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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228405/inhibition-of-romk-blocks-macula-densa-tubuloglomerular-feedback-yet-causes-renal-vasoconstriction-in-anesthetized-rats
#1
Magali Araujo, William J Welch, Xiaoyan Zhou, Kathleen Sullivan, Shawn Walsh, Alexander Pasternak, Christopher S Wilcox
The Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC2) on the loop of Henle is the site of action of furosemide. Since outer medullary potassium channel (ROMK) inhibitors prevent reabsorption by NKCC2, we tested the hypothesis that ROMK inhibition with a novel, selective ROMK inhibitor (Compound C) blocks tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) and reduces vascular resistance. Loop perfusion of either ROMK inhibitor or furosemide caused dose-dependent blunting of TGF, but the response to furosemide was 10-fold more sensitive (IC50= 10-6M for furosemide and IC50=10-5M for Compound C)...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225774/environmental-characteristics-drive-variation-in-amazonian-understorey-bird-assemblages
#2
Juliana Menger, William E Magnusson, Marti J Anderson, Martin Schlegel, Guy Pe'er, Klaus Henle
Tropical bird assemblages display patterns of high alpha and beta diversity and, as tropical birds exhibit strong habitat specificity, their spatial distributions are generally assumed to be driven primarily by environmental heterogeneity and interspecific interactions. However, spatial distributions of some Amazonian forest birds are also often restricted by large rivers and other large-scale topographic features, suggesting that dispersal limitation may also play a role in driving species' turnover. In this study, we evaluated the effects of environmental characteristics, topographic and spatial variables on variation in local assemblage structure and diversity of birds in an old-growth forest in central Amazonia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220896/mitochondrial-dysregulation-secondary-to-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-autosomal-dominant-tubulointerstitial-kidney-disease-umod-adtkd-umod
#3
Elisabeth Kemter, Thomas Fröhlich, Georg J Arnold, Eckhard Wolf, Rüdiger Wanke
'Autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease - UMOD' (ADTKD-UMOD) is caused by impaired maturation and secretion of mutant uromodulin (UMOD) in thick ascending limb of Henle loop (TAL) cells, resulting in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR). To gain insight into pathophysiology, we analysed proteome profiles of TAL-enriched outer renal medulla samples from ADTKD-UMOD and control mice by quantitative LC-MS/MS. In total, 212 differentially abundant proteins were identified...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190920/acute-alloxan-renal-toxicity-in-the-rat-initially-causes-degeneration-of-thick-ascending-limbs-of-henle
#4
Yui Terayama, Yasushi Kodama, Tetsuro Matsuura, Kiyokazu Ozaki
Alloxan (AL) is a material well-known to induce diabetes. Prior to inducing a prolonged diabetic state, AL causes acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. However, the precise primary target site and mechanism of its nephrotoxicity remain unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the morphological characteristics relevant to acute renal toxicity following AL administration. Rats were intravenously treated with AL. Eight hours after AL treatment, aquaporin 1-negative and Na/K pump-positive thick ascending limbs of Henle (TAL) were degenerated in the outer medulla...
January 2017: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177991/variations-in-the-vascular-anatomy-of-the-right-colon-and-implications-for-right-sided-colon-surgery
#5
Mehmet Ayhan Kuzu, Erkin İsmail, Safa Çelik, Muhammed Feyzi Şahin, Mehmet Ali Güner, Werner Hohenberger, Halil İbrahim Açar
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the normal pattern and variations of the blood supply of the right colon is crucial for better outcomes after colon surgery. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the precise vascular anatomy of the right colon according to surgical perspective. DESIGN: Adult fresh cadavers were dissected between January 2013 and October 2015, focusing on the venous and arterial anatomy of the right side of the colon...
