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dopaminergic neurons schizophrenia iPSCs

Shuntaro Kohnomi, Katsuko Ebihara, Masayuki Kobayashi
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell is closely associated with reward, psychiatric disorders (depression or schizophrenia), and drug abuse. Dopamine, released from the ventral tegmental area, is involved in these physiological functions and pathophysiological changes of NAc shell. Medium spiny neurons (MSNs), which are only GABAergic projection neurons in NAc, also innervate adjacent MSNs, forming the lateral inhibition network. Previous studies demonstrate that dopamine suppresses the lateral inhibition via D2-like (D2 and D3) receptors...
January 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
Jubao Duan
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a devastating mental disorder afflicting 1% of the population. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of SZ have identified >100 risk loci. However, the causal variants/genes and the causal mechanisms remain largely unknown, which hinders the translation of GWAS findings into disease biology and drug targets. Most risk variants are noncoding, thus likely regulate gene expression. A major mechanism of transcriptional regulation is chromatin remodeling, and open chromatin is a versatile predictor of regulatory sequences...
February 2015: Neuroscience Bulletin
Sandra Shi, Catherine Leites, Deli He, Daniel Schwartz, Winton Moy, Jianxin Shi, Jubao Duan
The human dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Most antipsychotic drugs influence dopaminergic transmission through blocking dopamine receptors, primarily DRD2. We report here the post-transcriptional regulation of DRD2 expression by two brain-expressed microRNAs (miRs), miR-326 and miR-9, in an ex vivo mode, and show the relevance of miR-mediated DRD2 expression regulation in human dopaminergic neurons and in developing human brains...
May 9, 2014: Journal of Biological Chemistry
O Robicsek, R Karry, I Petit, N Salman-Kesner, F-J Müller, E Klein, D Aberdam, D Ben-Shachar
One of the prevailing hypotheses suggests schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental disorder, involving dysfunction of dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems. Accumulating evidence suggests mitochondria as an additional pathological factor in schizophrenia. An attractive model to study processes related to neurodevelopment in schizophrenia is reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and differentiating them into different neuronal lineages. iPSCs from three schizophrenia patients and from two controls were reprogrammed from hair follicle keratinocytes, because of their accessibility and common ectodermal origin with neurons...
October 2013: Molecular Psychiatry
Yan-Chun Li, Christoph Kellendonk, Eleanor H Simpson, Eric R Kandel, Wen-Jun Gao
Two distinct defects are thought to be important for the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. One is an increase of D2 receptors (D2Rs) in the striatum and another is a decrease in the GABAergic function in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Whether these two defects are functionally linked is not known. We previously reported that selective overexpression of D2Rs in the striatum of the mouse causes behavioral abnormality associated with PFC functions. Using patch-clamp recording, we find that overexpression of D2Rs in the striatum affects inhibitory transmission in the PFC and dopamine (DA) sensitivity...
July 19, 2011: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Gubbi Govindaiah, Tongfei Wang, Martha U Gillette, Shane R Crandall, Charles L Cox
Dopamine (DA) receptors are the principal targets of drugs used in the treatment of schizophrenia. Among the five DA receptor subtypes, the D(4) subtype is of particular interest because of the relatively high affinity of the atypical neuropleptic clozapine for D(4) compared with D(2) receptors. GABA-containing neurons in the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) and globus pallidus (GP) express D(4) receptors. TRN neurons receive GABAergic afferents from globus pallidus (GP), substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), and basal forebrain as well as neighboring TRN neuron collaterals...
November 2010: Journal of Neurophysiology
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