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Yuan Li, Haisheng Wang, Fei Pei, Zhi Chen, Lu Zhang
INTRODUCTION: FoxO3a is a member of FoxO transcription factor family that participates in the transcriptional regulation of autophagy. In this study we explored the anti-inflammatory function of FoxO3a-regulated autophagy in inflamed human dental pulp and lipopolysaccharide-treated mDPC6T cells. METHODS: The expression of FoxO3a and autophagy markers in caries and pulpitis from human dental pulp were examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. We conducted in vitro studies by treating mDPC6T cells with lipopolysaccharide for various lengths of time...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Endodontics
Takahiko Niwa, Yasuo Yamakoshi, Hajime Yamazaki, Takeo Karakida, Risako Chiba, Jan C-C Hu, Takatoshi Nagano, Ryuji Yamamoto, James P Simmer, Henry C Margolis, Kazuhiro Gomi
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is critical for cell proliferation and differentiation in dental pulp. Here, we show the dynamic mechanisms of TGF-β in porcine dental pulp, odontoblasts and dentin. The mRNA of latent TGF-β1 and TGF-β3 is predominantly expressed in odontoblasts, whereas the mRNA expression level of latent TGF-β2 is high in dental pulp. TGF-β1 is a major isoform of TGF-β, and latent TGF-β1, synthesized in dental pulp, is primarily activated by matrix metalloproteinase 11 (MMP11)...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anamaria Balic
The tooth is an intricate composition of precisely patterned, mineralized matrices and soft tissues. Mineralized tissues include enamel (produced by the epithelial cells called ameloblasts), dentin and cementum (produced by mesenchymal cells called odontoblasts and cementoblasts, respectively), and soft tissues, which include the dental pulp and the periodontal ligament along with the invading nerves and blood vessels. It was perceived for a very long time that teeth primarily serve an esthetical function. In recent years, however, the role of healthy teeth, as well as the impact of oral health on general well-being, became more evident...
March 13, 2018: Gerontology
Priyam Jani, Chao Liu, Hua Zhang, Khaled Younes, M Douglas Benson, Chunlin Qin
OBJECTIVE: The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play crucial roles in tooth development. However, several BMPs retain expression in the dentin of the fully patterned and differentiated tooth. We hypothesized that BMP signaling therefore plays a role in the function of the differentiated odontoblast, the job of which is to lay down and mineralize the dentin matrix. DESIGN: We generated mice deficient in Bmp2 and 4 using a dentin matrix protein 1 (Dmp1) promoter-driven cre recombinase that was expressed in differentiated odontoblasts...
February 7, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
J Won, H Vang, J H Kim, P R Lee, Y Kang, S B Oh
Odontoblasts, with their strategic arrangement along the outermost compartment of the dentin-pulp complex, have been suggested to have sensory function. In addition to their primary role in dentin formation, growing evidence shows that odontoblasts are capable of sensing mechanical stimulation. Previously, we found that most odontoblasts express TRPM7, the nonselective mechanosensitive ion channel reported to be critical in Mg2+ homeostasis and dentin mineralization. In line with this finding, we sought to elucidate the functional expression of TRPM7 in odontoblasts by pharmacological approaches and mechanical stimulation...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Z Malik, M Alexiou, B Hallgrimsson, A N Economides, H U Luder, D Graf
Formation of highly organized dental hard tissues is a complex process involving sequential and ordered deposition of an extracellular scaffold, followed by its mineralization. Odontoblast and ameloblast differentiation involves reciprocal and sequential epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Similar to early tooth development, various Bmps are expressed during this process, although their functions have not been explored in detail. Here, we investigated the role of odontoblast-derived Bmp2 for tooth mineralization using Bmp2 conditional knockout mice...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Yihua Song, Peipei Cao, Zhifeng Gu, Jingwen Xiao, Min Lian, Dan Huang, Jing Xing, Ye Zhang, Xingmei Feng, Chenfei Wang
Abnormal odontoblast differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) caused by inflammation is closely related to the development of dental caries. Neuropilin-1 (NRP1) is one of the members of neuropilin family. It can combine with disparate ligands involved in regulating cell differentiation. FYN belongs to the protein-tyrosine kinase family, which has been implicated in the control of cell growth, and the effect can be further strengthened by inflammatory factors. In our studies, we verified that NRP1 can form complexes with FYN and have the correlation changes in odontoblast differentiation of DPSCs...
