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Po-Chi Chan, Cheng-Yu Wei, Guang-Uei Hung, Pai-Yi Chiu
Objectives: The association of vascular risk factors (VRFs) with incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) has been well studied. However, the association between VRFs and non-AD dementia is seldom investigated. In this study, we aim to compare the concurrence of VRFs of Lewy body dementia (LBD) to AD. Materials & Methods: We consecutively enrolled patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), and AD, and the prevalence of arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, smoking, and obesity was assessed and compared...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Ivan Martinez-Valbuena, Irene Amat-Villegas, Rafael Valenti-Azcarate, Maria Del Mar Carmona-Abellan, Irene Marcilla, Maria-Teresa Tuñon, Maria-Rosario Luquin
Parkinson's disease patients experience a wide range of non-motor symptoms that may be provoked by deposits of phosphorylated α-synuclein in the peripheral nervous system. Pre-existing diabetes mellitus might be a risk factor for developing Parkinson's disease, and indeed, nearly 60% of Parkinson's disease patients are insulin resistant. Thus, we have investigated whether phosphorylated α-synuclein is deposited in pancreatic tissue of subjects with synucleinopathies. We studied pancreatic tissue from 39 subjects diagnosed with Parkinson's disease, Lewy body Dementia or incidental Lewy bodies disease, as well as that from 34 subjects with diabetes mellitus and a normal neuropathological examination, and 52 subjects with a normal neuropathological examination...
March 13, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Emma Robson, Clare Tweedy, Nelson Manzanza, John-Paul Taylor, Peter Atkinson, Fiona Randall, Amy Reeve, Gavin J Clowry, Fiona E N LeBeau
Intracellular accumulation of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) is a key pathological process evident in Lewy body dementias (LBD), including Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). LBD results in marked cognitive impairments and changes in cortical networks. To assess the impact of abnormal α-syn expression on cortical network oscillations relevant to cognitive function, we studied changes in fast beta/gamma network oscillations in the hippocampus in a mouse line that over-expresses human mutant α-syn (A30P)...
March 7, 2018: Neuroscience
Kurt A Jellinger, Amos D Korczyn
BACKGROUND: Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), which share many clinical, neurochemical, and morphological features, have been incorporated into DSM-5 as two separate entities of major neurocognitive disorders with Lewy bodies. Despite clinical overlap, their diagnosis is based on an arbitrary distinction concerning the time of onset of motor and cognitive symptoms, namely as early cognitive impairment in DLB and later onset following that of motor symptoms in PDD...
March 6, 2018: BMC Medicine
Kyung Won Park, Yun Jeong Hong, Jong Hwan Park, Hyuntae Park, Sang Myung Cheon, Jae Woo Kim, Byeong C Kim, Young Jin Jeong, Hyun Jin Yoon, Do-Young Kang
This study aimed to detect different patterns of cerebral hypoperfusion in DLB according to clinical staging. Thirty-three patients with DLB were recruited by clinical dementia rating (CDR) stage. Compared with control, cerebral hypoperfusion was mainly observed in the lingual gyrus, the cuneus, the occipital gyrus in CDR 0.5 group; the fusiform gyrus, the middle temporal gyrus, and the posterior cingulate in CDR 1; and the lingual gyrus, the cuneus, the hippocampus, the fusiform gyrus, and the inferior frontal gyrus in CDR 2...
March 6, 2018: Neurocase
Madhavi Tripathi, Atin Kumar, Chandrasekhar Bal
Neuroimaging (NI) in Parkinson's disease (PD) includes functional techniques like positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and morphological imaging using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transcranial sonography to probe different aspects of the neurobiology of PD. Changes in neurotransmitters in various regions of the brain and their influence on brain networks is the basis for the motor symptoms of PD which are interrogated by NI. The recent Movement Disorders Society Clinical Diagnostic Criteria for PD (MDS-PD) have included the results of a few of these neuroimaging techniques to serve as single supportive criteria or absolute exclusion criteria for the diagnosis of PD...
March 2018: Neurology India
Esteban Luna, Samantha C Decker, Dawn M Riddle, Anna Caputo, Bin Zhang, Tracy Cole, Carrie Caswell, Sharon X Xie, Virginia M Y Lee, Kelvin C Luk
The accumulation of misfolded α-synuclein (aSyn) and neuron loss define several neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). However, the precise relationship between pathology and neurotoxicity and why these processes disproportionately affect certain neuron subpopulations are poorly understood. We show here that Math2-expressing neurons in the hippocampal Cornu ammonis (CA), a region significantly affected by aSyn pathology in advanced PD and DLB, are highly susceptible to pathological seeding with pre-formed fibrils (PFFs), in contrast to dentate gyrus neurons, which are relatively spared...
