently-selected-for-fatness-traits
#14
Qiangchuan Hou, Lai-Yu Kwok, Yi Zheng, Lifeng Wang, Zhuang Guo, Jiachao Zhang, Weiqiang Huang, Yuxiang Wang, Li Leng, Hui Li, Heping Zhang
Our study combined 16S rRNA-pyrosequencing and whole genome sequencing to analyze the fecal metagenomes of the divergently selected lean (LL) and fat (FL) line chickens. Significant structural differences existed in both the phylogenic and functional metagenomes between the two chicken lines. At phylum level, the FL group had significantly less Bacteroidetes. At genus level, fourteen genera of different relative abundance were identified, with some known short-chain fatty acid producers (including Subdoligranulum, Butyricicoccus, Eubacterium, Bacteroides, Blautia) and a potentially pathogenic genus (Enterococcus)...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855210/potent-and-broad-inhibition-of-hiv-1-by-a-peptide-from-the-gp41-heptad-repeat-2-domain-conjugated-to-the-cxcr4-amino-terminus
#15
George J Leslie, Jianbin Wang, Max W Richardson, Beth S Haggarty, Kevin L Hua, Jennifer Duong, Anthony J Secreto, Andrea P O Jordon, Josephine Romano, Kritika E Kumar, Joshua J DeClercq, Philip D Gregory, Carl H June, Michael J Root, James L Riley, Michael C Holmes, James A Hoxie
HIV-1 entry can be inhibited by soluble peptides from the gp41 heptad repeat-2 (HR2) domain that interfere with formation of the 6-helix bundle during fusion. Inhibition has also been seen when these peptides are conjugated to anchoring molecules and over-expressed on the cell surface. We hypothesized that potent anti-HIV activity could be achieved if a 34 amino acid peptide from HR2 (C34) were brought to the site of virus-cell interactions by conjugation to the amino termini of HIV-1 coreceptors CCR5 or CXCR4...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810492/molecular-initiating-events-of-the-intersex-phenotype-low-dose-exposure-to-17%C3%AE-ethinylestradiol-rapidly-regulates-molecular-networks-associated-with-gonad-differentiation-in-the-adult-fathead-minnow-testis
#16
April Feswick, Jennifer R Loughery, Meghan A Isaacs, Kelly R Munkittrick, Christopher J Martyniuk
Intersex, or the presence of oocytes in the testes, has been documented in fish following exposure to wastewater effluent and estrogenic compounds. However, the molecular networks underlying the intersex condition are not completely known. To address this, we exposed male fathead minnows to a low, environmentally-relevant concentration of 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) (15ng/L) and measured the transcriptome response in the testis after 96h to identify early molecular initiating events that may proceed the intersex condition...
December 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791187/serum-stimulation-of-ccr7-chemotaxis-due-to-coagulation-factor-xiia-dependent-production-of-high-molecular-weight-kininogen-domain-5
#17
Manish P Ponda, Jan L Breslow
Chemokines and their receptors play a critical role in immune function by directing cell-specific movement. C-C chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) facilitates entry of T cells into lymph nodes. CCR7-dependent chemotaxis requires either of the cognate ligands C-C chemokine ligand 19 (CCL19) or CCL21. Although CCR7-dependent chemotaxis can be augmented through receptor up-regulation or by increased chemokine concentrations, we found that chemotaxis is also markedly enhanced by serum in vitro. Upon purification, the serum cofactor activity was ascribed to domain 5 of high-molecular-weight kininogen...
October 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743668/corium-molecular-biomarkers-reveal-a-beneficial-effect-on-hoof-transcriptomics-in-peripartal-dairy-cows-supplemented-with-zinc-manganese-and-copper-from-amino-acid-complexes-and-cobalt-from-cobalt-glucoheptonate
#18
J S Osorio, F Batistel, E F Garrett, M M Elhanafy, M R Tariq, M T Socha, J J Loor
Supplying trace minerals in more bioavailable forms such as amino acid complexes (AAC) could help ameliorate the incidence of hoof disorders in peripartal dairy cows. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing metal AAC during the peripartal period on expression of 28 genes in corium tissue related to claw composition, oxidative stress, inflammation, chemotaxis, and transcriptional regulation. Forty-four multiparous Holstein cows received a common diet from -30 to 30 d relative to parturition and were assigned to receive an oral bolus containing either inorganic trace minerals (INO) or AAC (i...
December 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729274/identification-of-a-fish-specific-chemokine-cxcl_f2-in-large-yellow-croaker-larimichthys-crocea-reveals-its-primitive-chemotactic-function
#19
Shimin Zhou, Yinnan Mu, Yingdi Liu, Jingqun Ao, Xinhua Chen
Chemokines are a superfamily of cytokines regulating immune cell migration under both inflammatory and normal physiological conditions. Currently, a number of fish specific CXC chemokines, named as CXCL_F1-5, have been identified in several species. However, understanding of their functional characteristics is still limited. In this study, we identified a fish specific chemokine CXCL_F2 (LycCXCL_F2) from large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea). The open reading frame (ORF) of LycCXCL_F2 is 348 nucleotides long, encoding a protein of 115 amino acids (aa)...
December 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692064/phenotypic-plasticity-as-an-adaptation-to-a-functional-trade-off
#20
Xiao Yi, Antony M Dean
We report the evolution of a phenotypically plastic behavior that circumvents the hardwired trade-off that exists when resources are partitioned between growth and motility in Escherichia coli. We propagated cultures in a cyclical environment, alternating between growth up to carrying capacity and selection for chemotaxis. Initial adaptations boosted overall swimming speed at the expense of growth. The effect of the trade-off was subsequently eased through a change in behavior; while individual cells reduced motility during exponential growth, the faction of the population that was motile increased as the carrying capacity was approached...
October 3, 2016: ELife
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