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environmental microbiology

Brian J Smith, Kristin E Killoran, Jiajie J Xu, Jessica D Ayers, Lon V Kendall
Prions are proteinaceous infectious agents that are highly resistant to denaturation. Sterilization of prion-contaminated mouse cages requires chemical agents and increased autoclave temperatures that damage traditional cages, thus increasing facility costs. Disposable cages are a possible alternative that might decrease replacement costs without compromising the environment of the mice. We compared our standard protocol of changing traditional cages and bedding once every 2 wk to an experimental protocol using disposable cages in which only the bedding was changed once every 2 wk over an 8-wk period...
May 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
Uwe Druege, Philipp Franken
Adventitious root formation in cuttings and establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis reflect the enormous plasticity of plants and are key factors in the efficient and sustainable clonal propagation and production of ornamental crops. Based on the high importance of Petunia hybrida for the European and US annual bedding plant markets and its suitability as a model for basic plant sciences, petunia has been established as an experimental system for elucidating the molecular and physiological processes underlying adventitious root formation and mycorrhizal symbiosis...
May 17, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Rafael Laso-Pérez, Viola Krukenberg, Florin Musat, Gunter Wegener
Traditionally, the description of microorganisms starts with their isolation from an environmental sample. Many environmentally relevant anaerobic microorganisms grow very slowly, and often they rely on syntrophic interactions with other microorganisms. This impedes their isolation and characterization by classic microbiological techniques. We developed and applied an approach for the successive enrichment of syntrophic hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms from environmental samples. We collected samples from microbial mat-covered hydrothermally heated hydrocarbon-rich sediments of the Guaymas Basin and mixed them with synthetic mineral medium to obtain sediment slurries...
June 2018: Nature Protocols
Z Z Hossain, J Ferdous, S M Tulsiani, P M Jensen, A Begum
The devastating diarrheal disease cholera is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Nucleic acid extraction is the primary step for several molecular detection approaches. In order to identify the sources of cholera illness, an efficient, fast and easy DNA extraction method for toxigenic Vibrio cholerae is desired which can be applied on diverse type of samples. This methodology developmental setup study was performed in the Environmental Microbiology Lab, Department of Microbiology, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh from March 2015 to May 2015 attempted to compare three DNA extraction methods for efficient detection and quantification of Vibrio cholerae...
April 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Claudia Pala, Massimiliano Molari, Daniele Nizzoli, Marco Bartoli, Pierluigi Viaroli, Elena Manini
The environmental factors controlling the abundance of Bacteria and Archaea in lagoon ecosystems are poorly understood. Here, an integrated physico-chemical, biogeochemical, and microbiological survey was applied in the Sacca di Goro lagoon (Po River Delta, Italy) to investigate the variation of bacterial and archaeal abundance, as assessed by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization, along winter and summer environmental gradients. We hypothesised that bacterial and archaeal cells respond differentially to physico-chemical parameters of the sediment, which can be manifested in variations of total cells number...
May 15, 2018: Current Microbiology
Esmaeil Mortaz, Milad Moloudizargari, Mohammad Varahram, Mehrnaz Movassaghi, Johan Garssen, Mehdi Kazempour Dizagie, Mehdi Mirsaeidi, Ian M Adcock
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are categorized as one of the large and diverse groups of environmental organisms which are abundant in water and soil.  NTM cause a variety of diseases in humans that mainly affect the lung. A predisposition to pulmonary NTM is evident in patients with parenchymal structural diseases including bronchiectasis, emphysema, tuberculosis (TB), cystic fibrosis (CF), rheumatologic lung diseases and other chronic diseases with pulmonary manifestations. Lung infections are not the only consequences of being infected by NTM as they can also infect skin and soft tissue and may also cause lymphadenitis (predominantly in young children) and disseminated disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients or those with severely compromised immune system...
April 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
Yujiao Sun, Shangwei Xu, Danyang Zheng, Jie Li, Hezhong Tian, Yong Wang
In this study, particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameters of ≤2.5 and ≤10 μm (PM2.5 and PM10 , respectively), which was found at different concentrations in spring, was collected in Beijing. The chemical composition and bacterial community diversity of PM were determined, and the relationship between them was studied by 16S rRNA sequencing and mathematical statistics. Chemical composition analysis revealed greater relative percentages of total organic compounds (TOC) and secondary ions (NO3 - , SO4 2- , and NH4 + )...
May 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Bruna Carla Agustini, Gildo Almeida da Silva, Tania Maria Bordin Bonfim
The study of grape microflora is of interest when autochthonous yeasts, which are related to typical wine characteristics, are intended to be used in winemaking. The election of matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) as the first method for yeast identification was based on its accuracy and rapidity compared to alternative laboratory protocols for identification. The aims of this study are to consolidate the MALDI-TOF MS Supplementary database for environmental yeasts already constructed, to expand it through the addition of standard spectra of not included yeast species, and to discuss the grape microflora encountered in Southern Brazil...
May 11, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Kenneth Timmis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Dipendra Thapaliya, Jhalka Kadariya, Mike Capuano, Haleigh Rush, Clair Yee, Mark Oet, Sapana Lohani, Tara C Smith
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is a major public health concern due to the emergence of virulent and drug resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Although numerous studies have been conducted to assess the environmental contamination of S. aureus in health-care and household settings, little is known about the prevalence and epidemiology of S. aureus, including MRSA, on environmental surfaces of children's playgrounds. This study investigated the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of S...