February 27, 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
Wayne Nishio Ayre, Genevieve Melling, Camille Cuveillier, Madhan Natarajan, Jessica L Roberts, Lucy L Marsh, Christopher D Lynch, Jean-Yves Maillard, Stephen P Denyer, Alastair J Sloan
This study investigated the host response to a polymicrobial pulpal infection consisting of Streptococcus anginosus and Enterococcus faecalis , bacteria commonly implicated in dental abscesses and endodontic failure, using a validated ex vivo rat tooth model. Tooth slices were inoculated with planktonic cultures of S. anginosus or E. faecalis alone or in co-culture at ratios of 50:50 and 90:10 S. anginosus to E. faecalis Attachment was semi-quantified by measuring area covered by fluorescently labelled bacteria...
February 26, 2018: Infection and Immunity
L Zhang, Z Chen
The dentin-pulp complex is a highly specialized tissue for protecting the dental pulp. Odontoblasts are long-lived, hard-tissue-forming cells in the dentin-pulp complex and critically involved in inflammatory responses against invading pathogens. Autophagy is a highly conserved homeostasis mechanism of living cells under various stress conditions. Growing evidence in the literature addresses the role of autophagy in odontoblast differentiation and aging. This review summarizes the current knowledge about autophagy for the dentin-pulp complex in resisting inflammation...
March 2018: Oral Diseases
Omid Dianat, Fatemeh Mashhadiabbas, Zohreh Ahangari, Sara Saedi, Saeed Reza Motamedian
Previous in vitro studies have suggested that simvastatin can be used as a direct pulp capping material due to its ability to induce odontoblastic differentiation and angiogenesis. The aim of this animal study was to evaluate the pulpal response to mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and four concentrations of simvastatin/MTA in combination. The study was conducted in two stages using four different simvastatin concentrations and MTA as a capping material for rat maxillary molars. The grades of inflammation and continuity of dentin formation were evaluated in hematoxylin and eosin (HE)-stained samples...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Oral Science
Soichiro Sonoda, Yu-Feng Mei, Ikiru Atsuta, Atsushi Danjo, Haruyoshi Yamaza, Shion Hama, Kento Nishida, Ronghao Tang, Yukari Kyumoto-Nakamura, Norihisa Uehara, Toshio Kukita, Fusanori Nishimura, Takayoshi Yamaza
Nitric oxide (NO) is thought to play a pivotal regulatory role in dental pulp tissues under both physiological and pathological conditions. However, little is known about the NO functions in dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). We examined the direct actions of a spontaneous NO gas-releasing donor, NOC-18, on the odontogenic capacity of rat DPSCs (rDPSCs). In the presence of NOC-18, rDPSCs were transformed into odontoblast-like cells with long cytoplasmic processes and a polarized nucleus. NOC-18 treatment increased alkaline phosphatase activity and enhanced dentin-like mineralized tissue formation and the expression levels of several odontoblast-specific genes, such as runt related factor 2, dentin matrix protein 1 and dentin sialophosphoprotein, in rDPSCs...
February 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Morteza Haeri, Karen Sagomonyants, Mina Mina, Liisa T Kuhn, A Jon Goldberg
Dental caries (tooth decay) is the most common chronic disease. Dental tissue engineering is a promising alternative approach to alleviate the shortcomings of the currently available restorative materials. Mimicking the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) could enhance the performance of tissue engineering scaffolds. In this study, we developed microtubular (~20 μm diameter) polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) scaffolds resembling the tubular (~2.5 μm diameter) structure of dentin, the collagen-based mineralized tissue that forms the major portion of teeth, to study the effect of scaffold architecture on differentiation of mouse dental pulp cells in vitro ...
June 2017: Regenerative Engineering and Translational Medicine
Xiaosong Yi, Wei Wang, Qiufei Xie
Purinergic signaling regulates various biological processes through the activation of adenosine receptors (ARs) and P2 receptors. ATP induces the odontoblastic differentiation of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) via P2 receptors. However, there is no information available about the roles of ARs in HDPC odontoblastic differentiation induced by ATP. Here, we found that HDPCs treated with ATP showed higher activity of ADORA1 (A1 R), ADORA2B (A2B R), and ADORA3 (A3 R). Inhibition of A1 R and A2B R attenuated ATP-induced odontoblastic differentiation of HDPCs, whereas activation of the two receptors enhanced the odontoblastic differentiation induced by ATP...
February 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Qi Wu, Jing Li, Pingping Song, Jing Chen, Yuanzhi Xu, Shengcai Qi, Ji Ma, Qiuhui Pan
PURPOSE: Neurotrophin receptor-interacting MAGE homologue (Nrage) plays an important role in bone development and the metabolism of normal skeletal structures. Our previous study showed that Nrage inhibited the odontogenic differentiation of mouse dental pulp cells. However, the potential roles and mechanism of Nrage in regulating odontogenic differentiation are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanism of Nrage in odontogenic differentiation of mouse odontoblast-like cells...
