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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666707/realm-of-thermoalkaline-lipases-in-bioprocess-commodities
#1
REVIEW
Ahmad Firdaus B Lajis
For decades, microbial lipases are notably used as biocatalysts and efficiently catalyze various processes in many important industries. Biocatalysts are less corrosive to industrial equipment and due to their substrate specificity and regioselectivity they produced less harmful waste which promotes environmental sustainability. At present, thermostable and alkaline tolerant lipases have gained enormous interest as biocatalyst due to their stability and robustness under high temperature and alkaline environment operation...
2018: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663944/repair-of-a-large-ventral-hernia-in-a-rhesus-macaque-macaca-mulatta-by-using-an-abdominal-component-separation-technique
#2
Steve J Kempton, Jacqueline S Israel, Saverio Capuano Iii, Samuel O Poore
Here we present a 32-y-old rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with a large recurrent ventral incisional hernia. The initial surgery included midline celiotomy for treatment of endometriosis, in which the animal developed a hernia that was repaired with interposition of mesh. Hernia recurrence at 1 y resulted in a defect measuring 7 × 13 cm, with loss of abdominal domain. Skin breakdown was noted with areas of exposed mesh through the skin with associated acute on chronic infection. Clinically, the animal was lethargic, not eating, and failing to thrive...
April 2, 2018: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661774/accuracy-safety-and-reliability-of-novel-phase-i-trial-designs
#3
Heng Zhou, Ying Yuan, Lei Nie
A number of novel model-based and model-assisted designs have been proposed to find the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in phase I clinical trials, but their differences and relative pros and cons are not clear to many practitioners. We review three model-based designs, including the continual reassessment method (CRM), dose escalation with overdose control (EWOC), and Bayesian logistic regression model (BLRM), and three model-assisted designs, including the modified toxicity probability interval (mTPI), Bayesian optimal interval (BOIN), and keyboard designs...
April 16, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659289/copper-catalyzed-synthesis-of-polysubstituted-pyrroles-through-3-1-1-cycloaddition-reaction-of-nitrones-and-isocyanides
#4
Zhuang Tian, Jiaojiao Xu, Bingxin Liu, Qitao Tan, Bin Xu
An efficient, copper-catalyzed [3+1+1] cycloaddition reaction was developed for the expedient synthesis of pharmacologically interesting polysubstituted pyrroles from easily available nitrones and α-acidic isocyanides. The given approach features a new mode of cycloaddition between nitrones and isocyanides with wide substrate scope, good functional group tolerance, and operational simplicity. The operando infrared spectroscopy was used for the characterization of reaction intermediates.
April 16, 2018: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658887/two-qubit-logical-operations-in-three-quantum-dots-system
#5
Jakub Łuczak, Bogdan R Bulka
We consider a model of two interacting always-on, exchange-only qubits for which
 controlled phase (CPHASE), controlled NOT (CNOT),
 quantum Fourier transform (QFT) and SWAP operations can be implemented only in a
 few electrical pulses in a nanosecond time scale. Each qubit is built of
 three quantum dots (TQD) in a triangular geometry with three electron spins which are
 always kept coupled by exchange interactions only.
 The qubit states are encoded in a doublet subspace and are
 fully electrically controlled by a voltage applied to gate
 electrodes...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658678/emergency-surgery-for-bowel-obstruction-in-extremely-aged-patients
#6
Alberto Oldani, Valentina Gentile, Chiara Magaton, Marcello Calabrò, Fabio Maroso, Lidia Ravizzini, Giacomo Deiro, Maurizio Amato, Sergio Gentilli
BACKGROUND: As a result of the increasing of life expectancy, the incidence of pathologies that can lead to operation for bowel obstruction is also increasing. Comorbidities and reduced physiological reserve can decrease elderly patients' ability to tolerate operations especially in an emergency context. We retrospectively evaluated the treatment and outcomes of a cohort of patients aged more than 85 years who underwent emergency surgery for intestinal occlusion. METHODS: 278 patients who were admitted to our Institution and operated for acute bowel obstruction have been included in our study...
April 13, 2018: Minerva Chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658340/a-novel-use-of-cement-as-a-salvage-procedure-in-patients-with-complex-spinal-injuries-with-proximal-junctional-failure
#7
K Divani, S Selvadurai, S Molloy
Long-construct fixations can be complicated by proximal junctional kyphosis. In elderly, high-risk patients with numerous comorbidities, lengthy surgical times and increased blood loss associated with revision osteotomies and extension of fusions are not often tolerated and pose serious life-threatening risks. We present a salvage technique used in a patient with proximal junctional failure and demonstrate its role in improving symptoms and functionality in those not deemed fit for major surgery. Pre- and postoperative pain scores in accordance with the visual analogue scale, walking distances and radiographs were reviewed in a patient who underwent the salvage technique to ascertain the subjective and objective difference in pain and functionality...
