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environmental microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144125/impacts-of-repeated-redox-cycling-on-technetium-mobility-in-the-environment
#1
Nicholas Karl Masters-Waage, Katherine Morris, Jonathan R Lloyd, Samuel Shaw, J Frederick Willem Mosselmans, Christopher Boothman, Pieter Bots, Athanasios Rizoulis, Francis R Livens, Gareth T W Law
Technetium is a problematic contaminant at nuclear sites and little is known about how repeated microbiologically-mediated redox cycling impacts its fate in the environment. We explore this question in sediments representative of the Sellafield Ltd. site, UK, over multiple reduction and oxidation cycles spanning ~ 1.5 years. We found the amount of Tc remobilised from the sediment into solution significantly decreased after repeated redox cycles. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) confirmed that sediment bound Tc was present as hydrous TcO2-like chains throughout experimentation and that Tc's increased resistance to remobilisation (via reoxidation to soluble TcO4-) resulted from both shortening of TcO2 chains during redox cycling and association of Tc(IV) with Fe phases in the sediment...
November 16, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132086/strengthening-detoxication-impacts-of-coprinus-comatus-on-nickel-and-fluoranthene-co-contaminated-soil-by-bacterial-inoculation
#2
Xia Tang, Bingxin Liu, Qiusui Deng, Ruitao Zhang, Xue Li, Heng Xu
To develop an efficient and environmental-friendly approach to detoxicate nickel (Ni) and fluoranthene co-contaminated soil, the combined application of Coprinus comatus (C. comatus) with Serratia sp. FFC5 and/or Enterobacter sp. E2 was investigated. The pot experiment tested the influences of bacterial inoculation on the growth of C. comatus, content of Ni in C. comatus, Ni speciation in soil, fluoranthene dissipation, soil enzymatic activities, bacterial population and community structure. With the inoculation of bacteria, the fresh weights of C...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129921/towards-a-genomics-informed-real-time-global-pathogen-surveillance-system
#3
REVIEW
Jennifer L Gardy, Nicholas J Loman
The recent Ebola and Zika epidemics demonstrate the need for the continuous surveillance, rapid diagnosis and real-time tracking of emerging infectious diseases. Fast, affordable sequencing of pathogen genomes - now a staple of the public health microbiology laboratory in well-resourced settings - can affect each of these areas. Coupling genomic diagnostics and epidemiology to innovative digital disease detection platforms raises the possibility of an open, global, digital pathogen surveillance system. When informed by a One Health approach, in which human, animal and environmental health are considered together, such a genomics-based system has profound potential to improve public health in settings lacking robust laboratory capacity...
November 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126084/a-simple-and-highly-selective-molecular-imprinting-polymer-based-methodology-for-propylparaben-monitoring-in-personal-care-products-and-industrial-waste-waters
#4
Ana Vicario, Leslie Aragón, Chien C Wang, Franco Bertolino, María R Gomez
In this work, a novel molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) proposed as solid phase extraction sorbent was developed for the determination of propylparaben (PP) in diverse cosmetic samples. The use of parabens (PAs) is authorized by regulatory agencies as microbiological preservative; however, recently several studies claim that large-scale use of these preservatives can be a potential health risk and harmful to the environment. Diverse factors that influence on polymer synthesis were studied, including template, functional monomer, porogen and crosslinker used...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123230/environmental-microbiology-geographic-coordinates-guide-natural-product-discovery
#5
Andrea Du Toit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119111/recent-developments-for-remediating-acidic-mine-waters-using-sulfidogenic-bacteria
#6
REVIEW
Ivan Nancucheo, José A P Bitencourt, Prafulla K Sahoo, Joner Oliveira Alves, José O Siqueira, Guilherme Oliveira
Acidic mine drainage (AMD) is regarded as a pollutant and considered as potential source of valuable metals. With diminishing metal resources and ever-increasing demand on industry, recovering AMD metals is a sustainable initiative, despite facing major challenges. AMD refers to effluents draining from abandoned mines and mine wastes usually highly acidic that contain a variety of dissolved metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, and Zn) in much greater concentration than what is found in natural water bodies. There are numerous remediation treatments including chemical (lime treatment) or biological methods (aerobic wetlands and compost bioreactors) used for metal precipitation and removal from AMD...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108623/displaying-a-recombinant-protein-on-flocs-self-produced-by-escherichia-coli-through-fused-expression-with-elongation-factor-ts
#7
Yoshihiro Ojima, Shota Nunogami, Masayuki Azuma, Masahito Taya
The utility of engineering flocculation is wildly recognized in applied and environmental microbiology. We previously reported self-produced flocculation of Escherichia coli cells by overexpressing the native bcsB gene that encodes a component of the cellulose synthesis pathway. Further experiments clarified that the spontaneous E. coli flocs were proteinous, and elongation factor Ts (Tsf) was the main component. In this study, we demonstrated successful expression of a fusion protein consisting of Tsf and green fluorescence protein (GFP) on E...
