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Shelley A Miller, James Karichu, Peggy Kohner, Nicolynn Cole, Janet A Hindler, Robin Patel, Sandra Richter, Romney M Humphries
Phenotypic variants of Staphylococcus aureus display small colony size, reduced pigment, hemolysis and/or coagulase activity are periodically isolated by the clinical laboratory. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of these isolates is complicated as many do not grow on routine AST media, including Mueller Hinton agar and cation-adjusted Mueller Hinton broth. This multi-center study evaluated cefoxitin disk diffusion for 37 isolates (156 readings) of atypical S. aureus with MHA supplemented with 5% sheep's blood (BMHA), using mecA PCR as the reference standard...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
L N Mosca, T B L Goldberg, V N da Silva, C S Kurokawa, A C B Rizzo, C C da Silva, A Dos Santos Teixeira, J E Corrente
: The impact of excess body fat on bone remodeling was evaluated in overweight, obese, and extremely obese adolescents. In adolescents with excess weight, it was observed that the higher the bone mineral content and bone mineral density values, the lower the levels of the biomarkers. Nutritional imbalances by excess had a negative effect on bone formation in this stage of life. INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of excess body fat on bone remodeling in adolescents...
November 30, 2016: Osteoporosis International
Manouchehr Teymouri, Matteo Pirro, Thomas P Johnston, Amirhosein Sahebkar
Curcumin, the bioactive polyphenolic ingredient of turmeric, has been extensively studied for its effects on human papilloma virus (HPV) infection as well as primary and malignant squamous cervical cancers. HPV infections, especially those related to HPV 16 and 18 types, have been established as the leading cause of cervical cancer; however, there are also additional contributory factors involved in the etiopathogenesis of cervical cancers. Curcumin has emerged as having promising chemopreventive and anticancer effects against both HPV-related and nonrelated cervical cancers...
November 29, 2016: BioFactors
Jiao Jiang, Henggui Xu, Hetong Wang, Yining Zhang, Ping Ya, Chun Yang, Fasheng Li
Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) was a well-known environmental pollutant, numerous studies had implicated BaP as a causative agent in human cancer, particularly lung cancer.The lemongrass essential oil (LEO) possessed various pharmacological activities, especially the anti-oxidative stress and cancer prevention. In the current study, human embryonic lung fibroblast (HELF) cells were treated with 25 mM BaP in the absence or presence of 0.5%, 1% or 2.5% LEO and the cell viability and levels of oxidative stress and DNA damage in the cells were then measured...
November 28, 2016: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Masahito Morimoto, Shigeko Satomura, Toshiaki Hashimoto, Shojiro Kyotani
BACKGROUND: Patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities (SMID) are those who have both severe intellectual disabilities and severe physical disabilities. Intractable epilepsy is often associated with SMID. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between epilepsy associated with SMID and oxidative stress, and to clarify the safety and efficacy of the newer antiepileptic drugs (newer AEDs), lamotrigine and levetiracetam. METHODS: This study was conducted in 27 SMID patients with epilepsy who were treated with the newer AEDs...
November 23, 2016: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
Mark Davenport
This is a review of the 63rd British Association of Pediatric Surgeons (BAPS) annual conference which was held in July 2016 in Amsterdam in the Netherlands. This congress issue contains papers presented during the open sessions and transcripts based on invited lectures.
November 13, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Tony Kelly, Heinz Beck
OBJECTIVE: The maturation of adult-born granule cells and their functional integration into the network is thought to play a key role in the proper functioning of the dentate gyrus. In temporal lobe epilepsy, adult-born granule cells in the dentate gyrus develop abnormally and possess a hilar basal dendrite (HBD). Although morphological studies have shown that these HBDs have synapses, little is known about the functional properties of these HBDs or the intrinsic and network properties of the granule cells that possess these aberrant dendrites...
