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operational tolerance

Zheyi Liew, Santosh Mallikarjuna, Asif Hasan, F Kate Gould, Su Bunn, Matthew F Thomas, Jim L Lordan, Christopher O'Brien, Malcolm Brodlie
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis lung disease is generally a diffuse process however rarely one lung may become particularly damaged through chronic collapse and consolidation resulting in end-stage bronchiectasis with relative sparing of the contralateral lung. This clinical situation is sometimes referred to as "destroyed lung". Lung resection surgery is seldom indicated in cystic fibrosis and the associated medical literature is relatively sparse. CASE PRESENTATION: A 14 year old boy was referred to our centre for lung transplantation assessment...
January 13, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Alexandra Schischko, Hongjun Ren, Nikolaos Kaplaneris, Lutz Ackermann
Methods for the chemoselective modification of amino acids and peptides are powerful techniques in biomolecular chemistry. Among other applications, they enable the total synthesis of artificial peptides. In recent years, significant momentum has been gained by exploiting palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling for peptide modification. Despite major advances, the prefunctionalization elements on the coupling partners translate into undesired byproduct formation and lengthy synthetic operations. In sharp contrast, we herein illustrate the unprecedented use of versatile ruthenium(II)carboxylate catalysis for the step-economical late-stage diversification of α- and β-amino acids, as well as peptides, through chemo-selective C-H arylation under racemization-free reaction conditions...
January 11, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Rishikesh Pandey, Santosh Kumar Paidi, Tulio A Valdez, Chi Zhang, Nicolas Spegazzini, Ramachandra Rao Dasari, Ishan Barman
The successful development of a noninvasive blood glucose sensor that can operate reliably over sustained periods of time has been a much sought after but elusive goal in diabetes management. Since diabetes has no well-established cure, control of elevated glucose levels is critical for avoiding severe secondary health complications in multiple organs including the retina, kidney and vasculature. While fingerstick testing continues to be the mainstay of blood glucose detection, advances in electrochemical sensing-based minimally invasive approaches have opened the door for alternate methods that would considerably improve the quality of life for people with diabetes...
January 10, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
Jennifer E Flythe, Finnian R Mc Causland
Oligo-anuric individuals receiving hemodialysis (HD) are dependent on the dialysis machine to regulate sodium and water balance. Interest in adjusting the dialysate sodium concentration to promote tolerance of the HD procedure dates back to the early years of dialysis therapy. Evolution of dialysis equipment technologies and clinical characteristics of the dialysis population have prompted clinicians to increase the dialysate sodium concentration over time. Higher dialysate sodium concentrations generally promote hemodynamic stabilization and reduce intradialytic symptoms but often do so at the expense of stimulating thirst and promoting volume expansion...
January 8, 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
Jing Zhao, Yu-Chen Fan, Long-Yan Chen, Shuai Gao, Feng Li, Kai Wang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Epigenetics contributes to the outcome of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, the role of methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) family in the natural history of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) has not been demonstrated. It is aimed to investigate the dynamic expression of MBD family and assess the potential association of MBD family in the progression of CHB. METHODS: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to determine the mRNA levels of MBD family in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 223 patients with CHB as training cohort, 146 patients with CHB as validation cohort [immune-tolerant (IT), immune clearance (IC), non/low-replicative (LR) and HBeAg negative hepatitis (ENH)], and 14 healthy controls (HCs)...
January 5, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
Daiki Suzuki, Koudai Harako, Toshihiko Hirooka, Masataka Nakazawa
We present a single-channel 5.12 Tbit/s polarization-multiplexed DQPSK transmission over 300 km at 1.28 Tbaud using a non-coherent Nyquist pulse. An ultrafast OTDM demultiplexer for 1.28 Tbaud Nyquist pulses was newly developed with a mode-locked fiber laser operating in the L band as a control pulse source. Thanks to the high PMD tolerance of Nyquist pulses, a 300 km transmission was successfully demonstrated for the first time at such a high symbol rate.
