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Regional nerve block

Reda Mohamed
The aim of this study was to determine the morphometric values of the skull and the mandible of the common opossum from the Caribbean island of Trinidad and Tobago. The skulls and mandibles were obtained from ten opossums captured for research purposes. The skulls and mandibles were prepared and cleaned using standard method. Some anatomical landmarks of the skulls and mandibles were identified and measured. The results were important for identification of the common opossum via comparison and discussion of our results with that of other marsupial species...
March 9, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Haley M Merrill, Daniel M Dean, Jay L Mottla, Steven K Neufeld, Daniel J Cuttica, Matthew M Buchanan
Background Orthopaedic surgeons frequently prescribe pain medications during the postoperative period. The efficacy of these medications at alleviating pain after foot/ankle surgery and the quantity of medication required (and conversely, leftover) are unknown. METHODS: Patients undergoing foot/ankle surgery during a 3-month period who met inclusion criteria were surveyed at their first postoperative visit. Information collected included gender, number of prescribed pills remaining, satisfaction with pain control, and willingness to surrender leftover opioids to a Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) disposal center...
March 1, 2018: Foot & Ankle International
Rein Ketelaars, Joram T Stollman, Evelien van Eeten, Ties Eikendal, Jörgen Bruhn, Geert-Jan van Geffen
BACKGROUND: The treatment of acute pain in the emergency department is not always optimal. Peripheral nerve blocks using "blind" or nerve stimulator techniques have substantial disadvantages. Ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia may provide quick, safe, and effective pain relief in patients with proximal femoral fractures with severe pain. However, no evidence exists on emergency physician-performed ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia in these patients in Dutch emergency departments...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
Christopher Wahal, Amanda Kumar, Srinivas Pyati
Advances in ultrasound guided regional anaesthesia and introduction of newer long acting local anaesthetics have given clinicians an opportunity to apply novel approaches to block peripheral nerves with ease. Consequently, improvements in outcomes such as quality of analgesia, early rehabilitation and patient satisfaction have been observed. In this article we will review some of the newer regional anaesthetic techniques, long acting local anaesthetics and adjuvants, and discuss evidence for key outcomes such as cancer recurrence and safety with ultrasound guidance...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Siaffa Romain, Bordes Julien, Vatin Loraine, Prunet Bertrand, Vinciguerra Daniel Md, Meaudre Eric Professor, Lacroix Guillaume
OBJECTIVE: We compared the effectiveness of nerve blocks (regional anesthesia, RA) versus local anesthesia (LA) to treat face and hand wounds. Emergency physicians who had not previously used nerve blocks administered the anesthesia based on anatomic landmarks. METHODS: This prospective observational open study was conducted at a military teaching hospital emergency department (ED) between May 1, 2013 and January 31, 2014. All patients requiring treatment of facial or hand wounds were included...
February 21, 2018: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
James P Apland, Vassiliki Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Taiza H Figueiredo, Volodymyr I Pidoplichko, Katia Rossetti, Maria F M Braga
The currently FDA-approved anticonvulsant for the treatment of status epilepticus (SE) induced by nerve agents is the benzodiazepine diazepam. However, diazepam does not appear to offer neuroprotective benefits. This is particularly concerning with respect to the protection of children, because in the developing brain, synaptic transmission mediated via GABAA receptors, the target of diazepam, is still weak. In the present study, we exposed 21-day-old male rats to 1.2xLD50 soman, and compared the antiseizure, anti-lethality, and neuroprotective efficacy of diazepam (10 mg/kg), LY293558 (an AMPA/GluK1 receptor antagonist; 15 mg/kg), caramiphen (an antimuscarinic with NMDA receptor-antagonistic properties; 50 mg/kg), and LY293558 (15 mg/kg)+caramiphen (50 mg/kg), administered 1 h post-exposure...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Shankar Vallapu, Nidhi Bidyut Panda, Navneh Samagh, Neerja Bharti
Context: Scalp infiltration and scalp block are being used to manage postcraniotomy pain. Dexmedetomidine has been successfully used as an adjuvant in regional anesthesia. The study was intended to compare whether addition of dexmedetomidine prolonged the duration of analgesia as well as to compare the two techniques. Aims: The primary objective was to assess whether addition of dexmedetomidine to bupivacaine prolonged the duration of analgesia. The secondary objective was to compare between scalp nerve block and scalp infiltration as techniques for pain relief...
