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environmental microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332176/characteristics-of-petroleum-contaminated-groundwater-during-natural-attenuation-a-case-study-in-northeast-china
#1
Hong Qian, Yuling Zhang, Jiali Wang, Chaoqun Si, Zaixing Chen
The objective of this study was to investigate a petroleum-contaminated groundwater site in northeast China. We determined the physicochemical properties of groundwater that contained total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) with a view to developing a scientifically robust strategy for controlling and remediating pollution of groundwater already contaminated with petroleum. Samples were collected at regular intervals and were analyzed for dissolved oxygen (DO), iron (Fe3+), sulfate (SO42-), electrical conductivity (Eh), pH, hydrogen carbonate (HCO3-), and enzyme activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (HRP), catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (C12O), and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (C23O)...
January 13, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329096/water-contamination-by-endocrine-disruptors-impacts-microbiological-aspects-and-trends-for-environmental-protection
#2
REVIEW
Caren Leite Spindola Vilela, João Paulo Bassin, Raquel Silva Peixoto
Hormone active agents constitute a dangerous class of pollutants. Among them, those agents that mimic the action of estrogens on target cells and are part of the group of endocrine-disruptor compounds (EDCs) are termed estrogenic EDCs, the main focus of this review. Exposure to these compounds causes a number of negative effects, including breast cancer, infertility and animal hermaphroditism. However, especially in underdeveloped countries, limited efforts have been made to warn people about this serious issue, explain the methods of minimizing exposure, and develop feasible and efficient mitigation strategies at different levels and in various environments...
January 9, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322680/microbial-chemotaxis-in-the-environment-an-annotated-selection-of-world-wide-web-sites-relevant-to-the-topics-in-environmental-microbiology
#3
Lawrence P Wackett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317899/outbreak-of-clonal-complex-22-panton-valentine-leucocidin-positive-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#4
Mark I Garvey, Craig W Bradley, Kerry L Holden, Beryl Oppenheim
Aims: We describe the investigation and control of a nosocomial outbreak of Sequence Type (ST) 22 MRSA containing the Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) toxin in an acute multispecialty surgical ward at University Hospital Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust. Methods: A patient was classed as acquiring methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) if they had a negative admission screen and then had MRSA isolated from a subsequent screen or clinical specimen. Spa typing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was undertaken to confirm MRSA acquisitions...
September 2017: Journal of Infection Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313864/trend-of-mdr-microorganisms-isolated-from-the-biological-samples-of-patients-with-hai-and-from-the-surfaces-around-that-patient
#5
Vincenza La Fauci, Gaetano Bruno Costa, Adriana Arena, Elvira Ventura Spagnolo, Cristina Genovese, Maria Angela Palamara, Raffaele Squeri
Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) continue to be a major public health concern. A number of epidemiologically relevant HAI microorganisms are multidrug-resistant (MDR) germs that can spread rapidly and/or carry multiple resistance to antibiotics. They are the cause of high mortality and possible nosocomial epidemics. For this reason, we implemented microbiological surveillance acquiring samples from patients with HAI and environmental samples from the surfaces surrounding those patients. A retrospective study was carried out from January 2014 to December 2016 in two departments of the University Hospital in Messina, Italy: the Microbiology and the Hygiene Laboratories...
January 9, 2018: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305724/tools-for-monitoring-aquatic-environments-to-identify-anthropic-effects
#6
Monyque Palagano da Rocha, Priscila Leocadia Rosa Dourado, Claudia Andrea Lima Cardoso, Liliam Silva Cândido, Joelson Gonçalves Pereira, Kelly Mari Pires de Oliveira, Alexeia Barufatti Grisolia
Anthropic activities are directly related to the contamination of aquatic ecosystems owing to the release of numerous chemicals from agricultural and urban waste. These contaminants cause environmental degradation and a decrease in the availability of water quality. The objective of this search was to evaluate the efficiency of physicochemical, chemical, and microbiological tests; extraction of chlorophyll a; and genetic parameters to identify anthropic activities and weather condition effects on the stream water quality and the consequences of its use by the population...
January 5, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291459/autochthonous-facility-specific-microbiota-dominates-washed-rind-austrian-hard-cheese-surfaces-and-its-production-environment
#7
Narciso M Quijada, Evelyne Mann, Martin Wagner, David Rodríguez-Lázaro, Marta Hernández, Stephan Schmitz-Esser
Cheese ripening involves the succession of complex microbial communities that are responsible for the organoleptic properties of the final products. The food processing environment can act as a source of natural microbial inoculation, especially in traditionally manufactured products. Austrian Vorarlberger Bergkäse (VB) is an artisanal washed-rind hard cheese produced in the western part of Austria without the addition of external ripening cultures. Here, the composition of the bacterial communities present on VB rinds and on different processing surfaces from two ripening cellars was assessed by near full length 16S rRNA gene amplification, cloning and sequencing...