November 26, 2016: Epilepsia
Hongzhen Bai, Jun Zhou, Hongjian Zhang, Guping Tang
Photodegradation via titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been used to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from environmental media broadly. In this study, a series of TiO2-graphene composites (P25-GR) with different GR weight ratios were synthesized via hydrothermal reaction of graphene oxide (GO) and P25. Their structures were characterized and the proprieties were tested in aqueous phase. Phenanthrene (PHE), fluoranthene (FLAN), and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were selected as models of PAHs. The experiment indicated that P25-2...
November 17, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
S Sechi, A Di Cerbo, S Canello, G Guidetti, F Chiavolelli, F Fiore, R Cocco
The well-being of dogs can be affected by changes in human lifestyle, eating habits and increased stressors that lead to behavioural disorders including fear, hyperactivity and anxiety, followed by negative affective moods and poor welfare. This randomised, controlled clinical evaluation involved 69 dogs, 38 males and 31 females, of different breeds, with behavioural disorders related to anxiety and chronic stress. They were fed a control diet or a nutraceutical diet (ND group) for 45 days. Neuroendocrine (serotonin, dopamine, β-endorphins, noradrenaline and cortisol) and stress (derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (dROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP)) parameters related to behavioural disorders were evaluated at the beginning and end of the study period...
November 24, 2016: Veterinary Record
Suzy Y Honisett, Kathy Tangalakis, John Wark, Vasso Apostolopoulos, Lily Stojanovska
INTRODUCTION: Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and walking were investigated independently and in combination, to determine which treatment provided most effect on bone turnover in postmenopausal women. METHODS: Using a randomised double-blind pilot study, 10 subjects received HRT (transdermal estradiol, 50 μg/day and oral MPA 5 mg/day) and 12 received placebo for 20 weeks. Following a baseline period of treatment, both groups undertook a graduated walking regimen, which increased in intensity, duration and frequency parameters from weeks 8-20...
November 1, 2016: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
Ruud A Leijendekkers, J Bart Staal, Gerben van Hinte, Jan Paul Frölke, Hendrik van de Meent, Femke Atsma, Maria W G Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Thomas J Hoogeboom
BACKGROUND: Patients with lower extremity amputation frequently suffer from socket-related problems. This seriously limits prosthesis use, level of activity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). An additional problem in patients with lower extremity amputation are asymmetries in gait kinematics possibly accounting for back pain. Bone-anchored prostheses (BAPs) are a possible solution for socket-related problems. Knowledge concerning the level of function, activity and HRQoL after surgery is limited...
November 22, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Sourav Bhattacharya, Arijit Das, Muthusamy Palaniswamy, Jayaraman Angayarkanni
Benzo[a]pyrene, a high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon possesses carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic properties. The present study focuses on benzo[a]pyrene degradation by Pleurotus ostreatus PO-3, characterization and identification of metabolites produced and the extent of degradation in the presence of axenic culture of P. ostreatus PO-3 and defined co-cultures of the basidiomycete with bacteria and non-basidiomycete fungi. Thin-layer chromatography revealed that P. ostreatus PO-3 transformed benzo[a]pyrene to polar metabolites...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Tzu-Ting Yang, Su-Chen Ho, Lu-Te Chuang, Hsiao-Chi Chuang, Ya-Ting Li, Jyun-Jie Wu
This study investigated the effects of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced from burning three incense types on and their bioreactivity in the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine the levels of 16 identified PAHs. Macrophages were exposed to incense particle extracts at concentrations of 0, 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 μg/mL for 24 h. After exposure, cell viability and nitric oxide (NO) and inflammatory mediator [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α] production of the cells were examined...
November 16, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Yadong Wang, Haiyu Wang, Li Li, Jiangmin Li, Teng Pan, Ding Zhang, Haiyan Yang
This study aimed to address the potential role of STIM1 (stromal interaction molecule 1) in lung tumorigenesis. Colony formation in soft agar assay and tumorigenicity in nude mice assay were conducted. Western blot, immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to measure the STIM1 expression. The distribution of cell cycle was detected by flow cytometry assay. Our results showed that the expression of STIM1 mRNA was significantly higher in human lung tumors than that in adjacent non-neoplastic lung tissues...