January 2018: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
Felix L Struebing, Rebecca King, Ying Li, Jessica N Cooke Bailey, Janey L Wiggs, Eldon E Geisert
The present study was designed to identify genomic loci modulating the susceptibility of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) to elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in the BXD recombinant inbred mouse strain set. IOP was elevated by injecting magnetic microspheres into the anterior chamber and blocking the trabecular meshwork using a handheld magnet to impede drainage. The IOP was then measured over the next 21 days. Only animals with IOP greater than 25 mmHg for two consecutive days or an IOP above 30 mmHg on a single day after microsphere-injection were used in this study...
January 31, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Waseem M Hajjar, Sami A Al-Nassar, Ghaida S Al-Sugair, Alaa Al-Oqail, Shahd Al-Mansour, Rand Al-Haweel, Adnan W Hajjar
Background: Interstitial lung diseases are diseases that need histology diagnosis or obtaining a lung biopsy to establish the diagnosis. Surgical biopsies are performed usually using the thoracoscopy technique under general anesthesia (GA) although this procedure is still associated with morbidity rate. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness and safety of regional anesthesia (RA) compared with GA in thoracoscopic lung biopsy procedures done on patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF)...
January 2018: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
S Suresh, G S De Oliveira
BACKGROUND: The knowledge regarding appropriate dosage of local anaesthetics for peripheral nerve blocks in children is very scarce. The main objective of the current investigation was to evaluate dosing patterns of local anaesthetics in children receiving peripheral nerve blocks across multiple paediatric hospitals in the USA. We also sought to estimate the incidence of local anaesthetic systemic toxicity. METHODS: This is an observational study using the Pediatric Regional Anesthesia Network (PRAN) database...
February 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
M Heesen, M Klimek, G Imberger, S E Hoeks, R Rossaint, S Straube
BACKGROUND: I.V. and perineural dexamethasone have both been found to prolong loco-regional analgesia compared with controls without dexamethasone. It is unclear whether perineural administration offers advantages when compared with i.v. dexamethasone. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed to identify randomized controlled double-blind trials that compared i.v. with perineural dexamethasone in patients undergoing surgery. Using the random effects model, risk ratio (for binary variables), weighted mean difference (for continuous variables) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated...
February 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Ethan Kendall, Salahuddin Ahmad, Ozer Algan
The purpose of this study is to compare the quality of trigeminal neuralgia (TN) treatment plans with and without utilizing sector blocking. Twelve patients with 13 cases of TN were evaluated in this retrospective study. Identical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contour sets and prescription doses used in treatments were reused for all plans. Treatment plans were compared on the basis of the amount of dose received by critical structures (i.e., brainstem, ipsilateral temporal lobe, optic chiasm, optic nerves, cochlea) and the estimated total treatment time...
January 22, 2018: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
Giorgio Veneziano, David P Martin, Ralph Beltran, NʼDiris Barry, Dmitry Tumin, Candice Burrier, Kevin Klingele, Tarun Bhalla, Joseph D Tobias
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Perineural dexamethasone has been demonstrated to extend postsurgical analgesia after peripheral nerve blockade in adults. The mechanism of action of dexamethasone as a regional anesthetic adjuvant is unclear as intravenous dexamethasone has been shown to have similar analgesic efficacy as perineural dexamethasone. The efficacy of perineural dexamethasone has not been previously explored in the pediatric population. METHODS: After obtaining informed consent, children (aged 10-18 years) presenting for arthroscopic knee surgery with a femoral nerve block were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: ropivacaine 0...
