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Amino acid AND chemotaxis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929678/-chemotaxis-response-of-erwinia-carotovora-on-sugars-and-amino-acids-of-root-exudates-of-panax-ginseng
#1
Ai-Hua Zhang, Ning-Bo An, Feng-Jie Lei, Wen-Li Ma, Kun Chi, Lian-Xue Zhang
The chemotaxis response of Erwinia carotovora to different sugars and amino acids in four kinds of chemotactic parameters (concentration, time, temperature and pH ) was determined by capillary method. The results showed that when pH was 8, concentration was 0.025 mg•L ⁻¹, culture temperature was 25 ℃ and the duration was 60 minutes, the optimal chemotaxis rate of lysine was 2.509,when pH was 6, concentration was 0.25 mg•L ⁻¹, culture temperature was 25 ℃ and the duration was 60 minutes, the optimal chemotaxis rate of arginine was 2...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859966/relative-distribution-and-biological-characterization-of-cxcl4l1-isoforms-in-platelets-from-healthy-donors
#2
Pieter Ruytinx, Rik Janssens, Nele Berghmans, Mieke Gouwy, Isabelle Ronsse, Sandra Liekens, Paul Proost, Jo Van Damme, Sofie Struyf
CXCL4L1, a platelet-derived ELR-negative CXC chemokine, is a powerful angiostatic and anti-tumoral chemokine. We developed a mass spectrometric assay for the detection of different natural CXCL4L1 isoforms. Using this assay, we identified 4 different CXCL4L1 isoforms in the supernatant of thrombin-stimulated platelets from healthy volunteers: the classical isoform CXCL4L1(1-70), CXCL4L1(-4-70), which probably arises through alternative signal peptide removal and two COOH-terminally truncated isoforms CXCL4L1(1-69) and CXCL4L1(-4-69)...
August 28, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822147/-research-on-chemotaxis-response-of-alternaria-panax-to-amino-acid-of-ginseng-root-exudates
#3
Ai-Hua Zhang, Wen-Li Ma, Feng-Jie Lei, Ning-Bo An, Xin-Xin Zhang, Zhi-Qing Liu, Lian-Xue Zhang
Plate assay and spore germination method were used to study the chemotaxis response of Alternaria panax to arginine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid and threonine. The result showed that the optimum temperature of A. panax chemotaxis response to four amino acids were all 25 ℃. And chemotaxis responses of A. panax were different under conditions of different concentration and pH value. The chemotaxin reached to the highest under the condition of 2 mg•L⁻¹ and pH value was 7 for arginine, glutamic acid and threonine while 20 mg•L⁻¹ and pH value was 6 for aspartic acid ...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821752/hybrid-nitric-oxide-donor-and-its-carrier-for-the-treatment-of-peripheral-arterial-diseases
#4
Duong Q Le, Aneetta E Kuriakose, Dat X Nguyen, Kytai T Nguyen, Suchismita Acharya
Nitric oxide (NO) has been known to promote physiological angiogenesis to treat peripheral arterial diseases (PAD) by increasing the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level in endothelial cells (ECs) and preventing platelet adherence and leukocyte chemotaxis. However, the ongoing ischemic event during peripheral ischemia produces superoxide and diminishes the NO bioavailability by forming toxic peroxynitrite anion. Here we disclose an efficacious hybrid molecule 4-(5-Amino-1,2,3-oxadiazol-3-yl)-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinol (SA-2) containing both antioxidant and NO donor functionalities that provide a therapeutic level of NO necessary to promote angiogenesis and to protect ECs against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806402/multi-functional-mechanisms-of-immune-evasion-by-the-streptococcal-complement-inhibitor-c5a-peptidase
#5
Nicola N Lynskey, Mark Reglinski, Damien Calay, Matthew K Siggins, Justin C Mason, Marina Botto, Shiranee Sriskandan
The complement cascade is crucial for clearance and control of invading pathogens, and as such is a key target for pathogen mediated host modulation. C3 is the central molecule of the complement cascade, and plays a vital role in opsonization of bacteria and recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection. Streptococcal species have evolved multiple mechanisms to disrupt complement-mediated innate immunity, among which ScpA (C5a peptidase), a C5a inactivating enzyme, is widely conserved. Here we demonstrate for the first time that pyogenic streptococcal species are capable of cleaving C3, and identify C3 and C3a as novel substrates for the streptococcal ScpA, which are functionally inactivated as a result of cleavage 7 amino acids upstream of the natural C3 convertase...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745538/sinorhizobium-meliloti-chemotaxis-to-multiple-amino-acids-is-mediated-by-the-chemoreceptor-mcpu
#6
Benjamin A Webb, K Karl Compton, Julia S Martin Del Campo, Doris Taylor, Pablo Sobrado, Birgit E Scharf
The legume symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti is chemoattracted to compounds exuded by germinating seeds of its host alfalfa. This response is mainly mediated by the S. meliloti chemoreceptor McpU. McpU also has a prominent contribution in sensing a synthetic amino acid (aa) mixture mimicking the amounts and composition observed in seed exudate. Here, we used the hydrogel capillary assay to quantify chemotactic responses of S. meliloti to individual aa exuded by germinating alfalfa seeds and to define the role of McpU in this behavior...
