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Amino acid AND chemotaxis

J S Osorio, F Batistel, E F Garrett, M M Elhanafy, M R Tariq, M T Socha, J J Loor
Supplying trace minerals in more bioavailable forms such as amino acid complexes (AAC) could help ameliorate the incidence of hoof disorders in peripartal dairy cows. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing metal AAC during the peripartal period on expression of 28 genes in corium tissue related to claw composition, oxidative stress, inflammation, chemotaxis, and transcriptional regulation. Forty-four multiparous Holstein cows received a common diet from -30 to 30 d relative to parturition and were assigned to receive an oral bolus containing either inorganic trace minerals (INO) or AAC (i...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Shimin Zhou, Yinnan Mu, Yingdi Liu, Jingqun Ao, Xinhua Chen
Chemokines are a superfamily of cytokines regulating immune cell migration under both inflammatory and normal physiological conditions. Currently, a number of fish specific CXC chemokines, named as CXCL_F1-5, have been identified in several species. However, understanding of their functional characteristics is still limited. In this study, we identified a fish specific chemokine CXCL_F2 (LycCXCL_F2) from large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea). The open reading frame (ORF) of LycCXCL_F2 is 348 nucleotides long, encoding a protein of 115 amino acids (aa)...
October 8, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Xiao Yi, Antony M Dean
We report the evolution of a phenotypically plastic behavior that circumvents the hardwired trade-off that exists when resources are partitioned between growth and motility in Escherichia coli. We propagated cultures in a cyclical environment, alternating between growth up to carrying capacity and selection for chemotaxis. Initial adaptations boosted overall swimming speed at the expense of growth. The effect of the trade-off was subsequently eased through a change in behavior; while individual cells reduced motility during exponential growth, the faction of the population that was motile increased as the carrying capacity was approached...
October 3, 2016: ELife
Yilei Yang, Mei Gao, Qinghao Zhang, Chaozai Zhang, Xiaohong Yang, Ziwei Huang, Jing An
CXCR4 dimerization has been widely demonstrated both biologically and structurally. This paper mainly focused on the development of structure-based dimeric ligands that target CXCL12-CXCR4 interaction and signaling. This study presents the design and synthesis of a series of [PEG]n linked dimeric ligands of CXCR4 based on the knowledge of the homodimeric crystal structure of CXCR4 and our well established platform of chemistry and bioassays for CXCR4. These new ligands include [PEG]n linked homodimeric or heterodimeric peptides consisting of either two DV3-derived moieties (where DV3 is an all-d-amino acid analog of N-terminal modules of 1-10 (V3) residues of vMIP-II) or hybrids of DV3 moieties and CXCL121-8...
November 1, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Yue Wu, Michael Hannigan, Lijun Zhan, Joseph A Madri, Chi-Kuang Huang
Neutrophils from NOD (Non-Obese Diabetic) mice exhibited reduced migration speed, decreased frequency of directional changes and loss of directionality during chemotaxis (compared to wild type (WT) C57BL/6 mice). Additionally, F-actin of chemotaxing NOD neutrophils failed to orient toward the chemoattractant gradient and NOD neutrophil adhesion was impaired. A point mutation near the autophosphorylation site of Lyn in NOD mice was identified. Point mutations of G to A (G1412 in LynA and G1199 in LynB) cause a change of amino acid E393 (glutamic acid) to K (lysine) in LynA (E393 →K) (E372 of LynB), affecting fMLP-induced tyrosine phosphorylation...
September 3, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Damian Rafal Plichta, Agnieszka Sierakowska Juncker, Marcelo Bertalan, Elizabeth Rettedal, Laurent Gautier, Encarna Varela, Chaysavanh Manichanh, Charlène Fouqueray, Florence Levenez, Trine Nielsen, Joël Doré, Ana Manuel Dantas Machado, Mari Cristina Rodriguez de Evgrafov, Torben Hansen, Torben Jørgensen, Peer Bork, Francisco Guarner, Oluf Pedersen, Morten O A Sommer, S Dusko Ehrlich, Thomas Sicheritz-Pontén, Søren Brunak, H Bjørn Nielsen
The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the habitat for hundreds of microbial species, of which many cannot be cultivated readily, presumably because of the dependencies between species(1). Studies of microbial co-occurrence in the gut have indicated community substructures that may reflect functional and metabolic interactions between cohabiting species(2,3). To move beyond species co-occurrence networks, we systematically identified transcriptional interactions between pairs of coexisting gut microbes using metagenomics and microarray-based metatranscriptomics data from 233 stool samples from Europeans...
