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environmental microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231023/increasing-nocardia-incidence-associated-with-bronchiectasis-at-a-tertiary-care-center
#1
Michael H Woodworth, Jennifer L Saullo, Paul M Lantos, Gary M Cox, Jason E Stout
RATIONALE: Nocardia is a genus of pathogens that most commonly afflicts immunocompromised hosts, but may be an emerging infection among persons with bronchiectasis. OBJECTIVES: To examine the epidemiology and clinical presentation of adult patients with Nocardia and bronchiectasis relative to other patient groups. METHODS: We examined a retrospectively-assembled cohort of adults at Duke University Hospital in Durham, North Carolina with at least one positive culture from a bodily fluid or tissue specimen for Nocardia between January 1996 and December 2013...
February 23, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225574/the-future-of-environmental-microbiology-an-annotated-selection-of-world-wide-web-sites-relevant-to-the-topics-in-environmental-microbiology
#2
Lawrence P Wackett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221985/role-of-food-handlers-in-norovirus-outbreaks-in-london-and-south-east-england-2013-to-2015
#3
C Rumble, S Addiman, S Balasegaram, K Chima, D Ready, J Heard, E Alexander
Outbreaks caused by norovirus infection are common and occur throughout the year. Outbreaks can be related to food outlets either through a contaminated food source or an infected food handler. Both asymptomatic and symptomatic food handlers are potentially implicated in outbreaks, but evidence of transmission is limited. To understand potential food handler transmission in outbreak scenarios, epidemiological and microbiological data on possible and confirmed norovirus outbreaks reported in London and South East England in a 2-year period were reviewed...
February 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207869/impact-of-wall-shear-stress-on-initial-bacterial-adhesion-in-rotating-annular-reactor
#4
Thibaut Saur, Emilie Morin, Frédéric Habouzit, Nicolas Bernet, Renaud Escudié
The objective of this study was to investigate the bacterial adhesion under different wall shear stresses in turbulent flow and using a diverse bacterial consortium. A better understanding of the mechanisms governing microbial adhesion can be useful in diverse domains such as industrial processes, medical fields or environmental biotechnologies. The impact of wall shear stress-four values ranging from 0.09 to 7.3 Pa on polypropylene (PP) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-was carried out in rotating annular reactors to evaluate the adhesion in terms of morphological and microbiological structures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202928/hospitalizations-due-to-selected-infections-caused-by-opportunistic-premise-plumbing-pathogens-oppp-and-reported-drug-resistance-in-the-united-states-older-adult-population-in-1991-2006
#5
Elena N Naumova, Alexander Liss, Jyotsna S Jagai, Irmgard Behlau, Jeffrey K Griffiths
The Flint Water Crisis-due to changes of water source and treatment procedures-has revealed many unsolved social, environmental, and public health problems for US drinking water, including opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPP). The true health impact of OPPP, especially in vulnerable populations such as the elderly, is largely unknown. We explored 10(8) claims in the largest US national uniformly collected data repository to determine rates and costs of OPPP-related hospitalizations. In 1991-2006, 617,291 cases of three selected OPPP infections resulted in the elderly alone of $0...
December 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177789/prevalence-and-diversity-of-waterborne-i-arcobacter-butzleri-i-in-southwestern-alberta-canada
#6
Andrew Lawrence Webb, Eduardo N Taboada, L Brent Selinger, Valerie F Boras, G Douglas Inglis
<i>Arcobacter butzleri</i> is a potential enteric pathogen to human beings, but its reservoirs and modes of transmission are largely unverified. Microbiological and molecular detection and subtyping techniques can facilitate surveillance of <i>A. butzleri</i> in hosts and environmental reservoirs. We isolated <i>A. butzleri</i> from 173 surface water samples (25.6%) and 81 treated wastewater samples (77.9%) collected in southwestern Alberta over a 1 year period. <i>Arcobacter butzleri</i> isolates (n=500) were genotyped and compared to determine diversity of <i>A...
January 18, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176520/-pulmonary-co-infection-due-to-nocardia-cyriacigeorgica-and-aspergillus-fumigatus
#7
R Trastoy, T Manso, X García, G Barbeito, D Navarro, P Rascado, M L Pérez Del Molino
OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary nocardiosis is an uncommon pulmonary infection caused by aerobic gram-positive bacteria of the genus Nocardia. Nocardia sp. are environmental organisms spread worldwide. Approximately 50 Nocardia species have been described to date, about 30 of which are known to cause human disease. Nocardia cyriacigeorgica was first reported in 2001. CASE REPORT: We report a case of infection caused by N. cyriacigeorgica in a patient with B-cells non-Hodgkin lymphoma and diabetes mellitus...