March 3, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Alan J Thomas, Fariba Mahin-Babaei, Mohammad Saidi, Debbie Lett, John Paul Taylor, Lauren Walker, Johannes Attems
BACKGROUND: Dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are the two most common neurodegenerative causes of dementia. They commonly occur together, especially in older people, but clinical identification of these diseases in dementia is difficult in such circumstances. We therefore conducted a study using cases with both comprehensive prospective clinical assessments and complete neuropathological examination to determine if it is possible to identify such mixed cases clinically and to determine features which may identify DLB in the presence of AD dementia...
March 1, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Ana Gámez-Valero, Alex Iranzo, Monica Serradell, Dolores Vilas, Joan Santamaria, Carles Gaig, Ramiro Álvarez, Aurelio Ariza, Eduardo Tolosa, Katrin Beyer
INTRODUCTION: Glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene variants are associated with the development of the Lewy body disorders (LBD) Parkinson disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (IRBD) represents prodromal LBD in most instances. We investigated whether GBA variants are overrepresented in IRBD and if their presence shortens the time to conversion to clinically-defined LBD. METHODS: All GBA coding exons from 69 polysomnography-confirmed IRBD patients and 84 matched controls were sequenced by the Sanger method...
February 21, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Sygrid van der Zee, Yannick Vermeiren, Erik Fransen, Debby Van Dam, Tony Aerts, Marleen J Gerritsen, Jacoba M Spikman, Teus van Laar, Peter P De Deyn
BACKGROUND: Lewy body disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD), Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), are characterized by profound central and peripheral monoaminergic dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether these alterations depend on dementia status, we measured cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum monoamine and metabolite levels across subgroups of the cognitive spectrum, and evaluated their marker potential afterwards...
2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Magdalena I Tolea, James E Galvin
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), the most common non-AD neurodegenerative disease has in the past several decades attracted the attention of the neurological scientific community due to its highly negative impact on the quality of life of both the affected individuals and those caring for them. The strong hereditary component in related conditions such as PD and AD and the description of a number of DLB families suggest that genetic factors may play a role in the pathogenesis of DLB. This chapter focuses on currently proposed causal and risk genes and their role in the pathophysiology of DLB, discusses the feasibility of genetic therapy and genetic testing in the diagnostic and treatment of DLB and provides directions for future research...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Iris Zahirovic, Gustav Torisson, Carina Wattmo, Elisabet Londos
BACKGROUND: Elderly persons with a dementia diagnosis often suffer from different neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) such as delusions, hallucinations, depression, anxiety, irritability and agitation. Currently, the medical treatment for NPS consists mostly of psychotropic medication such as hypnotics/sedatives, anxiolytics and antipsychotics. In elderly persons with dementia, usage of antipsychotics is less appropriate because of the risk of side effects such as parkinsonism, rapid cognitive decline, cerebrovascular events and finally mortality...
February 17, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Andrea Pilotto, Enrico Premi, Silvia Paola Caminiti, Luca Presotto, Rosanna Turrone, Antonella Alberici, Barbara Paghera, Barbara Borroni, Alessandro Padovani, Daniela Perani
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the statistical parametric mapping (SPM) procedure for fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET imaging as a possible single-subject marker of progression to dementia in Parkinson disease (PD). METHODS: Fifty-four consecutive patients with PD without dementia (age at onset of 59.9 ± 10.1 years, disease duration of 5.3 ± 3.4 years) entered the study. The patients underwent an extensive motor and cognitive assessment and a single-subject FDG-PET SPM evaluation at baseline...
February 16, 2018: Neurology
Joseph P M Kane, Ajenthan Surendranathan, Allison Bentley, Sally A H Barker, John-Paul Taylor, Alan J Thomas, Louise M Allan, Richard J McNally, Peter W James, Ian G McKeith, David J Burn, John T O'Brien
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and dementia in Parkinson's disease (PDD) in routine clinical practice is unclear. Prevalence rates observed in clinical and population-based cohorts and neuropathological studies vary greatly. Small sample sizes and methodological factors in these studies limit generalisability to clinical practice. METHODS: We investigated prevalence in a case series across nine secondary care services over an 18-month period, to determine how commonly DLB and PDD cases are diagnosed and reviewed within two regions of the UK...
February 15, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Ian G McKeith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2018: Neurology
Gang Wang, Hai-Lun Cui, Yue Huang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2018: Neurology
Jacy B Parmera, Sonia Brucki, Ricardo Nitrini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2018: Neurology
Toshiki Uchihara, Shuta Toru
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2018: Neurology
Kazuo Abe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2018: Neurology
Megan Alcauskas, Steven Galetta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2018: Neurology
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