February 15, 2018: Connective Tissue Research
Chengye Che, Jie Liu, Jianjun Yang, Lei Ma, Na Bai, Qian Zhang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Peri-implantitis is caused by a cascade of host and microbial factors leading to an oral inflammatory disease. The inflammation proliferates into supporting tissues surrounding implants and may finally lead to a complete loss of osseointegration. Being a phosphorylated glycoprotein secreted by immunocompetent cells, osteopontin (OPN) is involved in the differentiation of odontoblast-like cells during pulpal healing following tooth transplantation and the secretion of type I collagen in reparative dentin...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Implant Dentistry and related Research
Mitsushiro Nakatomi, Angela Quispe-Salcedo, Masaka Sakaguchi, Hiroko Ida-Yonemochi, Hideyuki Okano, Hayato Ohshima
The Nestin gene encodes type VI intermediate filament and is known to be expressed in undifferentiated cells during neurogenesis and myogenesis. To regulate Nestin expression, the first or second intron enhancer is activated in a tissue-dependent manner, for example, the former in mesodermal cells and the latter in neural stem cells. Although Nestin has also been used as a differentiation marker for odontoblasts during tooth development, how Nestin expression is regulated in odontoblasts remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the expression patterns of Nestin-GFP (green fluorescent protein) with that of endogenous Nestin in developing teeth of Nestin-EGFP (enhanced GFP) transgenic mice, in which the second intron enhancer is connected with the EGFP domain, at postnatal 7d, 3w, and 8w...
February 14, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Alexander Terry Stavroullakis, Marcela Rocha Carrilho, Celine Marie Levesque, Anuradha Prakki
OBJECTIVE: To screen the effect of two compounds, chlorhexidine diacetate (CHX) and epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG), on the levels of cytokines produced by odontoblast-like cells (MDPC-23). METHODS: Cells were seeded at 24h and 48h with serial dilution of the compounds to determine cell metabolic activity by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay (n=3). Cells with no compound treatment were used as control (Ctr). For the highest equal non-cytotoxic compound dilution tested at 48h cell treatment, total protein concentration was measured using a Pierce bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay (n=3), and expression of 23 cytokines was analyzed using the Bio-Plex cytokine assay (n=2)...
February 7, 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Amber A Miller, Koyo Takimoto, James Wealleans, Anibal Diogenes
INTRODUCTION: There is a complex interaction between biomaterials placed as a coronal barrier with stem cells and dentin in regenerative procedures. In this study, the effect of Biodentine (BD; Septodont, Saint-Maurdes-Fossés, France), Endosequence BC Root Repair Material-Putty (ES; Brasseler, Savannah, GA), Endosequence BC Root Repair Material-Putty Fast set (ES-fast, Brasseler), and ProRoot (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Johnson City, TN) mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) on the viability and differentiation of stem cells of the apical papilla (SCAP) was evaluated using an ex vivo dentin disk model...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Endodontics
Yuanqing Huang, Ning Chen, Dengshun Miao
To investigate whether pyrroloquinoline quinine (PQQ) plays an important role in rescuing Bmi-1-/- mice induced developmental disorders of teeth and mandible by regulating oxidative stress. We fed Bmi-1-/- mice a diet supplemented with PQQ (BKO+PQQ), BKO mice with normal diet (BKO) and wild type mice with normal diet (WT) as controls. We compared the differences of dental, mandibular phenotype by means of X-ray photography, micro CT scanning and three-dimensional reconstruction, HE staining, histochemistry, immunoistohemistry, TUNEL staining, Western blot and Flow cytometry in three groups of animals...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
E Kague, P E Witten, M Soenens, C L Campos, T Lubiana, S Fisher, C Hammond, K Robson Brown, M R Passos-Bueno, A Huysseune
The capacity to fully replace teeth continuously makes zebrafish an attractive model to explore regeneration and tooth development. The requirement of attachment bone for the appearance of replacement teeth has been hypothesized but not yet investigated. The transcription factor sp7 (osterix) is known in mammals to play an important role during odontoblast differentiation and root formation. Here we study tooth replacement in the absence of attachment bone using sp7 zebrafish mutants. We analysed the pattern of tooth replacement at different stages of development and demonstrated that in zebrafish lacking sp7, attachment bone is never present, independent of the stage of tooth development or fish age, yet replacement is not interrupted...
February 2, 2018: Developmental Biology
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