February 8, 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174557/human-driven-microbiological-contamination-of-benthic-and-hyporheic-sediments-of-an-intermittent-peri-urban-river-assessed-from-mst-and-16s-rrna-genetic-structure-analyses
#8
Romain Marti, Sébastien Ribun, Jean-Baptiste Aubin, Céline Colinon, Stéphanie Petit, Laurence Marjolet, Michèle Gourmelon, Laurent Schmitt, Pascal Breil, Marylise Cottet, Benoit Cournoyer
Rivers are often challenged by fecal contaminations. The barrier effect of sediments against fecal bacteria was investigated through the use of a microbial source tracking (MST) toolbox, and by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) of V5-V6 16S rRNA gene (rrs) sequences. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling analysis of V5-V6 16S rRNA gene sequences differentiated bacteriomes according to their compartment of origin i.e., surface water against benthic and hyporheic sediments. Classification of these reads showed the most prevalent operating taxonomic units (OTU) to be allocated to Flavobacterium and Aquabacterium...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166854/an-outbreak-of-burkholderia-cepacia-complex-infections-associated-with-contaminated-liquid-docusate
#9
Lucila Marquez, Katie N Jones, Elaine M Whaley, Tjin H Koy, Paula A Revell, Ruston S Taylor, M Brooke Bernhardt, Jeffrey L Wagner, James J Dunn, John J LiPuma, Judith R Campbell
OBJECTIVE To investigate an outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia complex and describe the measures that revealed the source. SETTING A 629-bed, tertiary-care, pediatric hospital in Houston, Texas. PATIENTS Pediatric patients without cystic fibrosis (CF) hospitalized in the pediatric and cardiovascular intensive care units. METHODS We investigated an outbreak of B. cepacia complex from February through July 2016. Isolates were evaluated for molecular relatedness with repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR); specific species identification and genotyping were performed at an independent laboratory...
February 7, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148977/survey-of-meta-genomic-approaches-for-understanding-microbial-community-dynamics
#10
REVIEW
Anukriti Sharma, Rup Lal
Advancement in the next generation sequencing technologies has led to evolution of the field of genomics and metagenomics in a slim duration with nominal cost at precipitous higher rate. While metagenomics and genomics can be separately used to reveal the culture-independent and culture-based microbial evolution, respectively, (meta)genomics together can be used to demonstrate results at population level revealing in-depth complex community interactions for specific ecotypes. The field of metagenomics which started with answering "who is out there?" based on 16S rRNA gene has evolved immensely with the precise organismal reconstruction at species/strain level from the deeply covered metagenome data outweighing the need to isolate bacteria of which 99% are de facto non-cultivable...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142193/staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-a-complex-developmental-organism
#11
REVIEW
Derek E Moormeier, Kenneth W Bayles
Chronic biofilm-associated infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus often lead to significant increases in morbidity and mortality, particularly when associated with indwelling medical devices. This has triggered a great deal of research attempting to understand the molecular mechanisms that control S. aureus biofilm formation and the basis for the recalcitrance of these multicellular structures to antibiotic therapy. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of S. aureus biofilm development, focusing on the description of a newly-defined, five-stage model of biofilm development and the mechanisms required for each stage...
January 31, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138423/achromobacter-xylosoxidans-infection-in-cystic-fibrosis-siblings-with-different-outcomes-case-reports
#12
Mônica Cássia Firmida, Elizabeth Andrade Marques, Robson Souza Leão, Rosana Helena Vicente Pereira, Elenice Rosa Aguiar Rodrigues, Rodolpho Mattos Albano, Tania Wrobel Folescu, Vagner Bernardo, Pedro Daltro, Domenico Capone, Agnaldo José Lopes
INTRODUCTION: The clinical relevance of Achromobacter xylosoxidans infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) remains controversial. This emerging agent in CF has been associated with increased lung inflammation, more frequent exacerbations and more severe lung disease. We describe a pair of CF siblings chronically colonized by the same multilocus genotype of A. xylosoxidans with different clinical courses, and assess whether this species may have developed any virulence traits and antimicrobial resistance that could have contributed to their singular outcomes...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128084/boils-at-frictional-locations-in-a-patient-with-hidradenitis-suppurativa
#13
Jurr Boer, Dalibor Mihajlovic
Dear Editor, Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, recurrent, inflammatory skin disease. The primary clinical presentation are painful inflamed nodules or boils of inverse areas, i.e. the axillary and anogenito-crural regions, but it can also involve the infra- and inter-mammary regions (1,2). The etiology of HS is not clearly defined. Obesity, smoking, and genetic factors are considered important risk factors. In addition, it has also been suggested that friction may contribute to the development of HS, especially in the obese, but this is based on highly anecdotal reports (3-5)...