July 26, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687713/tlr9-is-up-regulated-in-human-and-murine-nash-pivotal-role-in-inflammatory-recruitment-and-cell-survival
#7
Auvro R Mridha, Fahrettin Haczeyni, Matthew M Yeh, W Geoffrey Haigh, George N Ioannou, Vanessa Barn, Hussam Ajamieh, Leon Adams, Jeffrey M Hamdorf, Narci C Teoh, Geoffrey C Farrell
Background and aims: TLR9 deletion protects against steatohepatitis due to choline-amino acid depletion and high-fat diet. We measured TLR9 in human non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) livers, and tested whether TLR9 mediates inflammatory recruitment in three murine models of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods: We assayed TLR mRNA in liver biopsies from bariatric surgery patients. Wild-type (Wt), appetite-dysregulated Alms1 mutant (foz/foz), Tlr9(-/-), and Tlr9(-/-)foz/foz C57BL6/J mice and bone marrow (BM) chimeras were fed 0...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671965/characterization-of-the-emerging-zoonotic-pathogen-arcobacter-thereius-by-whole-genome-sequencing-and-comparative-genomics
#8
Francesca Rovetto, Aurélien Carlier, Anne-Marie Van den Abeele, Koen Illeghems, Filip Van Nieuwerburgh, Luca Cocolin, Kurt Houf
Four Arcobacter species have been associated with human disease, and based on current knowledge, these Gram negative bacteria are considered as potential food and waterborne zoonotic pathogens. At present, only the genome of the species Arcobacter butzleri has been analysed, and still little is known about their physiology and genetics. The species Arcobacter thereius has first been isolated from tissue of aborted piglets, duck and pig faeces, and recently from stool of human patients with enteritis. In the present study, the complete genome and analysis of the A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542527/genomic-and-transcriptomic-analyses-reveal-adaptation-mechanisms-of-an-acidithiobacillus-ferrivorans-strain-yl15-to-alpine-acid-mine-drainage
#9
Tangjian Peng, Liyuan Ma, Xue Feng, Jiemeng Tao, Meihua Nan, Yuandong Liu, Jiaokun Li, Li Shen, Xueling Wu, Runlan Yu, Xueduan Liu, Guanzhou Qiu, Weimin Zeng
Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans is an acidophile that often occurs in low temperature acid mine drainage, e.g., that located at high altitude. Being able to inhabit the extreme environment, the bacterium must possess strategies to copy with the survival stress. Nonetheless, information on the strategies is in demand. Here, genomic and transcriptomic assays were performed to illuminate the adaptation mechanisms of an A. ferrivorans strain YL15, to the alpine acid mine drainage environment in Yulong copper mine in southwest China...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464023/heat-shock-and-prolonged-heat-stress-attenuate-neurotoxin-and-sporulation-gene-expression-in-group-i-clostridium-botulinum-strain-atcc-3502
#10
Katja Selby, Gerald Mascher, Panu Somervuo, Miia Lindström, Hannu Korkeala
Foodborne pathogenic bacteria are exposed to a number of environmental stresses during food processing, storage, and preparation, and in the human body. In order to improve the safety of food, the understanding of molecular stress response mechanisms foodborne pathogens employ is essential. Many response mechanisms that are activated during heat shock may cross-protect bacteria against other environmental stresses. To better understand the molecular mechanisms Clostridium botulinum, the causative agent of botulism, utilizes during acute heat stress and during adaptation to stressfully high temperature, the C...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395865/metabolism-of-branched-chain-amino-acids-revealed-by-transcriptome-analysis-in-vibrio-alginolyticus
#11
Yiqin Deng, Xiongqi Ding, Xiaochun Huang, Yiying Yang, Chang Chen
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) play important roles in nitrogen metabolism. However, little is known about the metabolism of BCAAs in the fish pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus. In this study, the global gene expression patterns of V. alginolyticus ZJ-T cultured in M63 minimal medium supplemented with ammonium sulfate or with three BCAAs (isoleucine, leucine and valine) as nitrogen source were evaluated by transcriptome analysis. The results revealed that 311 genes are up-regulated (|log2(Fold Change)|>1), which are involved in the pathways of flagellar assembly, bacterial chemotaxis and oxidative phosphorylation etc, and meanwhile 251 genes are down-regulated, which are involved in the pathways of BCAAs biosynthesis, selenocompound metabolism and C5-branced dibasic acid metabolism etc...
