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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133947/innate-cell-mediated-cytotoxic-activity-of-european-sea-bass-leucocytes-against-nodavirus-infected-cells-a-functional-and-rna-seq-study
#1
Elena Chaves-Pozo, Yulema Valero, Anna Esteve-Codina, Jèssica Gómez-Garrido, Marc Dabad, Tyler Alioto, José Meseguer, M Ángeles Esteban, Alberto Cuesta
Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) causes high mortalities in several marine species. We aimed to evaluate the innate cell-mediated cytotoxic (CMC) activity of head-kidney leucocytes (HKLs) isolated from naïve European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), a very susceptible and resistant fish species to NNV, respectively, against fish cell lines infected with NNV. Seabream HKLs showed significantly increased innate CMC activity against NNV-infected cells, compared to those uninfected, while sea bass HKLs failed to do so...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131019/utility-of-autonomic-function-tests-to-differentiate-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-and-parkinson-disease-with-dementia-from-alzheimer-disease
#2
Shuta Toru, Tadashi Kanouchi, Takanori Yokota, Yosuke Yagi, Akira Machida, Takayoshi Kobayashi
OBJECTIVE: We studied autonomic disturbance in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Parkinson disease with dementia (PDD), Alzheimer disease (AD), to determine whether autonomic function tests can be used to distinguish these disorders. METHODS: Autonomic function was tested in 56 patients with DLB, 37 patients with PDD, and 59 patients with AD by using the sympathetic skin response, coefficient of variation in R-R interval, the head-up tilt test, serum norepinephrine concentration, and 123I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine cardiac scintigraphy...
November 13, 2017: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126445/ykl-40-in-the-brain-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-neurodegenerative-dementias
#3
Franc Llorens, Katrin Thüne, Waqas Tahir, Eirini Kanata, Daniela Diaz-Lucena, Konstantinos Xanthopoulos, Eleni Kovatsi, Catharina Pleschka, Paula Garcia-Esparcia, Matthias Schmitz, Duru Ozbay, Susana Correia, Ângela Correia, Ira Milosevic, Olivier Andréoletti, Natalia Fernández-Borges, Ina M Vorberg, Markus Glatzel, Theodoros Sklaviadis, Juan Maria Torres, Susanne Krasemann, Raquel Sánchez-Valle, Isidro Ferrer, Inga Zerr
BACKGROUND: YKL-40 (also known as Chitinase 3-like 1) is a glycoprotein produced by inflammatory, cancer and stem cells. Its physiological role is not completely understood but YKL-40 is elevated in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in several neurological and neurodegenerative diseases associated with inflammatory processes. Yet the precise characterization of YKL-40 in dementia cases is missing. METHODS: In the present study, we comparatively analysed YKL-40 levels in the brain and CSF samples from neurodegenerative dementias of different aetiologies characterized by the presence of cortical pathology and disease-specific neuroinflammatory signatures...
November 10, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116402/a-critical-review-of-the-prion-hypothesis-of-human-synucleinopathies
#4
REVIEW
Gültekin Tamgüney, Amos D Korczyn
Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and multiple system atrophy (MSA) are neurodegenerative disorders which have been pathologically classified as synucleinopathies, since they are associated with pathognomonic deposits of misfolded alpha-synuclein in cells of the nervous system. Recently PD, DLB, and MSA were also suggested to be prion-like disorders. Much controversy exists regarding this analogy between synucleinopathies and prion diseases. Here, we discuss what characterizes prion diseases and in which way synucleinopathies may be considered prion-like or -unlike...