January 26, 2018: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Michael Sullivan-Mee, Pathik Amin, Denise Pensyl, Suchitra Katiyar
SIGNIFICANCE: Clinical findings in occult branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) can mimic those of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Because management of these conditions substantially differs, accurate diagnosis is crucial. Our comparative analysis indicates that specific macular thickness variables reliably differentiate these conditions and that macular scanning may enhance routine glaucoma evaluation. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify clinical factors that reliably and efficiently identify occult BRAO masquerading as POAG...
January 25, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Patrick A Sibony, Junchao Wei, Ian A Sigal
PURPOSE: To determine if ocular ductions deform intrapapillary and peripapillary tissues in optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) and to compare these deformations with healthy eyes and eyes with other optic neuropathies. DESIGN: Observational case series. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty patients with ONHD. METHODS: Axial rasters of the optic nerve from a spectral-domain OCT device (Cirrus 5000; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc, Dublin, CA) were used to analyze the shape of the peripapillary basement membrane (ppBM) layer in 20 confirmed cases of ONHD...
January 17, 2018: Ophthalmology
(no author information available yet)
INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, more than 20 million patients undergo groin hernia repair annually. The many different approaches, treatment indications and a significant array of techniques for groin hernia repair warrant guidelines to standardize care, minimize complications, and improve results. The main goal of these guidelines is to improve patient outcomes, specifically to decrease recurrence rates and reduce chronic pain, the most frequent problems following groin hernia repair. They have been endorsed by all five continental hernia societies, the International Endo Hernia Society and the European Association for Endoscopic Surgery...
February 2018: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
A Pawa, J Wight, D N Onwochei, R Vargulescu, I Reed, L Chrisman, E Pushpanathan, A Kothari, K El-Boghdadly
Avoidance of general anaesthesia for breast surgery may be because of clinical reasons or patient choice. There is emerging evidence that the use of regional anaesthesia and the avoidance of volatile anaesthetics and opioid analgesia may have beneficial effects on oncological outcomes. We conducted a prospective observational case series of 16 breast cancer surgeries performed under thoracic paravertebral plus pectoral nerve block with propofol sedation to demonstrate feasibility of technique, patient acceptability and surgeon satisfaction...
January 12, 2018: Anaesthesia
Santhanam Suresh, Claude Ecoffey, Adrian Bosenberg, Per-Anne Lonnqvist, Gildasio S de Oliveira, Oscar de Leon Casasola, José de Andrés, Giorgio Ivani
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Dosage of local anesthetics (LAs) used for regional anesthesia in children is not well determined. In order to evaluate and come to a consensus regarding some of these controversial topics, The European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy (ESRA) and the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (ASRA) developed a Joint Committee Practice Advisory on Local Anesthetics and Adjuvants Dosage in Pediatric Regional Anesthesia. METHODS: Representatives from both ASRA and ESRA composed the joint committee practice advisory...
January 9, 2018: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Nirav H Amin, Jacob A West, Travis Farmer, Hrayr G Basmajian
Introduction: Hip fracture is a common occurrence in the elderly population with high morbidity and mortality due to postoperative pain and opioid use. The goal of this article is to review the current literature on the neuroanatomy of the hip and the use of localized nerve block in controlling hip fracture pain. Methods: A thorough search of MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was conducted using the search terms "hip fracture" and "fascia iliaca block (FICB)...
December 2017: Geriatric Orthopaedic Surgery & Rehabilitation
M D Herrick, H Liu, M Davis, J-E Bell, B D Sites
BACKGROUND: Regional anesthesia can be used as part of the anesthetic to optimize anesthesia and analgesia during shoulder arthroplasty, but little is known about the overall effect that regional anesthesia has on perioperative outcomes and resource utilization. We hypothesized that regional anesthesia may decrease complication rates and resource utilization in shoulder arthroplasty patients. METHODS: We examined administrative data from 588 US hospitals from 2010 to 2015...
January 7, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
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