November 15, 2016: Oncotarget
Rapee Thummeepak, Phattaraporn Kongthai, Udomluk Leungtongkam, Sutthirat Sitthisak
Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen that is the major cause of hospital-acquired infections. It has been shown that A. baumannii with high biofilm formation increases the risk of acquiring infection. In this study, the prevalence of virulence genes involved in biofilm formation was determined in 225 A. baumannii clinical isolates from three hospitals in Thailand. Most of the isolates were multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains (86.2%). Among all isolates, 76.9% (173/225) showed biofilm formation ability...
June 2016: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
Isidro Ovando-Medina, Leny P Pérez-Díaz, Sonia Ruiz-González, Miguel Salvador-Figueroa, Marcos E Urbina-Reyes, Lourdes Adriano-Anaya
This study addresses the in vitro culture as an alternative to obtain compounds with cytotoxic activity from the medicinal plant Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae). We determined the presence of cytotoxic compounds in both whole plants and dedifferentiated cells. We evaluated the effect of auxin, cytokinins and light on callus induction in cotyledon explants. We found that the most effective combination to induce callus was the auxin 2,4-D (5 mM) with the cytokinin 6-BAP (2.5 mM), on Murashige-Skoog medium in darkness...
2016: PeerJ
Ondřej Zapletal, Zuzana Tylichová, Jiří Neča, Jiří Kohoutek, Miroslav Machala, Alena Milcová, Michaela Pokorná, Jan Topinka, Mary Pat Moyer, Jiřina Hofmanová, Alois Kozubík, Jan Vondráček
Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid produced by fermentation of dietary fiber, is an important regulator of colonic epithelium homeostasis. In this study, we investigated the impact of this histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor on expression/activity of cytochrome P450 family 1 (CYP1) and on metabolism of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), in colon epithelial cells. Sodium butyrate (NaBt) strongly potentiated the BaP-induced expression of CYP1A1 in human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells...
November 9, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Jason M O'Brien, Marc A Beal, Carole L Yauk, Francesco Marchetti
De novo mutations are implicated in a variety of genetic diseases and arise primarily in the male germline. We investigated whether male germ cells have unique mechanisms for spontaneous or chemically-induced mutation relative to somatic cells using the MutaMouse model. We recovered lacZ transgenes from sperm 42 days after a 28-day exposure to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP, 100 mg/kg/day) to assess mutations arising in dividing spermatogonia. BaP caused a 3.4-fold increase in lacZ mutant frequency over controls which increased to 4...
November 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Shreeti Pradhan, Tripti Regmi, Mukunda Ranjit, Bijaya Pant
Orchids are affected by many viruses resulting in poor growth, yield and quality, and an overall decline in population. Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV) is one of the common orchid viruses found in Cymbidium species but it infects different orchid genera. In this study Cymbidium aloifolium was propagated in vitro using MS medium at different strength (1.0, ½, and ¼) with or without 0.5 mg/l BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) and 0.5 mg/l NAA (Naphthalene acetic acid). To provide disease-free planting material, source plant for in vitro propagation needs to be screened for pathogenic viruses...
October 2016: Heliyon
Seungyeon Jeon, Seongjin Hong, Bong-Oh Kwon, Jinsoon Park, Sung Joon Song, John P Giesy, Jong Seong Khim
The west coast of Korea has experienced environmental deterioration for more than half a century. In the present study, we specifically aimed to: i) evaluate potential toxicities of contaminants in sediments that cause effects mediated through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and estrogen receptor (ER); ii) determine spatio-temporal distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylphenols (APs); and iii) identify causes of greater potencies of samples. From 2010 to 2014, sediments were collected from 12 major estuarine and coastal regions along the west coast of South Korea...
October 31, 2016: Chemosphere
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