March 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159254/identification-and-quantification-of-ace-inhibiting-peptides-in-enzymatic-hydrolysates-of-plant-proteins
#6
Steffi Rudolph, Diana Lunow, Susanne Kaiser, Thomas Henle
Enzymatic hydrolysis of proteins from rice, soy, pea and wheat, with both chymotrypsin and thermolysin, resulted in hydrolysates, which are efficient inhibitors of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). IC50 values of the hydrolysates were between 27 and 39mg/l, which is comparable to enzymatically hydrolysed whey protein. A significant increase of the ACE-inhibiting effect was observed following butanol extraction due to accumulation of hydrophobic peptides (IC50 between 12 and 21mg/l). Based on the identification and quantification of individual tryptophan-, tyrosine- and phenylalanine-containing dipeptides, 50-80% of the total ACE-inhibiting potential of butanol extracts from plant protein hydrolysates could be explained...
June 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134709/nephrogenic-diabetes-insipidus
#7
D Bockenhauer, Daniel G Bichet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), the kidney is unable to concentrate urine despite elevated concentrations of the antidiuretic hormone arginine-vasopressin. In congenital NDI, polyuria and polydipsia are present from birth and should be immediately recognized to avoid severe episodes of dehydration. Unfortunately, NDI is still often recognized late after a 'diagnostic odyssey' involving false leads and dangerous treatments.Once diagnosed, appropriate treatment can be started...
January 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134310/setting-temporal-baselines-for-biodiversity-the-limits-of-available-monitoring-data-for-capturing-the-full-impact-of-anthropogenic-pressures
#8
Jean-Baptiste Mihoub, Klaus Henle, Nicolas Titeux, Lluís Brotons, Neil A Brummitt, Dirk S Schmeller
Temporal baselines are needed for biodiversity, in order for the change in biodiversity to be measured over time, the targets for biodiversity conservation to be defined and conservation progress to be evaluated. Limited biodiversity information is widely recognized as a major barrier for identifying temporal baselines, although a comprehensive quantitative assessment of this is lacking. Here, we report on the temporal baselines that could be drawn from biodiversity monitoring schemes in Europe and compare those with the rise of important anthropogenic pressures...
January 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105682/guanine-can-direct-binding-specificity-of-ru-dppz-complexes-to-dna-through-steric-effects
#9
James Pearce Hall, Sarah Prava Gurung, Jessica Henle, Patrick Poidl, Johanna Andersson, Per Lincoln, Graeme Winter, Thomas Sorensen, David John Cardin, John Alan Brazier, Christine Janet Cardin
X-ray crystal structures of three Λ-[Ru(L)2dppz]2+ complexes (L=phen, bpy) bound to d((5BrC)GGC/GCCG) show the compounds intercalated at a 5´-CG-3´ step. The compounds bind through canted intercalation, with the binding angle determined by the guanine-NH2 group, in contrast to symmetrical intercalation previously observed at 5´-TA-3´ sites. This result suggests that canted intercalation is preferred at 5´-CG-3´ sites even though the site itself is symmetrical, and we hypothesise that symmetrical intercalation in a 5´-CG-3´ step could give rise to a longer luminescence lifetime than canted intercalation...
January 19, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099315/factors-associated-with-visual-outcome-after-macula-off-rhegmatogenous-retinal-detachment-surgery
#10
Dae Hyun Park, Kyung Seek Choi, Hae Jung Sun, Sung Jin Lee
PURPOSE: To evaluate preoperative factors influencing the visual outcome and postoperative factors associated with the changes in visual acuity, after reattachment surgery to treat macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. METHODS: A total of 180 eyes of 180 patients who underwent reattachment surgery to treat macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, and who were followed up for more than 12 months, were reviewed retrospectively. Preoperative and postoperative characteristics, including optical coherence tomography findings, were comprehensively analyzed using univariate and multivariate models to evaluate preoperative factors influencing best-corrected visual acuity 12 months after macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment surgery and postoperative factors associated with changes in best-corrected visual acuity after surgery...
