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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734700/predicting-muscle-forces-during-the-propulsion-phase-of-single-leg-triple-hop-test
#1
Felipe Costa Alvim, Paulo Roberto Garcia Lucareli, Luciano Luporini Menegaldo
Functional biomechanical tests allow the assessment of musculoskeletal system impairments in a simple way. Muscle force synergies associated with movement can provide additional information for diagnosis. However, such forces cannot be directly measured noninvasively. This study aims to estimate muscle activations and forces exerted during the preparation phase of the single leg triple hop test. Two different approaches were tested: static optimization (SO) and computed muscle control (CMC). As an indirect validation, model-estimated muscle activations were compared with surface electromyography (EMG) of selected hip and thigh muscles...
July 15, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728471/implementing-technical-refinement-in-high-level-athletics-exploring-the-knowledge-schemas-of-coaches
#2
Philip E Kearney, Howie J Carson, Dave Collins
This paper explores the approaches adopted by high-level field athletics coaches when attempting to refine an athlete's already well-established technique (long and triple jump and javelin throwing). Six coaches, who had all coached multiple athletes to multiple major championships, took part in semi-structured interviews focused upon a recent example of technique refinement. Data were analysed using a thematic content analysis. The coaching tools reported were generally consistent with those advised by the existing literature, focusing on attaining "buy-in", utilising part-practice, restoring movement automaticity and securing performance under pressure...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675771/kinematic-chain-related-risk-factors-in-the-development-of-lower-extremity-injuries-in-women-a-prospective-study
#3
R Verrelst, D Van Tiggelen, R De Ridder, E Witvrouw
The link between dynamic range of motion (dROM) parameters within the kinematic chain and the development of lower extremity (LE) injury has gained attention; however, very few longitudinal studies have been conducted. Therefore, we wanted to prospectively determine dROM-related risk factors for the development of LE injury. Within this study, 90 female physical education students aged 19.33±0.87 years were tested. Full-body kinematic and vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) parameters were measured during a triple hop jump (THJ)...
July 4, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604654/postural-control-in-elite-decathlon-athletes-are-various-modes-of-dynamic-assessment-needed
#4
Sven Reuter, Philipp Forkel, Andreas B Imhoff, Knut Beitzel
BACKGROUND: Decathlon consists of various track and field running, jumping and throwing events. This results in high physical demands and poor postural control may predispose athletes at a higher risk for injury. The purpose of this study was to measure and to show a relationship of different dynamic postural control tests in healthy professional decathlon athletes. METHODS: The German top decathlon team (eight professional athletes, mean age±standard deviation (SD), 20...
July 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515975/prospective-functional-performance-testing-and-relationship-to-lower-extremity-injury-incidence-in-adolescent-sports-participants
#5
Joseph Smith, Nick DePhillipo, Iris Kimura, Morgan Kocher, Ronald Hetzler
BACKGROUND: Due to the high number of adolescent athletes and subsequent lower extremity injuries, improvements of injury prevention strategies with emphasis on clinic-based and practical assessments are warranted. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to prospectively investigate if a battery of functional performance tests (FPT) could be used as a preseason-screening tool to identify adolescent athletes at risk for sports-related acute lower extremity injury via comparison of injured and uninjured subjects...
April 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515972/determination-of-clinically-relevant-differences-in-frontal-plane-hop-tests-in-women-s-collegiate-basketball-and-soccer-players
#6
Kelly Hardesty, Eric J Hegedus, Kevin R Ford, Anh-Dung Nguyen, Jeffrey B Taylor
BACKGROUND: ACL injury prevention programs are less successful in female basketball players than in soccer players. Previous authors have identified anthropometric and biomechanical differences between the athletes and different sport-specific demands, including a higher frequency of frontal plane activities in basketball. Current injury risk screening and preventive training practices do not place a strong emphasis on frontal plane activities. The medial and lateral triple hop for distance tests may be beneficial for use in the basketball population...
April 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428033/a-critical-analysis-of-limb-symmetry-indices-of-hop-tests-in-athletes-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-a-case-control-study
#7
A Gokeler, W Welling, A Benjaminse, K Lemmink, R Seil, S Zaffagnini
BACKGROUND: Hop tests are frequently used to determine return to sports (RTS) after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Given that bilateral deficits are present after ACLR, this may result in a falsely high limb symmetry index (LSI), since LSI is calculated as a ratio between the values of the limbs. HYPOTHESIS: Athletes after ACLR would achieve LSI>90% for the hop test. Secondly, athletes after ACLR demonstrate decreased jump distance on the single hop for distance (SLH) and triple leg hop for distance (TLH) and decreased number of hops for the side hop (SH) for both involved and uninvolved limbs compared to normative data of sex, age and type of sports matched healthy athletes...