November 8, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116145/cingulate-island-sign-temporally-changes-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#5
Tomomichi Iizuka, Rui Iizuka, Masashi Kameyama
The cingulate island sign (CIS) that reflects sparing of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) relative to the precuneus plus cuneus on FDG-PET and brain perfusion SPECT, has been proposed as a feature of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). As the CIS is influenced by concomitant Alzheimer's disease (AD)-type neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) pathology, we postulated that the CIS gradually disappears as DLB progresses. To determine temporal changes in the CIS, 24 patients with mild DLB and 7 with prodromal DLB underwent (123)I-IMP-SPECT and MMSE twice at an interval of two years...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112909/potential-diagnostic-value-of-131-i-mibg-myocardial-scintigraphy-in-discrimination-between-alzheimer-disease-and-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#6
Mehrshad Abbasi, Nafise Ghalandari, Saeed Farzanefar, Vajiheh Aghamollaii, Mona Ahmadi, Morsaleh Ganji, Mohsen Afarideh, Sogol Loloee, Maryam Naseri, Abbas Tafakhori
OBJECTIVES: Clinical difficulty to discriminate between the Alzheimer disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) has led researchers to focus on highly sensitive functional imaging modalities. The aim of the present study was to assess (131)I-MIBG cardiac imaging to distinguish between AD and DLB. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventeen patients who were known cases of dementia underwent (131)I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy to differentiate AD from DLB. Planar and (131)I-MIBG SPECT were obtained 2h after the injection of 1mCi (131)I-MIBG on a dual head gamma camera...
October 25, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111367/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-novel-radioiodinated-benzimidazole-derivatives-for-imaging-%C3%AE-synuclein-aggregates
#7
Hiroyuki Watanabe, Taisuke Ariyoshi, Akihiko Ozaki, Masafumi Ihara, Masahiro Ono, Hideo Saji
α-Synuclein (α-syn) aggregates are commonly found in the brains of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and some other diseases. Therefore, in vivo imaging of α-syn aggregates would aid in drug development, early diagnosis, and monitoring of disease status. In order to develop imaging probes targeting α-syn aggregates, we synthesized and evaluated three novel radioiodinated benzimidazole (BI) derivatives for selective imaging of α-syn aggregates. In binding experiments, BI-2 exhibited the highest selective binding affinity for α-syn aggregates among the BI derivatives...
October 14, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103031/transcranial-sonography-in%C3%A2-neurodegenerative-diseases-with-cognitive-decline
#8
Silvia Favaretto, Uwe Walter, Claudio Baracchini, Annachiara Cagnin
Transcranial sonography (TCS) of the brain parenchyma detects alterations in the substantia nigra (SN), raphe nuclei, and basal ganglia; this technique has been established as a tool for the early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease and differential diagnosis from atypical parkinsonian syndromes. Here, we aimed to review the main applications of TCS in neurodegenerative diseases presenting with dementia syndrome, focusing on Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), frontotemporal lobar degeneration, idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, and atypical and secondary parkinsonisms...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101136/mortality-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-compared-with-alzheimer-s-dementia-a-retrospective-naturalistic-cohort-study
#9
Annabel Price, Redwan Farooq, Jin-Min Yuan, Vandana B Menon, Rudolf N Cardinal, John T O'Brien
OBJECTIVES: To use routine clinical data to investigate survival in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) compared with Alzheimer's dementia (AD). DLB is the second most common dementia subtype after AD, accounting for around 7% of dementia diagnoses in secondary care, though studies suggest that it is underdiagnosed by up to 50%. Most previous studies of DLB have been based on select research cohorts, so little is known about the outcome of the disease in routine healthcare settings. SETTING: Cambridgeshire & Peterborough NHS Foundation Trust, a mental health trust providing secondary mental health care in England...
November 3, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100980/the-limbic-and-neocortical-contribution-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-tau-and-%C3%AE-amyloid-to-disease-duration-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#10
Tanis J Ferman, Naoya Aoki, Julia E Crook, Melissa E Murray, Neill R Graff-Radford, Jay A van Gerpen, Ryan J Uitti, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Otto Pedraza, Kejal Kantarci, Bradley F Boeve, Dennis W Dickson
INTRODUCTION: We sought to assess the individual and combined contribution of limbic and neocortical α-synuclein, tau, and β-amyloid to duration of illness in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). METHODS: Quantitative digital pathology of neocortical and limbic α-synuclein, tau, and β-amyloid was assessed in 49 patients with clinically probable DLB. Regression modeling examined the unique and shared contribution of each pathology to the variance of illness duration...
