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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088928/multi-modal-mri-investigation-of-volumetric-and-microstructural-changes-in-the-hippocampus-and-its-subfields-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-alzheimer-s-disease-and-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#1
Elijah Mak, Silvy Gabel, Li Su, Guy B Williams, Robert Arnold, Luca Passamonti, Patricia Vazquez Rodríguez, Ajenthan Surendranathan, W Richard Bevan-Jones, James B Rowe, John T O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Volumetric atrophy and microstructural alterations in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures of the hippocampus have been reported in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, no study to date has jointly investigated concomitant microstructural and volumetric changes of the hippocampus in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). METHODS: A total of 84 subjects (23 MCI, 17 DLB, 14 AD, and 30 healthy controls) were recruited for a multi-modal imaging (3T MRI and DTI) study that included neuropsychological evaluation...
January 16, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086964/anti-%C3%AE-synuclein-immunotherapy-reduces-%C3%AE-synuclein-propagation-in-the-axon-and-degeneration-in-a-combined-viral-vector-and-transgenic-model-of-synucleinopathy
#2
Brian Spencer, Elvira Valera, Edward Rockenstein, Cassia Overk, Michael Mante, Anthony Adame, Wagner Zago, Peter Seubert, Robin Barbour, Dale Schenk, Dora Games, Robert A Rissman, Eliezer Masliah
Neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's Disease (PD), PD dementia (PDD) and Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are characterized by progressive accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn) in neurons. Recent studies have proposed that neuron-to-neuron propagation of α-syn plays a role in the pathogenesis of these disorders. We have previously shown that antibodies against the C-terminus of α-syn reduce the intra-neuronal accumulation of α-syn and related deficits in transgenic models of synucleinopathy, probably by abrogating the axonal transport and accumulation of α-syn in in vivo models...
January 13, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069058/endosulfine-alpha-inhibits-membrane-induced-%C3%AE-synuclein-aggregation-and-protects-against-%C3%AE-synuclein-neurotoxicity
#3
Daniel Ysselstein, Benjamin Dehay, Isabel M Costantino, George P McCabe, Matthew P Frosch, Julia M George, Erwan Bezard, Jean-Christophe Rochet
Neuropathological and genetic findings suggest that the presynaptic protein α-synuclein (aSyn) is involved in the pathogenesis of synucleinopathy disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and multiple system atrophy. Evidence suggests that the self-assembly of aSyn conformers bound to phospholipid membranes in an aggregation-prone state plays a key role in aSyn neurotoxicity. Accordingly, we hypothesized that protein binding partners of lipid-associated aSyn could inhibit the formation of toxic aSyn oligomers at membrane surfaces...
January 10, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058207/memory-loss-five-new-things
#4
Ferenc Deak, Nidhi Kapoor, Calin Prodan, Linda A Hershey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Memory loss can be due to a wide variety of causes. We provide new information about the biology of common genetic and acquired causes of memory loss in older adults. RECENT FINDINGS: New data are available about the genetics of Alzheimer disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and frontotemporal dementia. Amyloid PET, FDG-PET, and MRI have improved our understanding of how mild cognitive impairment evolves to AD. Several studies have shown links between concussion and chronic traumatic encephalopathy...