April 17, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386918/does-increased-heat-resistance-result-in-higher-susceptibility-to-predation-a-test-using-drosophila-melanogaster-selection-and-hardening
#8
S Hangartner, I Dworkin, M DeNieu, A A Hoffmann
Heat resistance of ectotherms can be increased both by plasticity and evolution, but these effects may have trade-offs resulting from biotic interactions. Here, we test for predation costs in Drosophila melanogaster populations with altered heat resistance produced by adult hardening and directional selection for increased heat resistance. In addition, we also tested for genetic trade-offs by testing heat resistance in lines that have evolved under increased predation risk. We show that while 35/37 °C hardening increases heat resistance as expected, it does not increase predation risk from jumping spiders or mantids; in fact, there was an indication that survival may have increased under predation following a triple 37 °C compared to a single 35 °C hardening treatment...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365483/structural-transitions-in-torsionally-constrained-dna-and-their-dependence-on-solution-electrostatics
#9
Jaspreet Singh, Prashant K Purohit
Experimental studies on single molecules of DNA have reported a rich variety of structural transitions, including coexistence of three phases, in a torsionally constrained molecule. A comprehensive knowledge of these structural transitions is useful for unraveling the in vivo and in vitro behavior of DNA. Our objective is to understand the structural transitions in a torsionally constrained DNA molecule when it is pulled using optical or magnetic tweezers. We use foundational concepts from the Zimm-Bragg helix-coil transition theory and merge them with ideas from the theory of fluctuating elastic rods to model the mechanics of DNA...
March 30, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270619/massive-increase-in-visual-range-preceded-the-origin-of-terrestrial-vertebrates
#10
Malcolm A MacIver, Lars Schmitz, Ugurcan Mugan, Todd D Murphey, Curtis D Mobley
The evolution of terrestrial vertebrates, starting around 385 million years ago, is an iconic moment in evolution that brings to mind images of fish transforming into four-legged animals. Here, we show that this radical change in body shape was preceded by an equally dramatic change in sensory abilities akin to transitioning from seeing over short distances in a dense fog to seeing over long distances on a clear day. Measurements of eye sockets and simulations of their evolution show that eyes nearly tripled in size just before vertebrates began living on land...
March 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192831/training-effects-of-the-fifa-11-and-harmoknee-on-several-neuromuscular-parameters-of-physical-performance-measures
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Francisco Ayala, Carlos Pomares-Noguera, Francisco Javier Robles-Palazón, Maria Del Pilar García-Vaquero, Ignacio Ruiz-Pérez, Sergio Hernández-Sánchez, Mark De Ste Croix
The main purpose of this study was to analyse the training effects of the FIFA 11+ and Harmoknee on several parameters of physical performance measures in youth amateur football players. 41 adolescent players were randomised within each team into 2 groups (team 1: control vs. FIFA 11+; team 2: control vs. Harmoknee). The FIFA 11+ and Harmoknee groups performed the program 3 times a week for 4 weeks; the control groups completed their usual warm-up routines. 13 physical performance measures (joint range of motion, dynamic postural control, single legged hop limb symmetry, sprint time, jumping height and agility) were assessed...
April 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182531/relationships-of-functional-tests-following-acl-reconstruction-exploratory-factor-analyses-of-the-lower-extremity-assessment-protocol
#12
Melissa DiFabio, Lindsay V Slater, Grant Norte, John Goetschius, Joseph M Hart, Jay Hertel
CONTEXT: After ACL reconstruction (ACLR), deficits are often assessed using a variety of functional tests, which can be time consuming. It is unknown whether these tests provide redundant or unique information. OBJECTIVE: To explore relationships between components of a battery of functional tests, the Lower Extremity Assessment Protocol (LEAP), to aid in developing the most informative, concise battery of tests for evaluating ACLR patients. DESIGN: Descriptive, cross-sectional...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161898/the-relationship-between-loading-history-and-proximal-femoral-diaphysis-cross-sectional-geometry
#13
Sirpa Niinimäki, Nathaniel Narra, Laura Härkönen, Shinya Abe, Riku Nikander, Jari Hyttinen, Christopher Knüsel, Harri Sievänen
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the relationship between loading history and bone biomechanical properties used in physical activity reconstructions. These bone properties included bone bending and torsional strength (J), cortical area (CA), the direction of the major axis (theta angle), and element shape ratios determined from cross sections of standardized bone length. In addition, we explored the applicability of anatomically determined cross sections. METHODS: Our material consisted of hip and proximal thigh magnetic resonance images of Finnish female athletes (N = 91) engaged in high-jump, triple-jump, endurance running, swimming, power-lifting, soccer and squash; along with a group of active non-athlete individuals (N = 20)...