December 26, 2016: Optics Express
Leire Méndez-Giménez, Sara Becerril, Rafael Moncada, Víctor Valentí, Secundino Fernández, Beatriz Ramírez, Victoria Catalán, Javier Gómez-Ambrosi, Graça Soveral, María M Malagón, Carlos Diéguez, Amaia Rodríguez, Gema Frühbeck
BACKGROUND: Gastric plication is a minimally invasive bariatric surgical procedure, where the greater curvature is plicated inside the gastric lumen. Our aims were to analyze the effectiveness of gastric plication on the resolution of obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, and fatty liver in an experimental model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) and to evaluate changes in glycerol metabolism, a key substrate for adiposity and gluconeogenesis, in adipose tissue and the liver. METHODS: Male Wistar DIO rats (n = 58) were subjected to surgical (sham operation and gastric plication) or dietary interventions [fed a normal diet (ND) or high-fat diet (HFD) or pair-fed to the amount of food eaten by gastric-plicated animals]...
January 4, 2017: Obesity Surgery
Manabu Futamura, Yasuko Nagao, Kazuhiro Ishihara, Makoto Takeuchi, Takumi Nakada, Yoshihiro Kawaguchi, Masayoshi Asano, Iwao Kumazawa, Takashi Shiroko, Kasumi Morimitsu, Ryutaro Mori, Masahito Nawa, Toshio Shimokawa, Kazuhiro Yoshida
BACKGROUND: Recently, the use of taxane-based regimens before anthracycline-based regimens has been shown to achieve high pathological complete response (pCR) rates in patients with breast cancer. Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-PTX) has been reported as highly effective and less toxic compared with Cremophor-based Taxol. This phase II clinical trial evaluated the safety and efficacy of preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) with nab-PTX followed by an epirubicin plus cyclophosphamide (EC)-based regimen for operable breast cancer...
January 3, 2017: Breast Cancer: the Journal of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society
Asmita Anilkumar Mehta, Naveen Viswanathan, Anil Kumar Vasudevan, Roopa Paulose, Mohan Abraham
INTRODUCTION: Congenital Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation (CCAM) is an uncommon developmental deformity affecting the terminal respiratory structures. It is characterized by broncho pulmonary foregut malformations. The reason behind it is an arrest in lung development between 4(th) and 7(th) week of fetal life. AIM: The present study was conducted to assess the clinical and radiological profile and also to study the role of surgical intervention in patients with CCAM...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Serge-Brice Assi, Yapo Thomas Aba, Jean Claude Yavo, Abouo Franklin Nguessan, N'cho Bertin Tchiekoi, Koffi Moïse San, Emmanuel Bissagnéné, Stephan Duparc, Valérie Lameyre, Mea Antoine Tanoh
BACKGROUND: In many malaria-endemic, sub-Saharan African countries, existing pharmacovigilance systems are not sufficiently operational to document reliably the safety profile of anti-malarial drugs. This study describes the implantation of a community-based pharmacovigilance system in Côte d'Ivoire and its use to document the safety of ASAQ Winthrop(®) (artesunate-amodiaquine). METHODS: This prospective, longitudinal, descriptive, non-comparative, non-interventional study on the use of artesunate-amodiaquine in real-life conditions of use was conducted in seven Community Health Centres of the Agboville district in Côte d'Ivoire...
January 3, 2017: Malaria Journal
D DiCostanzo, A Ayan, J Woollard, N Gupta
PURPOSE: To automate the daily verification of each patient's treatment by utilizing the trajectory log files (TLs) written by the Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator while reducing the number of false positives including jaw and gantry positioning errors, that are displayed in the Treatment History tab of Varian's Chart QA module. METHODS: Small deviations in treatment parameters are difficult to detect in weekly chart checks, but may be significant in reducing delivery errors, and would be critical if detected daily...
June 2016: Medical Physics
A K Liang, M Koniczek, L E Antonuk, Y El-Mohri, Q Zhao
PURPOSE: Photon counting arrays (PCAs) offer several advantages over conventional, fluence-integrating x-ray imagers, such as improved contrast by means of energy windowing. For that reason, we are exploring the feasibility and performance of PCA pixel circuitry based on polycrystalline silicon. This material, unlike the crystalline silicon commonly used in photon counting detectors, lends itself toward the economic manufacture of radiation tolerant, monolithic large area (e.g., ∼43×43 cm2) devices...