2016: Nature Microbiology
Xia Guo, Shi-You Chen
Dedicator of cytokinesis 2 (DOCK2) is a CDM family protein containing DOCK homology region (DHR) -1 and DHR-2, Src-homology 3 (SH3) domain, and C-terminal polybasic amino acid cluster. The CDM family consists of 11 mammalian members and is classified into four subfamilies, the DOCK-A, -B, -C, and -D. DOCK2 is a member of DOCK-A subfamily and an atypical guanine exchange factor regulating the loading of GTP to activate Rac. It is primarily found in peripheral blood, spleen, and thymus and mainly expressed in lymphocytes and macrophages of various organs...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Justin A North, Jaya Sriram, Karuna Chourey, Christopher D Ecker, Ritin Sharma, John A Wildenthal, Robert L Hettich, F Robert Tabita
UNLABELLED: Rhodospirillum rubrum possesses a novel oxygen-independent, aerobic methionine salvage pathway (MSP) for recycling methionine from 5-methylthioadenosine (MTA), the MTA-isoprenoid shunt. This organism can also metabolize MTA as a sulfur source under anaerobic conditions, suggesting that the MTA-isoprenoid shunt may also function anaerobically as well. In this study, deep proteomics profiling, directed metabolite analysis, and reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed metabolic changes in response to anaerobic growth on MTA versus sulfate as sole sulfur source...
2016: MBio
Tory A Hendry, Jeffrey R de Wet, Katherine E Dougan, Paul V Dunlap
The luminous bacterial symbionts of anomalopid flashlight fish are thought to be obligately dependent on their hosts for growth and share several aspects of genome evolution with unrelated obligate symbionts, including genome reduction. However, in contrast to most obligate bacteria, anomalopid symbionts have an active environmental phase that may be important for symbiont transmission. Here we investigated patterns of evolution between anomalopid symbionts compared with patterns in free-living relatives and unrelated obligate symbionts to determine if trends common to obligate symbionts are also found in anomalopid symbionts...
2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
Azam Azimi, Seyed Mahmood Ghaffari, Gholam Hossein Riazi, Seyed Shahriar Arab, Mohammad Mehdi Tavakol, Shahriar Pooyan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae), commonly known as purple nutsedge or nut grass is one of the most invasive and endemic weeds in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions. This plant has been extensively used in traditional medicine for anti-arthritic, antidiarrheal and antiplatelet properties as well as treatment for several CNS disorders such as epilepsy, depression and inflammatory disorders. Inflammation is evidently occurring in pathologically susceptible regions of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain as well as other disorders...
June 25, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Joshua A Fields, Jiaqi Li, Connor J Gulbronson, David R Hendrixson, Stuart A Thompson
Campylobacter jejuni infection is a leading bacterial cause of gastroenteritis and a common antecedent leading to Gullian-Barré syndrome. Our previous data suggested that the RNA-binding protein CsrA plays an important role in regulating several important phenotypes including motility, biofilm formation, and oxidative stress resistance. In this study, we compared the proteomes of wild type, csrA mutant, and complemented csrA mutant C. jejuni strains in an effort to elucidate the mechanisms by which CsrA affects virulence phenotypes...
2016: PloS One
Jérôme Wong-Ng, Anna Melbinger, Antonio Celani, Massimo Vergassola
Evolution of biological sensory systems is driven by the need for efficient responses to environmental stimuli. A paradigm among prokaryotes is the chemotaxis system, which allows bacteria to navigate gradients of chemoattractants by biasing their run-and-tumble motion. A notable feature of chemotaxis is adaptation: after the application of a step stimulus, the bacterial running time relaxes to its pre-stimulus level. The response to the amino acid aspartate is precisely adapted whilst the response to serine is not, in spite of the same pathway processing the signals preferentially sensed by the two receptors Tar and Tsr, respectively...
June 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Abu Iftiaf Md Salah Ud-Din, Anna Roujeinikova
Chemotaxis towards nutrients plays a crucial role in root colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens. The P. fluorescens chemotactic transducer of amino acids type A (CtaA) mediates movement towards amino acids present in root exudates. In this study, the periplasmic sensory domain of CtaA has been crystallized by the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method using ammonium sulfate as a precipitating agent. A complete data set was collected to 1.9 Å resolution using cryocooling conditions and synchrotron radiation...
