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environmental microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935523/an-outbreak-of-burkholderia-cepacia-pseudobacteraemia-caused-by-intrinsically-contaminated-commercial-0-5-chlorhexidine-solution-in-neonatal-intensive-care-units
#1
Je Eun Song, Yee Gyung Kwak, Tae Hyun Um, Chong Rae Cho, Sollip Kim, In Sook Park, Jong Hee Hwang, Namhee Kim, Gang-Bok Oh
BACKGROUND: Burkholderia cepacia is intrinsically resistant to certain antiseptics. We experienced a sudden increase in the frequency of isolation of B. cepacia from blood cultures in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a university-affiliated hospital. AIM: An investigation was conducted to identify the source and to intervene in the ongoing infections. METHODS: The cases were defined as patients with positive blood cultures for B. cepacia in a NICU between November 2014 and January 2015...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935481/stalking-a-lethal-superbug-by-whole-genome-sequencing-and-phylogenetics-influence-on-unraveling-a-major-hospital-outbreak-of-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#2
Thorsten Kaiser, Knut Finstermeier, Madlen Häntzsch, Sarah Faucheux, Martin Kaase, Tim Eckmanns, Sven Bercker, Udo X Kaisers, Norman Lippmann, Arne C Rodloff, Joachim Thiery, Christoph Lübbert
BACKGROUND: From July 2010-April 2013, Leipzig University Hospital experienced the largest outbreak of a Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase 2 (KPC-2)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-2-Kp) strain observed in Germany to date. After termination of the outbreak, we aimed to reconstruct transmission pathways by phylogenetics based on whole-genome sequencing (WGS). METHODS: One hundred seventeen KPC-2-Kp isolates from 89 outbreak patients, 5 environmental KPC-2-Kp isolates, and 24 K pneumoniae strains not linked to the outbreak underwent WGS...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933031/screening-isolation-and-molecular-identification-of-biodegrading-mycobacteria-from-iranian-ecosystems-and-analysis-of-their-biodegradation-activity
#3
Davood Azadi, Hasan Shojaei, Sina Mobasherizadeh, Abass Daei Naser
Anthropogenic origin pollutants including pesticides, heavy metals, pharmaceuticals and industry chemicals impose many risks to human health and environment and bioremediation has been considered the strategy of choice to reduce the risk of hazardous chemicals. In the current study, we aimed to screen and characterize mycobacteria from the diverse range of Iranian aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems with harsh and unfavorable environmental conditions that can be utilized for biodegradation of target pollutants...
September 20, 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931118/unpacking-the-enabling-factors-for-hand-cord-and-birth-surface-hygiene-in-zanzibar-maternity-units
#4
Giorgia Gon, Said M Ali, Catriona Towriss, Catherine Kahabuka, Ali O Ali, Sue Cavill, Mohammed Dahoma, Sally Faulkner, Haji S Haji, Ibrahim Kabole, Emma Morrison, Rukaiya M Said, Amour Tajo, Yael Velleman, Susannah L Woodd, And Wendy J Graham
Recent national surveys in The United Republic of Tanzania have revealed poor standards of hygiene at birth in facilities. As more women opt for institutional delivery, improving basic hygiene becomes an essential part of preventative strategies for reducing puerperal and newborn sepsis. Our collaborative research in Zanzibar provides an in-depth picture of the state of hygiene on maternity wards to inform action. Hygiene was assessed in 2014 across all 37 facilities with a maternity unit in Zanzibar. We used a mixed methods approach, including structured and semi-structured interviews, and environmental microbiology...
October 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927397/detection-of-bacterial-pathogens-from-clinical-specimens-using-conventional-microbial-culture-and-16s-metagenomics-a-comparative-study
#5
Lalanika M Abayasekara, Jennifer Perera, Vishvanath Chandrasekharan, Vaz S Gnanam, Nisala A Udunuwara, Dileepa S Liyanage, Nuwani E Bulathsinhala, Subhashanie Adikary, Janith V S Aluthmuhandiram, Chrishanthi S Thanaseelan, D Portia Tharmakulasingam, Tharaga Karunakaran, Janahan Ilango
BACKGROUND: Infectious disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, and diagnosis of polymicrobial and fungal infections is increasingly challenging in the clinical setting. Conventionally, molecular detection is still the best method of species identification in clinical samples. However, the limitations of Sanger sequencing make diagnosis of polymicrobial infections one of the biggest hurdles in treatment. The development of massively parallel sequencing or next generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized the field of metagenomics, with wide application of the technology in identification of microbial communities in environmental sources, human gut and others...