December 2016: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128073/nontuberculous-mycobacteria-overview
#14
Won-Jung Koh
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are emerging pathogens that affect both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. The development of molecular methods has allowed the characterization of new species and the identification of NTM to the precise species and subspecies levels. The incidence and prevalence of NTM lung disease are increasing worldwide, and this syndrome accounts for the majority of clinical cases of NTM disease. Common causative organisms of pulmonary infection are the slowly growing mycobacteria Mycobacterium avium complex and Mycobacterium kansasii and the rapidly growing mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium abscessus complex...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124652/culture-directed-topical-antibiotic-treatment-for-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#15
Victoria S Lee, Greg E Davis
BACKGROUND: Topical antibiotics, delivered optimally as high-volume culture-directed sinus irrigations, are being increasingly used for recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Their impact on subjective and objective outcome measures, however, is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: To assess if the use of topical antibiotics in recalcitrant CRS is associated with improved 20-Item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test and Lund-Kennedy endoscopic scores, and to determine the negative posttreatment culture "control" rate...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120504/web-alert-biosynthesis-of-hydrocarbons-by-environmental-microbes-an-annotated-selection-of-world-wide-web-sites-relevant-to-the-topics-in-environmental-microbiology
#16
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115135/molecular-approaches-for-the-detection-and-monitoring-of-microbial-communities-in-bioaerosols-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Keunje Yoo, Tae Kwon Lee, Eun Joo Choi, Jihoon Yang, Sudheer Kumar Shukla, Sang-Il Hwang, Joonhong Park
Bioaerosols significantly affect atmospheric processes while they undergo long-range vertical and horizontal transport and influence atmospheric chemistry and physics and climate change. Accumulating evidence suggests that exposure to bioaerosols may cause adverse health effects, including severe disease. Studies of bioaerosols have primarily focused on their chemical composition and largely neglected their biological composition and the negative effects of biological composition on ecosystems and human health...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105344/molecular-tracking-investigation-of-melioidosis-cases-reveals-regional-endemicity-in-hainan-china
#18
Yingzi Lin, Qiang Wu, Xiang Liu, Sufang Dong, Lixian Wu, Hua Pei, Ke Xu, Qianfeng Xia
Sporadic cases of melioidosis have been reported in Hainan, China for decades; however, to the best of our knowledge, there are no accurate source-identification investigations confirming that melioidosis is endemic. Four indigenous melioidosis cases were identified, which prompted the performance of contact microbiologic and molecular techniques to evaluate endemicity. Environmental samples were collected from various locations surrounding each patient's residence. The samples were screened for Burkholderia pseudomallei (B...
December 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100597/investigation-of-a-candida-guilliermondii-pseudo-outbreak-reveals-a-novel-source-of-laboratory-contamination
#19
James E Kirby, Westyn Branch-Elliman, Mary T LaSalvia, Lorinda Longhi, Matthew MacKechnie, Grigoriy Urman, Linda M Baldini, Fatima R Muriel, Bernadette Sullivan, David S Yassa, Howard S Gold, Trevor K Wagner, Daniel J Diekema, Sharon B Wright
Candida guilliermondii was isolated from sterile specimens with increasing frequency over a several-month period despite a paucity of clinical evidence suggesting true Candida infections. However, a healthcare-associated outbreak was strongly considered due to growth patterns in the microbiology laboratory more consistent with true infection than environmental contamination. Therefore, an extensive investigation was performed to identify its cause. With the exception of one case, patient clinical courses were not consistent with true invasive fungal infections...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067541/listeria-monocytogenes-circulating-in-rabbit-meat-products-and-slaughterhouses-in-italy-prevalence-data-and-comparison-among-typing-results
#20
Alessandra De Cesare, Antonio Parisi, Renzo Mioni, Damiano Comin, Alex Lucchi, Gerardo Manfreda
Rabbit meat has outstanding dietetic and nutritional properties. However, few data on microbiological hazards associated with rabbit productions are available. In this study, the presence of Listeria monocytogenes was determined in 430 rabbit carcasses, 256 rabbit meat cuts and products, and 599 environmental sponges collected from four Italian rabbit slaughterhouses over a period of 1 year. Prevalence of L. monocytogenes among the 1285 rabbit meat and environmental samples was 11%, with statistically significant differences between slaughterhouses...
January 9, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
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