October 31, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092095/a%C3%AE-exacerbates-%C3%AE-synuclein-induced-neurotoxicity-through-impaired-insulin-signaling-in-%C3%AE-synuclein-overexpressed-human-sk-n-mc-neuronal-cells
#11
Ching-Chi Chang, Hsin-Hua Li, Yen-Ting Chang, Ying-Jui Ho, Ling-Jia Hsieh, Pai-Yi Chiu, Yu-Shih Cheng, Chih-Li Lin, Te-Jen Lai
AIM: α-Synuclein (αSyn) is known as a small soluble protein abundantly expressed in neuronal cells. Although its physiological role is still unclear, the aggregation of αSyn has been recognized as responsible for some neurodegenerative disorders such as dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). In most cases, intracellular abnormal aggregates are caused by protein-coding mutations that alter primary structure and therefore increase propensity toward aggregation. However, no pathogenic alterations or polymorphisms in αSyn are found in DLB patients so far, suggesting genetic mutations may not play a major role in DLB pathogenesis...
November 1, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072824/introduction-of-a-putative-biocontrol-agent-into-a-range-of-phytoplasma-and-liberibacter-susceptible-crop-plants
#12
Ofir Lidor, Orit Dror, Dor Hamershlak, Nofar Shoshana, Eduard Belausov, Tirtza Zahavi, Netta Mozes-Daube, Vered Naor, Einat Zchori-Fein, Lilach Iasur-Kruh, Ofir Bahar
BACKGROUND: Phytoplasma, the causative agent of bois-noir disease of grapevines, are vectored by the planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus (Hemiptera: Cixiidae). A Dyella-like bacterium (DLB) isolated from H. obsoletus inhibits the growth of Spiroplasma melliferum, a cultivable relative of phytoplasma. Additional evidence suggests that DLB can reduce the symptoms of yellows disease in grapevine plantlets. The present aim was to test whether DLB could colonize a range of Phytoplasma- and Liberibacter-sensitive crop plants, and thus assess its potential agricultural use...
October 26, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064068/dexamethasone-inhibits-copper-induced-alpha-synuclein-aggregation-by-a-metallothionein-dependent-mechanism
#13
Fleur A McLeary, Alexandre N Rcom-H'cheo-Gauthier, Jessica Kinder, Michael Goulding, Tien K Khoo, George D Mellick, Roger S Chung, Dean L Pountney
Intracellular aggregates of α-synuclein are the pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), being linked to neurotoxicity. Multiple triggers of α-synuclein aggregation have been implicated, including raised copper. The potential protective role of the endogenous copper-/zinc-binding proteins, metallothioneins (MT), has been explored in relation to copper-induced α-synuclein aggregation. Up-regulated endogenous expression of MT was induced in SHSY-5Y cells by the synthetic glucocorticoid analogue, dexamethasone...
October 24, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050885/does-attentional-dysfunction-and-thalamic-atrophy-predict-decline-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#14
Rosie Watson, Sean J Colloby, Andrew M Blamire, Keith A Wesnes, Josh Wood, John T O'Brien
INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the clinical characteristics of DLB subjects who died within 1 year of assessment compared to those who survived and investigate their patterns of in vivo regional thalamic atrophy using structural MRI. METHODS: Seventy subjects (35 DLB, 35 aged controls) underwent 3 T T1-weighted MR scanning as well as clinical and cognitive assessments, including a computerised assessment of attention. All subjects were contacted after 12 months for reassessment...