April 5, 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322746/truncation-of-cxcl12-by-cd26-reduces-its-cxc-chemokine-receptor-4-and-atypical-chemokine-receptor-3-dependent-activity-on-endothelial-cells-and-lymphocytes
#12
Rik Janssens, Anneleen Mortier, Daiane Boff, Pieter Ruytinx, Mieke Gouwy, Bo Vantilt, Olav Larsen, Viktorija Daugvilaite, Mette M Rosenkilde, Marc Parmentier, Sam Noppen, Sandra Liekens, Jo Van Damme, Sofie Struyf, Mauro M Teixeira, Flávio A Amaral, Paul Proost
The chemokine CXCL12 or stromal cell-derived factor 1/SDF-1 attracts hematopoietic progenitor cells and mature leukocytes through the G protein-coupled CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). In addition, it interacts with atypical chemokine receptor 3 (ACKR3 or CXCR7) and glycosaminoglycans. CXCL12 activity is regulated through posttranslational cleavage by CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase 4 that removes two NH2-terminal amino acids. CD26-truncated CXCL12 does not induce calcium signaling or chemotaxis of mononuclear cells...
May 15, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296262/the-c-terminal-region-of-the-major-outer-sheath-protein-of-treponema-denticola-inhibits-neutrophil-chemotaxis
#13
M M Jones, S T Vanyo, M B Visser
Treponema denticola is an oral spirochete strongly associated with severe periodontal disease. A prominent virulence factor, the major outer sheath protein (Msp), disorients neutrophil chemotaxis by altering the cellular phosphoinositide balance, leading to impairment of downstream chemotactic events including actin rearrangement, Rac1 activation, and Akt activation in response to chemoattractant stimulation. The specific regions of Msp responsible for interactions with neutrophils remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of truncated Msp regions on neutrophil chemotaxis and associated signaling pathways...
October 2017: Molecular Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250336/the-periplasmic-sensing-domain-of-pseudomonas-fluorescens-chemotactic-transducer-of-amino-acids-type-b-ctab-cloning-refolding-purification-crystallization-and-x-ray-crystallographic-analysis
#14
Abu Iftiaf Md Salah Ud-Din, Anna Roujeinikova
Pseudomonas fluorescens is a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium that provides nutrients for growth and induces systemic resistance against plant diseases. It has been linked with a number of human diseases including nosocomial infections and bacterial cystitis. Chemotactic motility of P. fluorescens towards root exudates plays a crucial role in establishing a symbiotic relationship with host plants. The P. fluorescens chemotactic transducer of amino acids type B (CtaB) mediates chemotaxis towards amino acids...
February 28, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250113/cxcl12-induced-macropinocytosis-modulates-two-distinct-pathways-to-activate-mtorc1-in-macrophages
#15
Regina Pacitto, Isabella Gaeta, Joel A Swanson, Sei Yoshida
Although growth factors and chemokines elicit different overall effects on cells-growth and chemotaxis, respectively-and activate distinct classes of cell-surface receptors, nonetheless, they trigger similar cellular activities and signaling pathways. The growth factor M-CSF and the chemokine CXCL12 both stimulate the endocytic process of macropinocytosis, and both activate the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a protein complex that regulates cell metabolism. Recent studies of signaling by M-CSF in macrophages identified a role for macropinocytosis in the activation of mTORC1, in which delivery of extracellular amino acids into lysosomes via macropinocytosis was required for activation of mTORC1...