June 2016: Medical Physics
L Court, D Brown, H Wang, B Maddox, D Aten, H MacGregor, P Chi, A Yock, S Gao, M Aristophanous, P Balter
PURPOSE: To develop and test clear illustrated instructions for training of monthly mechanical QA of medical linear accelerators. METHODS: Illustrated instructions were created for monthly mechanical QA with tolerance tabulated, and underwent several steps of review and refinement. Testers with zero QA experience were then recruited from our radiotherapy department (1 student, 2 computational scientists and 8 dosimetrists). The following parameters were progressively de-calibrated on a Varian C-series linac: Group A = gantry angle, ceiling laser position, X1 jaw position, couch longitudinal position, physical graticule position (5 testers); Group B = Group A + wall laser position, couch lateral and vertical position, collimator angle (3 testers); Group C = Group B + couch angle, wall laser angle, and optical distance indicator (3 testers)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
B Cai, B Sun, S Yaddanapudi, S Goddu, H Li, D Caruthers, J Kavanaugh, S Mutic
PURPOSE: To describe the clinical use of a Linear Accelerator (Linac) DailyQA system with only EPID and OBI. To assess the reliability over an 18-month period and improve the robustness of this system based on QA failure analysis. METHODS: A DailyQA solution utilizing an in-house designed phantom, combined EPID and OBI image acquisitions, and a web-based data analysis and reporting system was commissioned and used in our clinic to measure geometric, dosimetry and imaging components of a Varian Truebeam Linac...
June 2016: Medical Physics
S Herchko, G Ding
PURPOSE: To develop an accurate, straightforward, and user-independent method for performing light versus radiation field coincidence quality assurance utilizing EPID images, a simple phantom made of readily-accessible materials, and a free software program. METHODS: A simple phantom consisting of a blocking tray, graph paper, and high-density wire was constructed. The phantom was used to accurately set the size of a desired light field and imaged on the electronic portal imaging device (EPID)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
K Dou, M Jacobs, B Laser, M Safaraz, J Rodgers
PURPOSE: To conduct a feasibility study on retrospective respiratory gating and marker tracking for lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) with a gated RapidArc delivery using a 6MV flattened filter free photon mode. METHODS: A CIRS dynamic thorax phantom Model 008A with different inserts was used for treatment planning and respiratory gating. 4D CT had a free breathing simulation followed by a respiration gated, ten phased CT using a Philips Brilliance CT with a Varian RPM respiratory gating system...
June 2016: Medical Physics
Guo-Lin Gao, Chao Yang, Wujiong Xia
The protocol presented here is a new strategy for visible light induced C-H trifluoromethylation at C4 of benzimidazoles using Togni's reagent in the presence of fac-Ir(ppy)3. Its advantages are its operational simplicity, mild reaction conditions, low catalyst loading and wide substrate scope in which electron-withdrawing, electron-donating groups and different protecting groups are tolerated.
January 3, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Yu Miao, Xuechao Guo, Wei Jiang, Xu-Xiang Zhang, Bing Wu
Five lab-scale membrane bioreactors (MBRs) were continuously operated to investigate the mechanisms and linkages of the microbial community and membrane fouling with trivalent metal cations (Fe(III) and Al(III)) and bivalent metal cations (Ca(II) and Mg(II)) shock loads. COD and NH4(+)-N removals showed recovery trends along with treatment process in the presence of metals. Trivalent metal cations reduced trans-membrane pressure (TMP) as well as fouling rate (dTMP/dt) and extended membrane module replacement period by binding activated sludge extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) and effluent soluble microbial product (SMP) productions...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Alfonso Galderisi, Sabrina Brigadoi, Simone Cutini, Sara Basso Moro, Elisabetta Lolli, Federica Meconi, Silvia Benavides-Varela, Eugenio Baraldi, Piero Amodio, Claudio Cobelli, Daniele Trevisanuto, Roberto Dell'Acqua
Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) has recently proved useful for detecting whole-brain oxygenation changes in preterm and term newborns' brains. The data recording phase in prior explorations was limited up to a maximum of a couple of hours, a time dictated by the need to minimize skin damage caused by the protracted contact with optode holders and interference with concomitant clinical/nursing procedures. In an attempt to extend the data recording phase, we developed a new custom-made cap for multimodal DOT and electroencephalography acquisitions for the neonatal population...
October 2016: Neurophotonics
Ojin Kwon, Pilkee Kim, Yong-Jin Yoon
Smart grids have been introduced to replace conventional power distribution systems without real time monitoring for accommodating the future market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). When a large number of PEVs require simultaneous battery charging, charging coordination techniques have become one of the most critical factors to optimize the PEV charging performance and the conventional distribution system. In this case, considerable computational complexity of a central controller and exchange of real time information among PEVs may occur...
December 26, 2016: Sensors
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