October 9, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030419/accuracy-of-clinical-diagnosis-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Giovanni Rizzo, Simona Arcuti, Massimiliano Copetti, Maria Alessandria, Rodolfo Savica, Andrea Fontana, Rocco Liguori, Giancarlo Logroscino
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is based on diagnostic clinical criteria, which were updated over the years. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate, through a systematic review, accuracy of the diagnostic criteria, testing a possible improvement over time. METHODS: We searched on MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases for studies reporting diagnostic parameters regarding the clinical diagnosis of DLB until October 2016. We performed meta-analysis, using a Bayesian approach, on those using pathological examination as gold standard, subclassified based on the different diagnostic criteria used...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030055/the-heart-of-pd-lewy-body-diseases-as-neurocardiologic-disorders
#16
David S Goldstein, Yehonatan Sharabi
This review provides an update about cardiac sympathetic denervation in Lewy body diseases. The family of Lewy body diseases includes Parkinson's disease (PD), pure autonomic failure (PAF), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). All three feature intra-neuronal cytoplasmic deposits of the protein, alpha-synuclein. Multiple system atrophy (MSA), the parkinsonian form of which can be difficult to distinguish from PD with orthostatic hypotension, involves glial cytoplasmic inclusions that contain alpha-synuclein...
October 10, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990480/dyella-like-bacterium-isolated-from-an-insect-as-a-potential-biocontrol-agent-against-grapevine-yellows
#17
Lilach Iasur-Kruh, Tirtza Zahavi, Roni Barkai, Shiri Freilich, Einat Zchori-Fein, Vered Naor
Yellows diseases, caused by phytopathogenic bacteria of the genus Phytoplasma, are a major threat to grapevines worldwide. Because conventional applications against this pathogen are inefficient, and disease management is highly challenging, the use of beneficial bacteria has been suggested as a biocontrol solution. A Dyella-like bacterium (DLB), isolated from the Israeli insect vector of grapevine yellows Hyalesthes obsoletus, was suggested to be an endophyte. To test this hypothesis, the bacterium was introduced by spraying the plant leaves, and it had no apparent phytotoxicity to grapevine...
October 9, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990131/diagnosis-and-management-of-cognitive-and-behavioral-changes-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#18
REVIEW
Babak Tousi
Proper diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) in clinical practice remains suboptimal as many cases are misdiagnosed, usually as Alzheimer disease (AD) or Parkinson's disease (PD) and, in rare cases, psychosis. Therefore, it is important for patients with dementia to be thoroughly evaluated by a specialist who is familiar with current diagnostic tests and treatment options. New diagnostic criteria from the Dementia with Lewy Bodies Consortium have been developed to increase diagnostic sensitivity for DLB (Diagnosis and management of dementia with Lewy bodies: fourth consensus report of the DLB Consortium; McKeith et al...
October 9, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968236/decreased-n-acetyl-aspartate-myo-inositol-ratio-in-the-posterior-cingulate-cortex-shown-by-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-may-be-one-of-the-risk-markers-of-preclinical-alzheimer-s-disease-a-7-year-follow-up-study
#19
Masaaki Waragai, Masaru Moriya, Takeshi Nojo
Although molecular positron emission tomography imaging of amyloid and tau proteins can facilitate the detection of preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, it is not useful in clinical practice. More practical surrogate markers for preclinical AD would provide valuable tools. Thus, we sought to validate the utility of conventional magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) as a screening method for preclinical AD. A total of 289 older participants who were cognitively normal at baseline were clinically followed up for analysis of MRS metabolites, including N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and myo-inositol (MI) in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) for 7 years...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961866/cognitive-and-neuropsychiatric-features-in-parkinson-s-and-lewy-body-dementias
#20
Julie A Fields
Cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric symptoms affect a substantial number of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). These non-motor changes can occur at all stages of disease, often years before motor symptoms manifest in some patients while occurring much later in the disease process for others. Lewy bodies are the hallmark of PD, yet not all patients with PD follow the same course or present in the same way clinically, either from a motor or non-motor standpoint. This has implications on assessment, intervention, and planning for the future...
November 1, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
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