September 5, 2016: Bioscience Trends
Grégoire Michoud, Mohamed Jebbar
Pyrococcus yayanosii CH1, as the first and only obligate piezophilic hyperthermophilic microorganism discovered to date, extends the physical and chemical limits of life on Earth. It was isolated from the Ashadze hydrothermal vent at 4,100 m depth. Multi-omics analyses were performed to study the mechanisms used by the cell to cope with high hydrostatic pressure variations. In silico analyses showed that the P. yayanosii genome is highly adapted to its harsh environment, with a loss of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathways and the high constitutive expression of the energy metabolism compared with other non-obligate piezophilic Pyrococcus species...
2016: Scientific Reports
Cheng Yang, Asma Khanniche, Joanna R DiSpirito, Ping Ji, Shujun Wang, Ying Wang, Hao Shen
Memory T cells (TM) play a prominent role in protection and auto-immunity due to their ability to mount a more effective response than naïve T cells (TN). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying enhanced functionality of TM are not well defined, particularly in human TM. We examined the global gene expression profiles of human CD8(+) TN and TM before and after stimulation. There were 1,284, 1,373 and 1,629 differentially expressed genes between TN and TM at 0 hr, 4 hr and 24 hr after stimulation, respectively, with more genes expressed to higher levels in TM...
2016: Scientific Reports
Adriana S Pontes, Sulamita da S Setúbal, Neriane Monteiro Nery, Francisquinha Souza da Silva, Silvana D da Silva, Carla F C Fernandes, Rodrigo G Stábeli, Andreimar M Soares, Juliana P Zuliani
The action of LAAO, an L-amino acid oxidase isolated from Calloselasma rhodosthoma snake venom, on isolated human neutrophil function was investigated. Cr-LAAO showed no toxicity on neutrophils. Cr-LAAO in its native form induced the neutrophil chemotaxis, suggesting that its primary structure is essential for stimulation the cell. p38 MAPK and PI3K have a role as signaling pathways of CR-LAAO induced chemotaxis. This toxin also induced the production of hydrogen peroxide and stimulated phagocytosis in neutrophils...
September 1, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Abu Iftiaf Md Salah Ud-Din, Anna Roujeinikova
Flagella-mediated motility and chemotaxis towards nutrients are important characteristics of Vibrio fischeri that play a crucial role in the development of its symbiotic relationship with its Hawaiian squid host Euprymna scolopes. The V. fischeri chemoreceptor A (VfcA) mediates chemotaxis toward amino acids. The periplasmic sensory domain of VfcA has been crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using polyethylene glycol 3350 as a precipitating agent. The crystals belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 39...
May 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
Samia Affroze, Md Shafiqul Islam, Kyosuke Takabe, Seishi Kudo, Shuichi Nakamura
Bacterial chemotaxis is induced by sensing chemical stimuli via chemoreceptors embedded in the cytoplasmic membrane, enabling the cells to migrate toward nutrients or away from toxins. The chemoreceptors of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. have been well studied and are functionally classified on the basis of detectable substrates. The spirochete Leptospira possesses more than ten chemoreceptors and shows attractive or repellent responses against some sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids. However, the roles of these chemoreceptors have not been investigated...
August 2016: Current Microbiology
Terumasa Nakamoto, Miki Miyanokoshi, Tomoaki Tanaka, Keisuke Wakasugi
Human tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) exists in two forms: a full-length TrpRS and a mini TrpRS. We previously found that human mini, but not full-length, TrpRS is an angiostatic factor. Moreover, it was shown that the interaction between mini TrpRS and the extracellular domain of vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin is crucial for its angiostatic activity. However, the molecular mechanism of the angiostatic activity of human mini TrpRS is only partly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of truncated (mini) form of TrpRS proteins from human, bovine, or zebrafish on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-stimulated chemotaxis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Bob T Rosier, Milena D Lazova
The chemotaxis system enables motile bacteria to search for an optimum level of environmental factors. Salmonella typhimurium senses the amino acid cysteine as an attractant and its oxidized dimeric form, cystine, as a repellent. We investigated the dose-response dependence of changes in chemotactic signaling activity upon exposure to cysteine and cystine of S. typhimurium LT2 using in vivo fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements. The dose-response curve of the attractant response to cysteine had a sigmoidal shape, typical for receptor-ligand interactions...
2016: PloS One
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