April 16, 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656956/ultrasound-assessed-visceral-fat-and-associations-with-glucose-homeostasis-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-clinical-practice
#8
M Bellan, M Menegatti, C Ferrari, G P Carnevale Schianca, M Pirisi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Despite the lack of evidence that assessing the global cardiovascular risk leads to a decreased incidence of cardiovascular events, accurate patient profiling is paramount in preventive medicine. An excess of visceral fat (VF) is associated with an enhanced cardiovascular risk; importantly, VF is quantifiable rapidly, cheaply and safely by ultrasound, which makes it suitable for use in clinical practice. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate if US-measured VF (USVF) could be a better predictor of glucose homeostasis and cardiovascular risk than simple anthropometric measures...
February 2, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655617/novel-treatment-of-papillomatous-conjunctival-lesions-using-pattern-scanning-laser-photocoagulation-1-year-results
#9
R N Belfort, J Isenberg, A G Castillejos, R Sant'ana, A O Romano
PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and 1-year effect of pattern scanning laser photocoagulation treatment for pedunculated papillomatous and sessile conjunctival lesions in a low-resource setting with extremely limited operating room access. METHODS: Adult patients with clinical diagnosis of conjunctival papilloma underwent complete ophthalmologic exam including anterior segment photography. After topical anesthesia and toluidine blue 1% instillation, the lesion was treated by pattern scanning photocoagulation using a duration time that varied from 20 to 100 ms and power from 600 to 1800 mW, treating the entire lesion surface with a 2 mm margin...
April 12, 2018: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652160/photoredox-catalyzed-direct-reductive-amination-of-aldehydes-without-an-external-hydrogen-hydride-source
#10
Rauful Alam, Gary A Molander
The direct reductive amination of aromatic aldehydes has been realized using a photocatalyst under visible light irradiation. The single electron oxidation of an in situ formed aminal species generates the putative α-amino radical that eventually delivers the reductive amination product. This method is operationally simple, highly selective, and functional group tolerant, which allows the direct synthesis of benzylic amines by a unique mechanistic pathway.
April 13, 2018: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650837/-laparoscopic-distal-gastrectomy-for-elderly-patients-with-advanced-gastric-cancer-and-gastric-outlet-obstruction-a-case-report
#11
Kurumi Tsuchihashi, Ken Yuu, Satoshi Okumura, Sho Toyoda, Hiroshi Yasuda, Kansuke Yamamoto, Aya Ito, Naoto Mizumura, Hiroshi Tsuchihashi, Masao Ogawa, Masayasu Kawasaki, Masao Kameyama
A 90-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with a chief complaint of vomiting.Gastroscopy revealed type 3 gastric cancer and gastric outlet obstruction(GOO).Abdominal computed tomography revealed thickening of the antral wall and suggested the presence of 3 perigastric lymph node metastases, but there was no ascitic fluid or distant metastasis.The clinical diagnosis was T4a(SE)N2H0CYXP0M0, Stage III B, according to the Japanese Classification of Gastric Carcinoma.Her general conditions including kidney and cardiac function were good, we considered that she was able to tolerate radical distal gastrectomy...
April 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644947/intracranial-electroencephalographic-monitoring-from-subdural-to-depth-electrodes
#12
Holger Joswig, David A Steven, Andrew G Parrent, Keith W MacDougall, Seyed M Mirsattari, Richard S McLachlan, David C Diosy, Jorge G Burneo
At the London Health Sciences Centre Epilepsy Program, stereotactically implanted depth electrodes have largely replaced subdural electrodes in the presurgical investigation of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy over the past 4 years. The rationale for this paradigm shift was more experience with, and improved surgical techniques for, stereoelectroencephalography, a possible lower-risk profile for depth electrodes, better patient tolerability, shorter operative time, as well as increased recognition of potential surgical targets that are not accessible to subdural electrodes...
April 12, 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644488/brain-ischemic-preconditioning-protects-against-moderate-not-severe-transient-global-cerebral-ischemic-injury
#13
Jae-Chul Lee, Bich-Na Shin, Jeong Hwi Cho, Tae-Kyeong Lee, In Hye Kim, YooHun Noh, Sung-Su Kim, Hyang-Ah Lee, Young-Myeong Kim, Hyeyoung Kim, Jun Hwi Cho, Joon Ha Park, Ji Hyeon Ahn, Il Jun Kang, In Koo Hwang, Moo-Ho Won, Myoung Cheol Shin
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) in the brain increases ischemic tolerance to subsequent ischemic insults. In this study, we examined whether IPC protects neurons and attenuates microgliosis or not in the hippocampus following severe transient global cerebral ischemia (TCI) in gerbils. Gerbils were assigned to 8 groups; 5- and 15-min sham operated groups, 5-min and 15-min TCI operated groups, IPC plus 5- and 15-min sham operated groups, and IPC plus 5- and 15-min TCI operated groups. IPC was induced by subjecting animals to 2-min transient ischemia 1 day before 5-min TCI for a typical transient ischemia and 15-min TCI for severe transient ischemia...