March 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212413/scarless-deletion-of-up-to-seven-methyl-accepting-chemotaxis-genes-with-an-optimized-method-highlights-key-function-of-chem-in-salmonella-typhimurium
#16
Stefanie Hoffmann, Christiane Schmidt, Steffi Walter, Jennifer K Bender, Roman G Gerlach
Site-directed scarless mutagenesis is an essential tool of modern pathogenesis research. We describe an optimized two-step protocol for genome editing in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to enable multiple sequential mutagenesis steps in a single strain. The system is based on the λ Red recombinase-catalyzed integration of a selectable antibiotics resistance marker followed by replacement of this cassette. Markerless mutants are selected by expressing the meganuclease I-SceI which induces double-strand breaks in bacteria still harboring the resistance locus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125065/chytridiomycosis-of-marine-diatoms-the-role-of-stress-physiology-and-resistance-in-parasite-host-recognition-and-accumulation-of-defense-molecules
#17
Bettina Scholz, Frithjof C Küpper, Wim Vyverman, Halldór G Ólafsson, Ulf Karsten
Little is known about the role of chemotaxis in the location and attachment of chytrid zoospores to potential diatom hosts. Hypothesizing that environmental stress parameters affect parasite-host recognition, four chytrid-diatom tandem cultures (Chytridium sp./Navicula sp., Rhizophydium type I/Nitzschia sp., Rhizophydium type IIa/Rhizosolenia sp., Rhizophydium type IIb/Chaetoceros sp.) were used to test the chemotaxis of chytrid zoospores and the presence of potential defense molecules in a non-contact-co-culturing approach...
January 25, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885605/characterization-of-ligand-receptor-interactions-chemotaxis-biofilm-cell-culture-assays-and-animal-model-methodologies
#18
Rebecca M King, Victoria Korolik
Chemotactic motility is an essential virulence factor for the pathogenesis of Campylobacter spp. infection. In Chapter 6 , we described technologies that enable initial screening and identification of ligands able to interact with chemoreceptor sensory domains. These include amino acid and glycan arrays, NMR, and SPR that are utilized to identify potential ligands interacting with Campylobacter jejuni. Here we describe techniques that enable the characterization and evaluation of ligand-receptor binding in chemotaxis through the assessment of motility and directed chemotactic motility as well as the associated phenotypes-autoagglutination behavior, biofilm formation, ability to adhere and invade cultured mammalian cells, and colonization ability in avian hosts...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876778/differential-fecal-microbiota-are-retained-in-broiler-chicken-lines-divergently-selected-for-fatness-traits
#19
Qiangchuan Hou, Lai-Yu Kwok, Yi Zheng, Lifeng Wang, Zhuang Guo, Jiachao Zhang, Weiqiang Huang, Yuxiang Wang, Li Leng, Hui Li, Heping Zhang
Our study combined 16S rRNA-pyrosequencing and whole genome sequencing to analyze the fecal metagenomes of the divergently selected lean (LL) and fat (FL) line chickens. Significant structural differences existed in both the phylogenic and functional metagenomes between the two chicken lines. At phylum level, the FL group had significantly less Bacteroidetes. At genus level, fourteen genera of different relative abundance were identified, with some known short-chain fatty acid producers (including Subdoligranulum, Butyricicoccus, Eubacterium, Bacteroides, Blautia) and a potentially pathogenic genus (Enterococcus)...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855210/potent-and-broad-inhibition-of-hiv-1-by-a-peptide-from-the-gp41-heptad-repeat-2-domain-conjugated-to-the-cxcr4-amino-terminus
#20
George J Leslie, Jianbin Wang, Max W Richardson, Beth S Haggarty, Kevin L Hua, Jennifer Duong, Anthony J Secreto, Andrea P O Jordon, Josephine Romano, Kritika E Kumar, Joshua J DeClercq, Philip D Gregory, Carl H June, Michael J Root, James L Riley, Michael C Holmes, James A Hoxie
HIV-1 entry can be inhibited by soluble peptides from the gp41 heptad repeat-2 (HR2) domain that interfere with formation of the 6-helix bundle during fusion. Inhibition has also been seen when these peptides are conjugated to anchoring molecules and over-expressed on the cell surface. We hypothesized that potent anti-HIV activity could be achieved if a 34 amino acid peptide from HR2 (C34) were brought to the site of virus-cell interactions by conjugation to the amino termini of HIV-1 coreceptors CCR5 or CXCR4...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
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