December 2016: Neurology. Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039370/hippocampal-%C3%AE-synuclein-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-contributes-to-memory-impairment-and-is-consistent-with-spread-of-pathology
#5
David H Adamowicz, Subhojit Roy, David P Salmon, Douglas R Galasko, Lawrence A Hansen, Eliezer Masliah, Fred H Gage
: Despite considerable research to uncover them, the anatomic and neuropathologic correlates of memory impairment in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) remain unclear. While some studies have implicated Lewy bodies in the neocortex, others have pointed to α-synuclein pathology in the hippocampus. We systematically examined hippocampal Lewy pathology and its distribution in hippocampal subfields in 95 clinically and neuropathologically characterized human cases of DLB, finding that α-synuclein pathology was highest in two hippocampal-related subregions: the CA2 subfield and the entorhinal cortex (EC)...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035426/diagnostic-imaging-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-by-susceptibility-weighted-imaging-of-nigrosomes-versus-striatal-dopamine-transporter-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-a-retrospective-observational-study
#6
Koji Kamagata, Tomoya Nakatsuka, Ryuji Sakakibara, Yohei Tsuyusaki, Tomohiro Takamura, Kanako Sato, Michimasa Suzuki, Masaaki Hori, Kanako K Kumamaru, Tsutomu Inaoka, Shigeki Aoki, Hitoshi Terada
INTRODUCTION: The characteristics of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI) overlap but require different treatments; therefore, it is important to differentiate these pathologies. Assessment of dopamine uptake in the striatum using dopamine transporter (DaT) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is the gold standard for diagnosing DLB; however, this modality is expensive, time consuming and involves radiation exposure...
January 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003435/genetic-compendium-of-1511-human-brains-available-through-the-uk-medical-research-council-brain-banks-network-resource
#7
Michael J Keogh, Wei Wei, Ian Wilson, Jon Coxhead, Sarah Ryan, Sara Rollinson, Helen Griffin, Marzena Kurzawa-Akanbi, Mauro Santibanez-Koref, Kevin Talbot, Martin R Turner, Chris-Anne McKenzie, Claire Troakes, Johannes Attems, Colin Smith, Safa Al Sarraj, Chris M Morris, Olaf Ansorge, Stuart Pickering-Brown, James W Ironside, Patrick F Chinnery
Given the central role of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of common neurodegenerative disorders, it is critical that mechanistic studies in human tissue are interpreted in a genetically enlightened context. To address this, we performed exome sequencing and copy number variant analysis on 1511 frozen human brains with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 289), frontotemporal dementia/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FTD/ALS, n = 252), Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD, n = 239), Parkinson's disease (PD, n = 39), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB, n = 58), other neurodegenerative, vascular, or neurogenetic disorders (n = 266), and controls with no significant neuropathology (n = 368)...
January 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956085/effects-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-on-axonal-transport
#8
Laura A Volpicelli-Daley
Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites composed primarily of α-synuclein characterize synucleinopathies including Parkinson's disease (PD) and Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). Despite decades of research on the impact of α-synuclein, little is known how abnormal inclusion made of this protein compromise neuronal function. Emerging evidence suggests that defects in axonal transport caused by aggregated α-synuclein contribute to neuronal dysfunction. These defects appear to occur well before the onset of neuronal death...
December 9, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941373/added-value-of-combined-semi-quantitative-and-visual-123i-fp-cit-spect-analyses-for-the-diagnosis-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#9
Nicolas Nicastro, Valentina Garibotto, Gilles Allali, Frederic Assal, Pierre R Burkhard
PURPOSE OF THE REPORT: To assess the validity of a semi-quantitative I-FP-CIT SPECT method, compared to the commonly used visual analysis, in patients with probable dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We also studied DLB specific uptake impairment pattern and correlation of uptake in the presence or absence of parkinsonism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among 1202 scans performed at our center from 2003 to 2015, we identified 93 subjects with probable DLB (mean age 76...
December 9, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940650/autopsy-validation-of-123i-fp-cit-dopaminergic-neuroimaging-for-the-diagnosis-of-dlb
#10
Alan J Thomas, Johannes Attems, Sean J Colloby, John T O'Brien, Ian McKeith, Rodney Walker, Lean Lee, David Burn, Debra J Lett, Zuzana Walker
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a validation study of (123)I-N-fluoropropyl-2b-carbomethoxy-3b-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane ((123)I-FP-CIT) SPECT dopaminergic imaging in the clinical diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) with autopsy as the gold standard. METHODS: Patients >60 years of age with dementia who had undergone (123)I-FP-CIT imaging in research studies and who had donated their brain tissue to the Newcastle Brain Tissue Resource were included. All had structured clinical research assessments, and clinical diagnoses were applied by consensus panels using international diagnostic criteria...