January 17, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099203/evaluation-of-gene-expression-patterns-in-micrografts-demonstrate-induction-of-catagen-like-processes-during-storage
#11
Walter Krugluger, Karl Stiefsohn, Karl Moser, Claudia Moser, Katarina Laciak
BACKGROUND: Alterations of gene expression patterns may contribute to the commonly observed transient reduction of hair shaft elongation in hair restoration surgery. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the molecular causes, we evaluated changes in gene expression patterns in hair follicle micrografts during storage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Micrografts with different amounts of adjacent connective tissue (regular, skinny, and chubby) were stored for different periods, and the expression of key genes was determined: dermal papilla (DP): FGF7, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), versican; outer root sheath: Krt15; inner root sheath: Krt 25; cuticula: Krt85; Henle layer: filaggrin; genes related to apoptosis and growth/differentiation: Caspase 3, Ovol1, and Foxo1...
February 2017: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095294/a-novel-slc12a1-gene-mutation-associated-with-hyperparathyroidism-hypercalcemia-nephrogenic-diabetes-insipidus-and-nephrocalcinosis-in-four-patients
#12
Sariya Wongsaengsak, Alaina P Vidmar, Ananta Addala, Elaine S Kamil, Paola Sequeira, Benjamin Fass, Pisit Pitukcheewanont
Solute Carrier Family 12 member 1 (SLC12A1) gene encodes the sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter (NKCC2) at the apical membrane of the thick ascending loop of Henle (TAL). Bartter's syndrome (BS) type I is a rare, autosomal recessive, renal tubular disorder associated with mutation of the SLC12A1 gene. Presenting features include: hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. The many allelic variants reported present with a spectrum of phenotypes, biochemical abnormalities and clinical severities...
January 14, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060396/vascular-features-of-full-thickness-macular-hole-by-oct-angiography
#13
Stanislao Rizzo, Alfonso Savastano, Daniela Bacherini, Maria Cristina Savastano
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To compare the features of cystoid cavities associated with full-thickness macular hole (FTMH) imaged with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and en face OCT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prospective, observational, cross-sectional study. Clinical practice and observation. Thirteen patients (13 eyes) with FTMH were evaluated before vitrectomy. All eyes underwent OCTA or en face OCT imaging. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant positive correlation between groups for the total cavity area in both inner nuclear layer (P < ...
January 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028216/mosaic-expression-of-claudins-in-thick-ascending-limbs-of-henle-results-in-spatial-separation-of-paracellular-na-and-mg2-transport
#14
Susanne Milatz, Nina Himmerkus, Vera Christine Wulfmeyer, Hoora Drewell, Kerim Mutig, Jianghui Hou, Tilman Breiderhoff, Dominik Müller, Michael Fromm, Markus Bleich, Dorothee Günzel
The thick ascending limb (TAL) of Henle's loop drives paracellular Na(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+) reabsorption via the tight junction (TJ). The TJ is composed of claudins that consist of four transmembrane segments, two extracellular segments (ECS1 and -2), and one intracellular loop. Claudins interact within the same (cis) and opposing (trans) plasma membranes. The claudins Cldn10b, -16, and -19 facilitate cation reabsorption in the TAL, and their absence leads to a severe disturbance of renal ion homeostasis. We combined electrophysiological measurements on microperfused mouse TAL segments with subsequent analysis of claudin expression by immunostaining and confocal microscopy...
January 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995452/an-optimal-approach-for-laparoscopic-d3-lymphadenectomy-plus-complete-mesocolic-excision-d3-cme-for-right-sided-colon-cancer
#15
Daxing Xie, Chaoran Yu, Chun Gao, Hasan Osaiweran, Junbo Hu, Jianping Gong
BACKGROUND: It is common knowledge that high ligation of blood vessels at the D3 level and complete mesocolic excision (CME) are two critical points of right hemicolectomy for right colon cancer (RCC). (1-5) To date, a safe strategy for completing these two procedures under laparoscopic surgery has not been extensively described. The authors provide a video to demonstrate laparoscopic right hemicolectomy (D3 + CME) with an optimal mesentery-defined approach. By identifying three "tri-junctions," this approach facilitates dissection of the entire mesocolon along the embryologic planes as far centrally as possible and enables the high tie of feeding vessels at bifurcation...