December 28, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287211/chemical-and-microbiological-evaluation-of-novel-chemical-treatment-methods-for-acid-sulfate-soils
#8
Eva Högfors-Rönnholm, Stephan Christel, Krister Dalhem, Tom Lillhonga, Sten Engblom, Peter Österholm, Mark Dopson
Naturally occurring sulfide rich deposits are common along the northern Baltic Sea coast that when exposed to air, release large amounts of acid and metals into receiving water bodies. This causes severe environmental implications for agriculture, forestry, and building of infrastructure. In this study, we investigated the efficiency of ultrafine-grained calcium carbonate and peat (both separately and in combination) to mitigate acid and metal release. The experiments were carried out aerobically that mimicked summer conditions when the groundwater level is low and acid sulfate soils are exposed to oxygen, and anaerobically that is similar to autumn to spring conditions...
December 26, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283878/occupational-cns-aspergillosis-in-an-immunocompetent-individual-a-diagnostic-challange
#9
Parul Punia, Nidhi Goel, Ishwar Singh, Uma Chaudhary
INTRODUCTION: Immunocompetent individuals are rarely affected by Aspergillus species and its prime importance lies in immunocompromised patients where it can cause disease, ranging from primarily pulmonary infections to dissemination anywhere in the body. Invasive aspergillosis (IA) occurs in patients with risk factors including prolonged neutropenia, neutrophil dysfunction, patient on cytotoxic drugs, steroid therapy, hematological malignancy, AIDS or in patients with bone marrow transplantation...
December 28, 2017: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283367/surveillance-of-environmental-and-procedural-measures-of-infection-control-in-the-operating-theatre-setting
#10
Laura Dallolio, Alessandra Raggi, Tiziana Sanna, Magda Mazzetti, Alessandra Orsi, Angela Zanni, Patrizia Farruggia, Erica Leoni
The microbiological contamination of operating theatres and the lack of adherence to best practices by surgical staff represent some of the factors affecting Surgical Site Infections (SSIs). The aim of the present study was to assess the microbiological quality of operating settings and the staff compliance to the SSI evidence-based control measures. Ten operating rooms were examined for microbiological contamination of air and surfaces, after cleaning procedures, in "at rest" conditions. Furthermore, 10 surgical operations were monitored to assess staff compliance to the recommended practices...
December 28, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247368/n-acyl-homoserine-lactones-and-autoinducer-2-mediated-quorum-sensing-during-wastewater-treatment
#11
REVIEW
Han Chen, Ang Li, Di Cui, Qiao Wang, Dan Wu, Chongwei Cui, Fang Ma
Bacteria can coordinate and synchronize activities through a cell density-dependent regulatory mechanism called quorum sensing (QS). Bacteria can measure their population by the synthesis, secretion, and perception of QS signal molecules to regulate specific gene expression when the population reaches a critical threshold. QS participates in various microbial processes such as marine organism bioluminescence, bacterial biofilm formation, and virulence factor expression. The use of QS systems mediated by N-acyl-homoserine lactones and autoinducer-2 has been recently recognized as a promising regulatory approach in environmental science and technology that can intrinsically promote the profound comprehension of wastewater treatment from a microbiology perspective...
December 16, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239769/modelling-the-kinetic-response-to-nutrient-fluctuations
#12
Marco Fondi
Understanding and predicting how microbes respond to environmental fluctuations is a central challenge in present-day microbiology. Erickson et al. have proposed a quantitative and (kinetic) parameters-free model of Escherichia coli growth that successfully anticipates changes in gene expression and biomass accumulation in response to nutrients up- and down-shifts.
November 24, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230200/from-genes-to-ecosystems-in-microbiology-modeling-approaches-and-the-importance-of-individuality
#13
REVIEW
Jan-Ulrich Kreft, Caroline M Plugge, Clara Prats, Johan H J Leveau, Weiwen Zhang, Ferdi L Hellweger
Models are important tools in microbial ecology. They can be used to advance understanding by helping to interpret observations and test hypotheses, and to predict the effects of ecosystem management actions or a different climate. Over the past decades, biological knowledge and ecosystem observations have advanced to the molecular and in particular gene level. However, microbial ecology models have changed less and a current challenge is to make them utilize the knowledge and observations at the genetic level...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228194/microbial-carbon-dioxide-fixation-new-tricks-for-an-old-game
#14
Paola Branduardi, Michael Sauer
The exploitation of petroleum as energy and material source opened unprecedented possibilities for the development of our human societies, but only now we realize that the use of fossil resources comes at devastatingly high environmental costs. Consequently, our efforts to tap other carbon sources are steadily increasing. Industrial microbiology has the potential to use carbon dioxide directly as carbon source, thereby converting a foe into a friend. This thematic issue of FEMS Microbiology Letters sheds some light on recent developments for the understanding of microbial pathways for carbon dioxide fixation and on strategies for their industrial exploitation...