September 19, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926813/risk-assessment-to-groundwater-of-pit-latrine-rural-sanitation-policy-in-developing-country-settings
#6
Jan O Back, Michael O Rivett, Laura B Hinz, Nyree Mackay, Gift J Wanangwa, Owen L Phiri, Chrispine Emmanuel Songola, Mavuto A S Thomas, Steve Kumwenda, Muthi Nhlema, Alexandra V M Miller, Robert M Kalin
Parallel global rise in pit-latrine sanitation and groundwater-supply provision is of concern due to the frequent spatial proximity of these activities. Study of such an area in Malawi has allowed understanding of risks posed to groundwater from the recent implementation of a typical developing-country pit-latrine sanitation policy to be gained. This has assisted the development of a risk-assessment framework approach pragmatic to regulatory-practitioner management of this issue. The framework involves water-supply and pit-latrine mapping, monitoring of key groundwater contamination indicators and surveys of possible environmental site-condition factors and culminates in an integrated statistical evaluation of these datasets to identify the significant factors controlling risks posed...
September 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923406/negative-environmental-impacts-of-antibiotic-contaminated-effluents-from-pharmaceutical-industries
#7
Ana Bielen, Ana Šimatović, Josipa Kosić-Vukšić, Ivan Senta, Marijan Ahel, Sanja Babić, Tamara Jurina, Juan José González Plaza, Milena Milaković, Nikolina Udiković-Kolić
Effluents from pharmaceutical industries are recognized as significant contributors to aquatic pollution with antibiotics. Although such pollution has been mostly reported in Asia, knowledge on industrial discharges in other regions of the world, including Europe, and on the effects associated with such exposures is still limited. Thus, we performed chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological analyses of effluents from two Croatian pharmaceutical industries during four seasons. In treated effluents of the company synthesizing macrolide antibiotic azithromycin (AZI), the total concentration of AZI and two macrolide by-products from its synthesis was 1-3 orders of magnitude higher in winter and springtime (up to 10...
September 9, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913724/use-of-phytoproductivity-data-in-the-choice-of-native-plant-species-to-restore-a-degraded-coal-mining-site-amended-with-a-stabilized-industrial-organic-sludge
#8
Claudete G Chiochetta, Hela Toumi, Renata F S Böhm, Fernanda Engel, Gabriel Poyer-Radetski, Leonardo R Rörig, Fabrizio Adani, Claudemir M Radetski
Coal mining-related activities result in a degraded landscape and sites associated with large amounts of dumped waste material. The arid soil resulting from acid mine drainage affects terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and thus, site remediation programs must be implemented to mitigate this sequential deleterious processes. A low-cost alternative material to counterbalance the affected physico-chemical-microbiological aspects of the degraded soil is the amendment with low contaminated and stabilized industrial organic sludge...
September 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906596/web-alert-microbial-enhancement-of-plant-growth-an-annotated-selection-of-world-wide-web-sites-relevant-to-the-topics-in-environmental-microbiology
#9
Lawrence P Wackett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903468/a-case-for-the-protection-of-saline-and-hypersaline-environments-a-microbiological-perspective
#10
Varun G Paul, Melanie R Mormile
Saline and hypersaline environments are known for their unique geochemical properties, microbial populations and aesthetic appeal. Microbial activities and a spectrum of diversity seen in hypersaline environments are distinct with many novel species being identified and reported on a regular basis. Many distinguishing characteristics about the adaptation, morphology, evolutionary history, and potential environmental and biotechnological applications of these organisms are continually investigated. An abundance of interdisciplinary activities and opportunities exist to explore and understand the importance of these environments that potentially hold promising solutions for current and future global issues...
August 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902722/diagnostic-approach-to-ocular-infections-using-various-techniques-from-conventional-culture-to-next-generation-sequencing-analysis
#11
Hiroshi Eguchi, Fumika Hotta, Tomomi Kuwahara, Haruyuki Imaohji, Chika Miyazaki, Miou Hirose, Shunji Kusaka, Masahiko Fukuda, Yoshikazu Shimomura
Ocular infection is caused by both endogenous (resident) and exogenous (environmental) microbes. As the ocular surface interacts with both outer environment and its own resident microbiota, clinical ocular samples are predicted to contain a diverse set of microorganisms. Microscopy of sample smears is an important step in the diagnostic process of infectious diseases to interpret the culture results. Traditional culture techniques have several limitations in the detection and/or identification of uncharacterized bacteria of environmental origin...
September 11, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900357/five-year-microbiological-monitoring-of-wards-and-operating-theatres-in-southern-italy
#12
REVIEW
V La Fauci, C Genovese, A Facciolà, M A R Palamara, R Squeri
INTRODUCTION: Nosocomial infections are one of the greatest problems in public health. Several studies have highlighted the role played by the hospital environment as a possible source of transmission of nosocomial pathogens. METHODS: A five-year monitoring of bacterial contamination on healthcare workers hands, surfaces most closely in contact with inpatient wards, operating theatres and "at rest" and "in use" operating theatre air samples. For the samples, we used sterile swabs, contact slides, manual API, and automated VITEK systems for identification...