December 19, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973339/a-new-genus-of-rhinebothriidean-cestodes-from-batoid-elasmobranchs-with-the-description-of-five-new-species-and-two-new-combinations
#16
Florian B Reyda, Claire J Healy, Andrew R Haslach, Timothy R Ruhnke, Tara L Aprill, Michael P Bergman, Andrew L Daigler, Elsie A Dedrick, Illari Delgado, Kathryn S Forti, Kaylee S Herzog, Rebecca S Russell, Danielle D Willsey
Survey work of batoid elasmobranchs in the eastern Atlantic and Indo-Pacific revealed multiple species of a new genus of cestode. Stillabothrium Healy et Reyda gen. n. (Rhinebothriidea: Escherbothriidae) is unique in its possession of an even number of non-medial longitudinal septa in the posterior portion of the bothridia, resulting in a series of loculi that are longer than wide (i.e. vertically oriented) and are arranged in columns. Five new species of Stillabothrium are described, S. ashleyae Willsey et Reyda sp...
November 10, 2016: Folia Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926554/intraoperative-archive-of-right-colonic-vascular-variability-aids-central-vascular-ligation-and-redefines-gastrocolic-trunk-of-henle-variants
#17
Jamal F Alsabilah, Syed A Razvi, Mahdi H Albandar, Nam K Kim
BACKGROUND: Vascular supply to the right colon has become an issue because of high variability and subsequent impact on minimally invasive surgery. Past cadaveric or radiologic anatomic assessments are noncomprehensive. OBJECTIVE: Intraoperative charting of right colonic arteriovenous anatomy was undertaken to determine the incidence and scope of vascular variations. DESIGN: Vascular anatomy variations were documented in snapshot images, captured during laparoscopic video recordings or through open surgical digital photography...
January 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924355/avp-dynamically-increases-paracellular-na-permeability-and-transcellular-nacl-transport-in-the-medullary-thick-ascending-limb-of-henle-s-loop
#18
REVIEW
Nina Himmerkus, Allein Plain, Rita D Marques, Svenja R Sonntag, Alexander Paliege, Jens Leipziger, Markus Bleich
The medullary thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (mTAL) is crucial for urine-concentrating ability of the kidney. It is water tight and able to dilute the luminal fluid by active transcellular NaCl transport, fueling the counter current mechanism by increasing interstitial osmolality. While chloride is exclusively transported transcellularly, approx. 50% of sodium transport occurs via the paracellular route, driven by the lumen-positive transepithelial potential. Antidiuretic hormone (AVP) is known to increase active NaCl transport to support collecting duct water reabsorption...
January 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920129/chronic-inhibition-of-renal-outer-medullary-potassium-channel-not-only-prevented-but-also-reversed-development-of-hypertension-and-end-organ-damage-in-dahl-salt-sensitive-rats
#19
Xiaoyan Zhou, Michael J Forrest, Wanda Sharif-Rodriguez, Gail Forrest, Daphne Szeto, Olga Urosevic-Price, Yonghua Zhu, Andra S Stevenson, Yuchen Zhou, Sloan Stribling, Maya Dajee, Shawn P Walsh, Alexander Pasternak, Kathleen A Sullivan
The renal outer medullary potassium (ROMK) channel mediates potassium recycling and facilitates sodium reabsorption through the Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter in the loop of Henle and potassium secretion at the cortical collecting duct. Evidence from the phenotype of humans and rodents with functional ROMK deficiency supports the contention that selective ROMK inhibitors (ROMKi) will represent a novel diuretic with potential of therapeutic benefit for hypertension. ROMKi have recently been synthesized by Merck & Co, Inc...
December 5, 2016: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906863/bartter-s-and-gitelman-s-syndrome
#20
Hannsjörg W Seyberth, Stefanie Weber, Martin Kömhoff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The clinical presentations of Bartter's syndrome and Gitelman's syndrome will be reviewed including two most recently described hypokalemic salt-losing tubulopathies. By taking the quite heterogeneous presentations and the apparently different pathophysiologies as the basis, the applicability of the physiologic classification has been tested. RECENT FINDINGS: According to the physiologic approach, salt-losing tubulopathies can be divided into two major groups (with completely different tubular defects): first, disorders of the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (loop disorders); second, disorders of the distal convolute tubule (DCT disorders)...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
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