December 6, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223812/could-saponins-be-used-to-enhance-bioremediation-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-aged-contaminated-soils
#15
Marie Davin, Amandine Starren, Magali Deleu, Georges Lognay, Gilles Colinet, Marie-Laure Fauconnier
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are persistent organic compounds of major concern that tend to accumulate in the environment, threatening ecosystems and health. Brownfields represent an important tank for PAHs and require remediation. Researches to develop bioremediation and phytoremediation techniques are being conducted as alternatives to environmentally aggressive, expensive and often disruptive soil remediation strategies. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the potential of saponins (natural surfactants) as extracting agents and as bioremediation enhancers on an aged-contaminated soil...
December 1, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220341/auditing-safety-of-compounding-and-reconstituting-of-intravenous-medicines-on-hospital-wards-in-finland
#16
Eeva Suvikas-Peltonen, Joni Palmgren, Verner Häggman, Ercan Celikkayalar, Raija Manninen, Marja Airaksinen
On the hospital wards in Finland, nurses generally reconstitute intravenous medicines, such as antibiotics, analgesics, and antiemetics prescribed by doctors. Medicine reconstitution is prone to many errors. Therefore, it is important to identify incorrect practices in the reconstitution of medicine to improve patient safety in hospitals. The aim of this study was to audit the compounding and reconstituting of intravenous medicines on hospital wards in a secondary-care hospital in Finland by using an assessment tool and microbiological testing for identifying issues posing patient safety risks...
November 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215770/molecular-ecology-of-listeria-spp-salmonella-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-and-non-o157-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-in-pristine-natural-environments-in-northern-colorado
#17
Christina A Ahlstrom, Clyde S Manuel, Henk C Den Bakker, Martin Wiedmann, Kendra K Nightingale
AIMS: Molecular subtyping is commonly used in foodborne disease surveillance and microbial source tracking. There is a knowledge gap regarding the molecular ecology of foodborne pathogens in non-food associated environments. The objective of this study was to isolate and subtype foodborne pathogens from pristine natural environments with minimal anthropogenic inputs. MATERIALS AND RESULTS: Five locations (wilderness areas) in Northern Colorado were sampled during the spring, summer, and fall over a two-year period...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208562/microbiological-factors-affecting-clostridium-difficile-recurrence
#18
REVIEW
C H Chilton, D S Pickering, J Freeman
BACKGROUND: Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) places a huge economic and practical burden on healthcare facilities. Furthermore, rCDI may impact quality of life, leaving patients in a 'rCDI cycle', and dependant on antibiotic therapy. AIMS: This article discusses the importance of microbiological factors in the development of rCDI. SOURCES: Literature was drawn from a search of PubMed from 2000 onwards with the search term "recurrent Clostridium difficile infection"; and further references quoted within these articles...
December 2, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207709/isolation-of-the-rare-opportunistic-yeast-saprochaete-capitata-from-clinical-samples-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-southern-india-and-a-brief-review-of-the-literature
#19
Umabala Pamidimukkala, Anuradha Kancharla, Sukanya Sudhaharan, Sadashivudu Gundeti, Surendra Mandarapu, Vamsi Krishna Nagalla, Sree Bhushan Raju, Sandhya Devi Karanam
Introduction: Saprochaete capitata (Teleomorph: Magnusiomyces capitatus) is a ubiquitous yeast found in environmental sources such as soil, water, air, plants and dairy products. It is also a part of the normal microbial flora in humans. The yeast is being increasingly reported as an opportunistic pathogen, especially in patients in the haemato-oncology setting, the infection being often mistakenly diagnosed as invasive candidiasis. Aim: To review the epidemiological, clinical and microbiological features of six patients admitted in our hospital over a period of 10 years (from January 2007 to December 2016), from whom Saprochaete capitata was isolated...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200397/-importance-of-intestinal-paleomicrobiome-study-for-contemporaneous-medical-problematics
#20
Philippe Charlier, Anaïs Augias, Philippe Sansonetti, Céline Bon, Sean Kennedy, Laure Segurel
Human gut microbiome composition and diversity increasingly appear as a reliable marker of human evolution within his environment, and of health and its alteration (concept of dysbiosis); as a matter of fact, it can be considered as a strong marker of the disease status of individuals. Thus, in retrospect, the capacity to profile the gut microbiome would offer a great opportunity to identify individual and societal changes to which ancient populations were exposed. A global and diachronic view of the gut microbiome evolution is necessary in order to highlight the potential role of environmental factors or human habits in this process...
November 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
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