December 9, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930593/usefulness-of-3-dimensional-stereotactic-surface-projection-fdg-pet-images-for-the-diagnosis-of-dementia
#11
Jahae Kim, Sang-Geon Cho, Minchul Song, Sae-Ryung Kang, Seong Young Kwon, Kang-Ho Choi, Seong-Min Choi, Byeong-Chae Kim, Ho-Chun Song
To compare diagnostic performance and confidence of a standard visual reading and combined 3-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) results to discriminate between Alzheimer disease (AD)/mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD).[F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET brain images were obtained from 120 patients (64 AD/MCI, 38 DLB, and 18 FTD) who were clinically confirmed over 2 years follow-up. Three nuclear medicine physicians performed the diagnosis and rated diagnostic confidence twice; once by standard visual methods, and once by adding of 3D-SSP...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911312/increased-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-2-in-the-neocortex-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-is%C3%A2-correlated-with-disease-severity-and%C3%A2-soluble-a%C3%AE-42-load
#12
Joyce R Chong, Yuek Ling Chai, Jasinda H Lee, David Howlett, Johannes Attems, Clive G Ballard, Dag Aarsland, Paul T Francis, Christopher P Chen, Mitchell K P Lai
BACKGROUND: Of the three transforming growth factor (TGF)-β isoforms known, TGFβ1 deficits have been widely reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and studied as a potential therapeutic target. In contrast, the status of TGFβ2, which has been shown to mediate amyloid-β (Aβ)-mediated neuronal death, are unclear both in AD and in Lewy body dementias (LBD) with differential neuritic plaque and neurofibrillary tangle burden. OBJECTIVE: To measure neocortical TGFβ2 levels and their correlations with neuropathological and clinical markers of disease severity in a well-characterized cohort of AD as well as two clinical subtypes of LBD, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), known to manifest relatively high and low Aβ plaque burden, respectively...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905355/-cerebral-microbleeds-in-cerebrovascular-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-with-cognitive-impairment
#13
T A Polyakova, O S Levin
AIM: To study a role of cerebral microbleeds (CMB) in the diagnosis of main cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative diseases with cognitive impairment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: CMB were studied in 120 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and vascular dementia using 1.5T MRI in T2 * gradient echo. An impact of CMB on cognitive functions and the relationship with signs of vascular and neurodegenerative lesions of the brain were studied as well...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899296/targeting-the-norepinephrinergic-system-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-related-disorders-the-locus-coeruleus-story
#14
REVIEW
Yannick Vermeiren, Peter P De Deyn
Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) are related, progressive and debilitating neurodegenerative disorders with hallmark features that include a variety of motor and non-motor symptoms (behavioral, autonomic and cognitive dysfunction). For almost half a century, the motor aspects have been attributed to Lewy pathology (LP) predominantly in the substantia nigra (SN), causing a major loss of dopaminergic neurons. However, the relative success of dopaminergic replacement therapies for alleviation of solely the parkinsonian features has prompted researchers to further explore other monoaminergic strategies which may tackle all PD-related aspects...
November 27, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897064/diagnosis-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-can-123-i-imp-and-123-i-mibg-scintigraphy-yield-new-core-features
#15
Fumi Sakamoto, Shinya Shiraishi, Noriko Tsuda, Mamoru Hashimoto, Seiji Tomiguchi, Manabu Ikeda, Yasuyuki Yamashita
OBJECTIVE: Since the clinical symptoms of different types of dementia frequently overlap, especially in the earlier stages at onset, it is difficult to distinguish dementias with Lewy bodies (DLB) from other neurodegenerative dementias based on their clinical manifestations alone. Nuclear medicine imaging has been reported as a high-value index for the objective evaluation and diagnosis of DLB. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether nuclear medicine imaging findings may yield core features to be added to the diagnosis of DLB...