January 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105039/evaluation-of-the-quality-and-quantity-of-compost-and-leachate-from-household-waterless-toilets-in-france
#8
Behzad Nasri, Florent Brun, Olivier Fouché
One of the most undesired wastes is the human excreta due to the socio-environmental pressure. Otherwise, the nutriments contained in human excreta could be used as fertilizers to enrich the soil. Familial waterless litter composting toilets (FWLCT) are an alternative for locations where a centralized sewerage network cannot be provided or where there is a lack of standard urban infrastructure including roads, electricity, and water supply. The scientific researches on the composting techniques, the methods of control of the composting processors, and the rate of produced leachate are very limited...
November 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101199/antifungal-hsaf-biosynthesis-in-lysobacter-enzymogenes-is-controlled-by-the-interplay-of-two-transcription-factors-and-a-diffusible-molecule
#9
Zhenhe Su, Sen Han, Zhengqing Fu, Guoliang Qian, Fengquan Liu
Lysobacter enzymogenes is a Gram-negative, environmental ubiquitous bacterium that produces a secondary metabolite, called HSAF (Heat-stable antifungal factor), as an antifungal factor against plant and animal fungal pathogens. 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBA) is a newly identified diffusible factor that regulates HSAF synthesis via LysRLe, a LysR-type transcription factor (TF). Here, to identify additional TFs within the 4-HBA regulatory pathway that control HSAF production, we re-analyzed the LenB2-based transcriptomic data, in which LenB2 is the enzyme responsible for 4-HBA production...
November 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095142/high-mortality-of-bloodstream-infection-outbreak-caused-by-carbapenem-resistant-p-aeruginosa-producing-spm-1-in-a-bone-marrow-transplant-unit
#10
Lucas Chaves, Lísia Moura Tomich, Matias Salomão, Gleice Cristina Leite, Jessica Ramos, Roberta Ruedas Martins, Camila Rizek, Patricia Neves, Marjorie Vieira Batista, Ulysses Amigo, Thais Guimaraes, Anna Sara Levin, Silvia Figueiredo Costa
PURPOSE: Carbapenem resistance in P. aeruginosa is increasing worldwide. In Brazil, SPM-1 is the main P. aeruginosa carbapenemase identified. Little is known about the virulence factor in SPM-1 clones.Methodolgy. We describe a carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa bloodstream infection (CRPa-BSI) outbreak in a bone marrow transplant Unit (BMT). Twenty-nine CRPa-BSI cases were compared to 58 controls. Microbiological characteristics of isolates, such as sensitivity, carbapenemase gene PCR for P...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081086/diversity-and-characteristics-of-meat-microbiological-community-on-dry-aged-beef
#11
Sangdon Ryu, Mi Ri Park, Brighton E Maburutse, Su Jin Lee, Woong Ji Lee, Soohyun Cho, Inho Hwang, Sangnam Oh, Younghoon Kim
Beef was dry aged for 40 to 60 days under controlled environmental conditions in a refrigerated room with a relative humidity of 75% to 80 % and air-flow. To date, there is little information on the microbial diversity and characteristics of dry aged beef. Here, we explored the effect of change in meat microorganisms on dry aged beef. Initially, total bacteria and LAB were significantly increased for 50 days during all dry aging periods. There was absence of representative foodborne pathogens as well as coliforms...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079994/osteomicrobiology-a-new-cross-disciplinary-research-field
#12
REVIEW
Claes Ohlsson, Klara Sjögren
The mutualistic interaction between the gut microbiota (GM) and its host profoundly shapes many aspects of our physiology. The composition and activity of the gut microbiota is modulated by environmental factors such as dietary habits and antibiotic treatments. In rodents, studies demonstrate that the GM is a crucial regulator of bone metabolism and that modulation of the GM composition by probiotic interventions can prevent castration-induced bone loss. Short-term colonization of germ-free mice with GM results in an activation of CD4+T cells, resulting in increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bone and thereby activation of osteoclastic bone resorption...
October 27, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079619/identification-of-heterotrophic-zinc-mobilization-processes-among-bacterial-strains-isolated-from-wheat-rhizosphere-triticum-aestivum-l
#13
Benjamin Costerousse, Laurie Schönholzer-Mauclaire, Emmanuel Frossard, Cécile Thonar
Soil and plant inoculation with heterotrophic Zinc Solubilizing Bacteria (ZSB) is considered as a promising approach for increasing zinc (Zn) phytoavailability and enhance crop growth and nutritional quality. It is nevertheless necessary to understand the underlying bacterial solubilization processes in order to predict their repeatability in inoculation strategies. Acidification via gluconic acid production remains the most reported process. In this study, wheat rhizosphere soil serial dilutions were plated onto several solid microbiological media supplemented with scarcely soluble Zn oxide (ZnO) and 115 putative Zn solubilizing isolates were directly detected based on the formation of solubilization halo around the colonies...