June 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892890/virulence-factors-detection-in-aspergillus-isolates-from-clinical-and-environmental-samples
#13
Raksha, Gurjeet Singh, A D Urhekar
INTRODUCTION: Pathogenesis of aspergillosis is dependent on various factors of the host (immune status) and virulence factors of the pathogen which could play a significant role in the pathogenesis of invasive aspergillosis. AIM: To study the virulence factors of Aspergillus species isolated from patient samples and environmental samples. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective and experimental study was carried out at Department of Microbiology, MGM Medical College and Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, from July 2014 to June 2015...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887679/microbiological-studies-of-hot-springs-in-india-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Abhijit Poddar, Subrata K Das
The earliest microbiological studies on hot springs in India date from 2003, a much later date compared to global attention in this striking field of study. As of today, 28 out of 400 geothermal springs have been explored following both culturable and non-culturable approaches. The temperatures and pH of the springs are 37-99 °C and 6.8-10, respectively. Several studies have been performed on the description of novel genera and species, characterization of different bio-resources, metagenomics of hot spring microbiome and whole genome analysis of few isolates...
September 8, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884331/paratuberculosis-in-latin-america-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
I F Espeschit, D G G Schwarz, A C S Faria, M C C Souza, F A Paolicchi, R A Juste, I A Carvalho, M A S Moreira
Latin America is the definition of the American group, where languages of Latin origin are spoken, including countries in South, Central, and North America. Paratuberculosis is a gastrointestinal contagious chronic disease that affects ruminants, whose etiological agent is the bacilli Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Paratuberculosis is characterized by intermittent diarrhea, decreased milk production, dehydration, and progressive weight loss and is possibly involved in Crohn's disease, a human intestinal disease...
September 7, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880030/quantitative-detection-of-isotopically-enriched-e-coli-cells-by-sers
#16
Malama Chisanga, Howbeer Muhamadali, Richard Kimber, Royston Goodacre
It is clear that investigating how bacterial cells work by analysing their functional roles in microbial communities is very important in environmental, clinical and industrial microbiology. The benefits of linking genes to their respective functions include the reliable identification of the causative agents of various diseases, which would permit appropriate and timely treatment in healthcare systems. In industrial and municipal wastewater treatment and management, such knowledge may allow for the manipulation of microbial communities, such as through bioaugmentation, in order to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of bioremediation processes...
September 7, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873730/probiotics-as-potential-alternative-biocontrol-agents-in-the-agriculture-and-food-industries-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Md Iqbal Hossain, Mohammad Sadekuzzaman, Sang-Do Ha
Pathogenic microorganisms are a potential threat to the agriculture and food industries. Food contamination can be happened in the production levels at any point in the chain by pathogenic microorganisms. Conventional methods, such as those involving antibiotics, disinfectants, and physical methods, are commonly used as microbial control strategies. Owing to the limitations of these methods, such as emergence of resistance, low effectiveness, high cost, and detrimental effects on food, health, and the environment, many countries have adopted laws and regulations restricting their use...
October 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872139/in-situ-characterization-of-shewanella-oneidensis-mr1-biofilms-by-salvi-and-tof-sims
#18
Rachel Komorek, Wenchao Wei, Xiaofei Yu, Eric Hill, Juan Yao, Zihua Zhu, Xiao-Ying Yu
Bacterial biofilms are surface-associated communities that are vastly studied to understand their self-produced extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and their roles in environmental microbiology. This study outlines a method to cultivate biofilm attachment to the System for Analysis at the Liquid Vacuum Interface (SALVI) and achieve in situ chemical mapping of a living biofilm by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). This is done through the culturing of bacteria both outside and within the SALVI channel with our specialized setup, as well as through optical imaging techniques to detect the biofilm presence and thickness before ToF-SIMS analysis...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863975/assessing-the-seawater-quality-of-a-coastal-city-using-fecal-indicators-and-environmental-variables-eastern-aegean-sea
#19
Asli Kacar, Burcu Omuzbuken
The presence of fecal bacteria in seawater is one of the most important bio-indicator parameters of fecal pollution. In this study, the Bay of İzmir (in the eastern Aegean Sea), which is a critical area because of its relationship with marine transportation and industrial and commercial activities, was evaluated for its microbiological and physicochemical parameters through a monitoring program. The data were obtained from seasonally assembled surface seawater samples from 2015 to 2017 at 23 sampling stations...
August 29, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859699/method-modification-for-the-atlas-listeria-environmental-le-detection-assay-using-foodchek-actero-listeria-enrichment-media-and-half-fraser-media-for-the-detection-of-listeria-spp-from-environmental-surfaces
#20
Brett Maroni, Tucker Lopez, Cambria Neal, Sarah Verver, Celina Puente, Jannelle Lauffer, Joseph Garcia, Bettina Groschel, Erin Dreyling, W Evan Chaney, Ben Bastin, Patrick Bird, M Joseph Benzinger, James Agin, David Goins, Upasana Hariram, Yi Chen, Elliot Ryser, Michael Brodsky
Two candidate method modifications for the Atlas Listeria Environmental LE Detection Assay were compared with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)-Food Safety and Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook 8.09 (MLG 8.09) method for detection of Listeria spp. on stainless steel, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and sealed concrete surfaces. For LE candidate method 1, samples were enriched in FoodChek Actero Listeria Enrichment Media [ALEM; Performance Tested Method(SM) (PTM) 111201] at 35 ± 2°C for 18 to 24 h and evaluated for a range of analytical sample volumes...
August 31, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
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