November 29, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889911/multiregional-analysis-of-global-5-methylcytosine-and-5-hydroxymethylcytosine-throughout-the-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Elizabeth M Ellison, Erin L Abner, Mark A Lovell
Epigenetic modifications to cytosine are known to alter transcriptional states and deregulate gene expression in cancer, embryonic development, and most recently in neurodegeneration. To test the hypothesis that global levels of cytosine modification are altered throughout the progression of Alzheimer's disease, 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) and 5-hydroxmethylcytosine (5-hmC) were quantified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and stable labeled internal standards of cytosine, 5-mC, and 5-hmC. Cytosine modifications were quantified in DNA extracted from tissue specimens of four brain regions (cerebellum, inferior parietal lobe, superior and middle temporal gyrus, and hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus) of cognitively normal control (NC) subjects and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), preclinical Alzheimer's disease (PCAD), late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB)...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886007/sleep-wake-profile-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-alzheimer-s-disease-and-normal-aging
#17
Annachiara Cagnin, Federica Fragiacomo, Giulia Camporese, Matteo Turco, Cinzia Bussè, Mario Ermani, Sara Montagnese
BACKGROUND: Alterations of the sleep-wake cycle are common features of neurodegenerative dementia. OBJECTIVES: To study differences in sleep-wake profiles in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and healthy controls. METHODS: 30 DLB and 32 AD patients, and 33 healthy elderly participants were studied. Patients were evaluated for global cognitive impairment, extrapyramidal signs, fluctuations of attention, and behavioral disorders...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878426/the-differential-effects-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-lewy-body-pathology-on-cognitive-performance-a-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Ashita S Gurnani, Brandon E Gavett
Differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) from normal aging and other dementia etiologies is imperative for disease specific treatment options and long-term care planning. Neuropathological confirmation is the gold standard for neurodegenerative disease diagnosis, yet most published studies examining the use of neuropsychological tests in the differential diagnosis of dementia rely upon clinical diagnostic outcomes. The present study undertook a meta-analytic review of the literature to identify cognitive tests and domains that allow for the differentiation of individuals with AD pathology from individuals with dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) pathology and pathology-free individuals...
November 22, 2016: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862327/an-order-in-lewy-body-disorders-retrograde-degeneration-in-hyperbranching-axons-as-a-fundamental-structural-template-accounting-for-focal-multifocal-lewy-body-disease
#19
REVIEW
Toshiki Uchihara 内原 俊記
Initial clinical recognition of "paralysis agitans" by James Parkinson was expanded by Jean-Martin Charcot, who recognized additional clinical findings of his own, such as slowness (distinct from paralysis), rigidity (distinct from spasticity) and characteristic countenance. Charcot assembled these findings under the umbrella of "Parkinson disease (PD)". This purely clinical concept was so prescient and penetrating that subsequent neuropathological and biochemical evidences were ordered along this axis to establish the nigra-central trinity of PD (dopamine depletion, nigral lesion with Lewy bodies: LBs)...
November 14, 2016: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834773/validation-of-the-korean-version-of-the-lewy-body-composite-risk-score-k-lbcrs
#20
Hui Jin Ryu, Minyoung Kim, Yeonsil Moon, Yeji Choi, Jee-Young Han, James E Galvin, Seol-Heui Han
The Lewy body composite risk score (LBCRS) is a useful clinical screening tool to help determine whether the dementia is related to Lewy body pathology. The purpose of this study is to verify reliability, validity, and diagnostic usefulness of Korean version of LBCRS (K-LBCRS). CDR-sum of boxes, Mini-Mental State Examination, and standardized scales related to cognition, mood, behavior, and motor function were administered to a total of 107 subjects, including 30 dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), 54 Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 23 cognitively normal elderly people and their collateral informants...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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