October 27, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077854/investigation-of-a-cluster-of-sequence-type-22-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-transmission-in-a-community-setting
#14
Michelle S Toleman, Emmeline R Watkins, Tom Williams, Beth Blane, Belinda Sadler, Ewan M Harrison, Francesc Coll, Julian Parkhill, Bernadette Nazareth, Nicholas M Brown, Sharon J Peacock
Background: Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has typically been used to confirm or refute hospital/ward outbreaks of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) identified through routine practice. However, appropriately targeted WGS strategies that identify routinely "undetectable" transmission remain the ultimate aim. Methods: WGS of MRSA isolates sent to a regional microbiological laboratory was performed as part of a 12-month prospective observational study...
October 25, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073289/pm10-concentration-and-microbiological-assessment-of-air-in-relation-to-the-number-of-acute-cases-of-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-in-the-lubelskie-voivodeship-preliminary-report
#15
Małgorzata Michalska, Maria Bartoszewicz, Piotr Wąż, Sylwia Kozaczuk, Iwona Beń-Skowronek, Katarzyna Zorena
INTRODUCTION: The aim of our study was to evaluate the relation between the concentration of particulate matter of less than 10 μm in diameter (PM10) in air and the effect of psychrophilic bacteria, mesophilic bacteria and mould fungi on the number of new cases of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents in the Lubelskie Voivodeship in the years 2015-2016. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Epidemiological data on the number of new cases of T1DM was obtained from the Department of Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology of the Medical University in Lublin...
2017: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063496/kocuria-massiliensis-sp-nov-a-new-bacterial-species-isolated-from-a-patient-with-foot-osteomyelitis
#16
Sophie Edouard, Pierre-Edouard Fournier, Mamadou Beye, Frédérique Gouriet, Gregory Dubourg, Jeremy Delerce, Laure Swiader, Didier Raoult
Most of the species from the genus Kocuria are environmental or commensals of mammalian skin and oral bacteria, and had rarely been associated with human infection. However, recent reports showed an increase of the clinical role of these bacteria in human infectious diseases. Most of the cases occurred in hospitals and were device related. They included bacteremia, peritonitis, abscess, endocarditis and ocular infection. We here describe the main characteristics and the draft genome of Kocuria massiliensis sp...
October 23, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058217/data-analysis-for-gut-microbiota-and-health
#17
Xingpeng Jiang, Xiaohua Hu
In recent years, data mining and analysis of high-throughput sequencing of microbiomes and metagenomic data enable researchers to discover biological knowledge by characterizing the composition and variation of species across environmental samples and to accumulate a huge amount of data, making it feasible to infer the complex principle of species interactions. The interactions of microbes in a microbial community play an important role in microbial ecological system. Data mining provides diverse approachs to identify the correlations between disease and microbes and how microbial species coexist and interact in a host-associated or natural environment...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054556/role-of-biochar-as-an-additive-in-organic-waste-composting
#18
REVIEW
M A Sanchez-Monedero, M L Cayuela, A Roig, K Jindo, C Mondini, N Bolan
The use of biochar in organic waste composting has attracted interest in the last decade due to the environmental and agronomical benefits obtained during the process. Biochar presents favourable physicochemical properties, such as large porosity, surface area and high cation exchange capacity, enabling interaction with major nutrient cycles and favouring microbial growth in the composting pile. The enhanced environmental conditions can promote a change in the microbial communities that can affect important microbially mediated biogeochemical cycles: organic matter degradation and humification, nitrification, denitrification and methanogenesis...
September 30, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049368/low-overlap-between-carbapenem-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-genotypes-isolated-from-hospitalized-patients-and-wastewater-treatment-plants
#19
Andrej Golle, Sandra Janezic, Maja Rupnik
The variability of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains (CRPA) isolated from urine and respiratory samples in a large microbiological laboratory, serving several health care settings, and from effluents of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) from the same region was assessed by PFGE typing and by resistance to 10 antibiotics. During the 12-month period altogether 213 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates were cultured and distributed into 65 pulsotypes and ten resistance profiles. For representatives of all 65 pulsotypes 49 different MLSTs were determined...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044663/forensic-source-attribution-for-toluene-in-environmental-samples
#20
Philip I Richards, Court D Sandau
The formation of toluene by microbiological processes can confound environmental investigations relating to petroleum releases. This is because toluene is a constituent of petroleum and can move readily within wetland environments, and analysis for toluene in relation to a petroleum release can lead to incorrect assignment of detected biogenic toluene as related to the release. No legally defensible method of distinguishing biogenic and petrogenic origins of detectible concentrations of toluene have been demonstrated to date...
October 17, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
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