May 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Cristina Dorador, Patrick Fink, Martha Hengst, Gonzalo Icaza, Alvaro S Villalobos, Drina Vejar, Daniela Meneses, Vinko Zadjelovic, Lisa Burmann, Jana Moelzner, Chris Harrod
The geological, hydrological and microbiological features of the Salar de Atacama, the most extensive evaporitic sedimentary basin in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, have been extensively studied. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to the composition and roles of microbial communities in hypersaline lakes which are a unique feature in the Salar. In the present study biochemical, chemical and molecular biological tools were used to determine the composition and roles of microbial communities in water, microbial mats and sediments along a marked salinity gradient in Laguna Puilar which is located in the "Los Flamencos" National Reserve...
May 9, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Sergio Gutiérrez-Alfaro, Juan J Rueda-Márquez, José A Perales, Manuel A Manzano
Solar disinfection (SODIS) of urban wastewater can be a suitable technology for improving the microbiological quality of reclaimed water as a complement to other extensive and environmentally friendly technologies such as microalgae biotreatment. The objective of this work is to evaluate the feasibility of incorporating the SODIS technology at the end of a pilot scale urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) where the processes are based on microalgae biotechnology and comprising three Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB, 20m3 each one) reactor, six High Rate Algal Ponds (HRAP, 32m2 each one), and a Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF, 1m3 ) unit...
April 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Emanuela Vittoria, Raffaella Campana, Rita Pugliese, Luigia Sabatini, Diego Pugliè, Wally Baffone
The risks associated with the preparation of galenic products prepared at a local pharmacy have been hypothesized and evaluated, also carrying out a microbiological environmental monitoring of the used surfaces. Three possible situations risk were evaluated: the first one related to the physical separation of the production phases (medium risk of occurrence), the second to the failure to restore hygienic conditions in the transition from different formulations (high risk of occurrence), the third to contamination caused by the operator itself (unacceptable risk of occurrence)...
January 2018: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
Mike S M Jetten
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 6, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Pierluigi Polese, Manuela Del Torre, Mara Lucia Stecchini
The use of predictive modelling tools, which mainly describe the response of microorganisms to a particular set of environmental conditions, may contribute to a better understanding of microbial behaviour in foods. In this paper, a tertiary model, in the form of a readily available and userfriendly web-based application Praedicere Possumus (PP) is presented with research examples from our laboratories. Through the PP application, users have access to different modules, which apply a set of published models considered reliable for determining the compliance of a food product with EU safety criteria and for optimising processing throughout the identification of critical control points...
March 31, 2018: Italian Journal of Food Safety
Junlin Wen, Daigui He, Zhen Yu, Shungui Zhou
C-type cytochromes (c-cyts) facilitate microbial extracellular electron transfer and play critical roles in biogeochemical cycling, bioelectricity generation and bioremediation. In this study, a simple and effective method has been developed to detect microbial c-cyts by means of peroxidase mimetic reaction on screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE). To this end, bacteria cells were immobilized onto the working electrode surface of SPCE by a simple drop casting. After introducing 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) solution, microbial c-cyts with peroxidase-like activity catalyze the oxidation of TMB in the presence of hydrogen peroxide...
April 22, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
João Amorim, Miguel Fernandes, Isabel Abreu, Fernando Tavares, Luis Oliva-Teles
Traditional physico-chemical sensors are becoming an obsolete tool for environmental quality assessment. Biomonitoring techniques, such as biological early warning systems present the advantage of being sensitivity, fast, non-invasive and ecologically relevant. In this work, we applied a video tracking system, developed with zebrafish (Danio rerio), to detect microbiological contamination in water. Using the fishs' behavior response, the system was able to detect the presence of a non-pathogenic environmental strain of Escherichia coli, at three different levels of contamination: 600, 1800 and 5000 CFU/100 mL (colony forming units/100 mL)...
May 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Vittorio Boscaro, Luciana F Santoferrara, Qianqian Zhang, Eleni Gentekaki, Mitchell J Syberg-Olsen, Javier Del Campo, Patrick J Keeling
High-throughput sequencing (HTS) surveys, among the most common approaches currently used in environmental microbiology, require reliable reference databases to be correctly interpreted. The EukRef Initiative ( is a community effort to manually screen available small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences and produce a public, high-quality, and informative framework of phylogeny-based taxonomic annotations. In the context of EukRef, we present a database for the monophyletic phylum Ciliophora, one of the most complex, diverse, and ubiquitous protist groups...
May 4, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Lawrence P Wackett, Serina L Robinson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 4, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Amparo de Benito, Nathalie Gnanou Besse, Isabelle Desforges, Barbara Gerten, Begoña Ruiz, David Tomás
The new version of the ISO standard method for detection of Cronobacter spp. (EN ISO 22964:2017) was validated in the frame of the European Commission Mandate M381 to CEN. Seventeen laboratories from nine countries participated in the interlaboratory studies to determine the performance characteristics of the method. The performance of the method was evaluated using matrices for which the presence of Cronobacter spp. is considered to be of serious concern, such as infant formula and its ingredients and representatives of categories cited in the EC Regulation 2073/2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs for Cronobacter spp...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
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