July 8, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152673/effects-of-adding-a-weekly-eccentric-overload-training-session-on-strength-and-athletic-performance-in-team-handball-players
#14
Rafael Sabido, Jose Luis Hernández-Davó, Javier Botella, Angel Navarro, Julio Tous-Fajardo
To investigate the influence of adding a weekly eccentric-overload training (EOT) session in several athletic performance's tests, 18 team-handball players were assigned either to an EOT (n = 11) or a Control (n = 7) group. Both groups continued to perform the same habitual strength training, but the EOT group added one session/week during a 7-week training programme consisting of four sets of eight repetitions for the bilateral half-squat and unilateral lunge exercises. The test battery included handball throwing velocity, maximum dynamic strength (1RM), countermovement jump (CMJ), 20 m sprint, triple hop for distance, and eccentric/concentric power in both the half-squat and lunge exercises...
June 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928201/sport-education-and-direct-instruction-units-comparison-of-student-knowledge-development-in-athletics
#15
José Pereira, Rui Araújo, Cláudio Farias, Cristiana Bessa, Isabel Mesquita
This study conducted a comparative analysis of students' knowledge development on athletics in Sport Education and in a Direct Instruction unit taking into account sex and initial skill level. The participants were an experienced Physical Education teacher and two sixth-grade classes totaling 47 students (25 boys and 22 girls). Each class was randomly placed in either Sport Education or Direct Instruction classes and participated in 20, 45-minutes lessons focused on shot put, hurdles and triple jump. Knowledge on athletics was assessed through a 25-items written and video-based test...
December 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918658/countermovement-jump-phase-characteristics-of-senior-and-academy-rugby-league-players
#16
John J McMahon, Shannon Murphy, Sophie J E Rej, Paul Comfort
PURPOSE: Gross measures of countermovement-jump (CMJ) performance are commonly used to track maturational changes in neuromuscular function in rugby league (RL). The purpose of this study was to conduct both a gross and a more detailed temporal-phase analysis of the CMJ performances of senior and academy RL players, to provide greater insight into how neuromuscular function differs between these groups. METHODS: Twenty senior and 14 academy (under-19) male RL players performed 3 maximal-effort CMJs on a force platform, with forward dynamics subsequently employed to allow gross performance measures and entire kinetic- and kinematic-time curves to be compared between groups...
July 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916268/extended-dissipative-state-estimation-for-uncertain-discrete-time-markov-jump-neural-networks-with-mixed-time-delays
#17
Qian Li, Qingxin Zhu, Shouming Zhong, Fuli Zhong
This paper is concerned with the problem of extended dissipativity-based state estimation for uncertain discrete-time Markov jump neural networks with finite piecewise homogeneous Markov chain and mixed time delays. The aim of this paper is to present a Markov switching estimator design method, which ensures that the resulting error system is extended stochastically dissipative. A triple-summable term is introduced in the constructed Lyapunov function and the reciprocally convex approach is utilized to bound the forward difference of the triple-summable term...
December 1, 2016: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904796/functional-hop-tests-and-tuck-jump-assessment-scores-between-female-division-i-collegiate-athletes-participating-in-high-versus-low-acl-injury-prone-sports-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#18
Philipp Hoog, Meghan Warren, Craig A Smith, Nicole J Chimera
BACKGROUND: Although functional tests including the single leg hop (SLH), triple hop (TH), cross over hop (COH) for distance, and the tuck jump assessment (TJA) are used for return to play (RTP) criteria for post anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, sport-specific baseline measurements are limited. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine differences in SLH, TH, and COH distance and limb symmetry index (LSI), as well as total scores, number of jumps, and individual flaws of the TJA in 97 injury-free Division I (DI) collegiate female student athletes participating in ACL injury prone vs...
December 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806003/fitness-profiles-of-elite-adolescent-irish-rugby-union-players
#19
Daniel J Wood, Garrett Coughlan, Eamonn Delahunt
Rugby unions throughout the world are implementing player development models in order to prepare young players to meet the demands of professional rugby union. An example of this is the Irish Rugby Football Union Long Term Player Development model. The purpose of the present study was to provide normative data relating to the physical fitness of elite adolescent Irish rugby union players and determine the differences in the physical capacities between players in the forward and back units, as well as providing descriptive data for the position categorizations within these units for this unique population...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789035/the-effect-of-increasing-strength-and-approach-velocity-on-triple-jump-performance
#20
Sam J Allen, M R Fred Yeadon, Mark A King
The triple jump is an athletic event comprising three phases in which the optimal phase ratio (the proportion of each phase to the total distance jumped) is unknown. This study used a planar whole body torque-driven computer simulation model of the ground contact parts of all three phases of the triple jump to investigate the effect of strength and approach velocity on optimal performance. The strength and approach velocity of the simulation model were each increased by up to 30% in 10% increments from baseline data collected from a national standard triple jumper...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
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