April 12, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643761/capacity-fidelity-and-noise-tolerance-of-associative-spatial-temporal-memories-based-on-memristive-neuromorphic-networks
#14
Dmitri Gavrilov, Dmitri Strukov, Konstantin K Likharev
We have calculated key characteristics of associative (content-addressable) spatial-temporal memories based on neuromorphic networks with restricted connectivity-"CrossNets." Such networks may be naturally implemented in nanoelectronic hardware using hybrid memristive circuits, which may feature extremely high energy efficiency, approaching that of biological cortical circuits, at much higher operation speed. Our numerical simulations, in some cases confirmed by analytical calculations, show that the characteristics depend substantially on the method of information recording into the memory...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642574/an-organic-solvent-tolerant-lipase-with-both-hydrolytic-and-synthetic-activities-from-the-oleaginous-fungus-mortierella-echinosphaera
#15
Alexandra Kotogán, Carolina Zambrano, Anita Kecskeméti, Mónika Varga, András Szekeres, Tamás Papp, Csaba Vágvölgyi, Miklós Takó
Lipase enzymes of the oleaginous fungal group Mortierella are rarely studied. However, considering that most commercial lipases are derived from filamentous fungal sources, their investigation can contribute to the cost-effective development of new biotechnological processes. Here, an extracellular lipase with a molecular mass of 30 kDa was isolated from Mortierella echinosphaera CBS 575.75 and characterized. The purified lipase exhibited an optimal p -nitrophenyl palmitate ( p NPP)-hydrolyzing activity at 25 °C and pH 6...
April 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624768/gnat-toxins-of-bacterial-toxin-antitoxin-systems-acetylation-of-charged-trnas-to-inhibit-translation
#16
Chew Chieng Yeo
GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) is a huge superfamily of proteins spanning the prokaryotic and eukaryotic domains of life. GNAT proteins usually transfer an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to a wide variety of substrates ranging from aminoglycoside antibiotics to large macromolecules. Type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules are typically bicistronic and widespread in bacterial and archael genomes with diverse cellular functions. Recently, a novel family of type II TA toxins was described which presents a GNAT-fold and functions by acetylating charged tRNA thereby precluding translation...
April 6, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624105/safety-and-quality-assessment-of-smallholder-farmers-maize-in-the-western-highlands-of-guatemala
#17
José Rodrigo Mendoza, Ana Rodas, Ana Oliva, Luis Sabillón, Ana Colmenares, Jennifer Clarke, Heather E Hallen-Adams, Carlos Campabadal, Andréia Bianchini
Maize ( Zea mays) is a staple in many developing countries but is known to be prone to pest (insects, birds, and rodents) and fungal infestation. In Guatemala, mycotoxin contamination of cultivated products may occur owing to such factors as environmental conditions and the use of traditional agriculture operations. To assess the current maize conditions in Guatemala, a small-scale study was performed. Mold and insect counts and mycotoxin (aflatoxin and fumonisin) concentrations were determined on 25 farms in two townships (Chiantla and Todos Santos) of the Huehuetenango Department...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623208/a-rare-challenging-case-of-co-existent-craniopharyngioma-acromegaly-and-squamous-cell-lung-cancer
#18
Athanasios Fountas, Shu Teng Chai, John Ayuk, Neil Gittoes, Swarupsinh Chavda, Niki Karavitaki
Co-existence of craniopharyngioma and acromegaly has been very rarely reported. A 65-year-old man presented with visual deterioration, fatigue and frontal headaches. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a suprasellar heterogeneous, mainly cystic, 1.9 × 2 × 1.9 cm mass compressing the optic chiasm and expanding to the third ventricle; the findings were consistent with a craniopharyngioma. Pituitary hormone profile showed hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, mildly elevated prolactin, increased insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and normal thyroid function and cortisol reserve...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622542/one-hour-plasma-glucose-compared-with-2-hour-plasma-glucose-in-relation-to-diabetic-retinopathy-in-american-indians
#19
Ethan Paddock, Helen C Looker, Paolo Piaggi, William C Knowler, Jonathan Krakoff, Douglas C Chang
OBJECTIVE: We compared the ability of 1- and 2-h plasma glucose concentrations (1h-PG and 2h-PG, respectively), derived from a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), to predict retinopathy. 1h-PG and 2h-PG concentrations, measured in a longitudinal study of an American Indian community in the southwestern U.S., a population at high risk for type 2 diabetes, were analyzed to assess the usefulness of the 1h-PG to identify risk of diabetic retinopathy (DR). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional ( n = 2,895) and longitudinal ( n = 1,703) cohorts were assessed for the prevalence and incidence of DR, respectively, in relation to deciles of 1h-PG and 2h-PG concentrations...
April 5, 2018: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622354/perioperative-risk-factors-for-hospital-readmission-after-elective-endovascular-aortic-aneurysm-repair
#20
Samuel L Chen, Isabella J Kuo, Nii-Kabu Kabutey, Fady Gabra, Roy M Fujitani
BACKGROUND: Elective endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is generally well tolerated. However, the incidence of hospital readmission after EVAR and the risk factors and reasons for it are not well studied. This study sought to determine the incidence, to characterize the indications, and to identify perioperative patient-centered risk factors for hospital readmission within 30 days after elective EVAR. METHODS: All patients who underwent EVAR electively in 2012 to 2013 were identified from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Targeted Vascular database (n = 3886)...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
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