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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332138/benzo-a-pyrene-exposure-causes-genotoxic-and-biochemical-changes-in-the-midge-larvae-of-chironomus-sancticaroli-strixino-strixino-diptera-chironomidae
#1
M Vicentini, G S Morais, D Rebechi-Baggio, V S Richardi, G S Santos, M M Cestari, M A Navarro-Silva
Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is a carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, also found in nature due to human activities. BaP adheres to sediments showing toxic effects on benthic organisms, including midge larvae of the family Chironomidae. We tested for toxic effects of benzo(a)pyrene on Chironomus sancticaroli Strixino & Strixino 1981 using biochemical and genotoxic biomarkers, to identify changes in metabolic and antioxidant pathways, besides neurotoxic and DNA damage. Enzyme activity was compared by exposing larvae to four nominal concentrations (0...
March 22, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330254/enhanced-production-of-an-anti-malarial-compound-artesunate-by-hairy-root-cultures-and-phytochemical-analysis-of-artemisia-pallens-wall
#2
Zarna Pala, Vishnu Shukla, Anshu Alok, Subhash Kudale, Neetin Desai
Artemisinin and its derivatives are still one of the most effective drugs for the treatment of malaria. Artemisia pallens commonly known as Dhavanam, is an aromatic herb belonging to the family Asteraceae. Increasing the artemisinin content of A. pallens by genetic engineering would improve the availability of this much needed drug. In the present study, Agrobacterium rhizogenes (strain NCIM 5140) mediated genetic transformation of Artemisia pallens were carried out for hairy root induction. The effect of different media (Half MS, MS, MS along with BAP 0...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330158/a-simple-and-efficient-agrobacterium-tumefaciens-mediated-plant-transformation-of-brassica-rapa-ssp-pekinensis
#3
Venkidasamy Baskar, Baniekal H Gangadhar, Se Won Park, Shivraj Hariram Nile
The present study aims to investigate the numerous factors influencing Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). Factors affecting transformation efficiency, such as age of explants, Agrobacterium concentration, and effect of acetosyringone, pre-cultivation, infection and co-cultivation time of Agrobacterium were examined. The pre-cultured hypocotyls from young seedlings prior to exposure to Agrobacterium showed higher shoot regeneration. The plant transformation with the modest A...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330091/optimization-of-regeneration-using-differential-growth-regulators-in-indica-rice-cultivars
#4
Samar Shekar R Sankepally, Bharat Singh
Paddy is a staple crop and being grown in major parts of India, but similarly it is facing some major challenges like abiotic stresses (drought, salinity, etc.) by which its productivity is greatly affected. De-husked seeds of 21 cultivars of indica rice were cultured onto MS medium for screening of their micropropagation capabilities. All the selected cultivars are being cultivated by farmers of Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan states of India, these cultivars bear good quality of grain and high yield. Similarly, both states are facing the problem of drought so; we selected these cultivars for the micropropagation and transformation studies...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329817/early-life-benzo-a-pyrene-exposure-causes-neurodegenerative-syndromes-in-adult-zebrafish-danio-rerio-and-the-mechanism-involved
#5
Dongxu Gao, Chonggang Wang, Zhihui Xi, Yixi Zhou, Yuanchuan Wang, Zhenghong Zuo
There is increasing recognition of the importance of early-life environmental exposures in health disorders at later-life stages. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether early-life exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) could induce neurodegenerative syndromes at later-life stages in zebrafish. Embryos were exposed to BaP at doses of 0, 0.05, 0.5, 5, and 50 nM from early embryogenesis to 96 h post-fertilization (hpf), then transferred to clean water and maintained for 365 days. We found that BaP decreased locomotor and cognitive ability, neurotransmitter levels of dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and norepinephrine; and induced loss of dopaminergic neurons and resulted in neurodegeneration...
January 30, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327162/biological-effects-of-carbon-black-nanoparticles-are-changed-by-surface-coating-with-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons
#6
Karina Lindner, Michael Ströbele, Sandra Schlick, Sina Webering, André Jenckel, Johannes Kopf, Olga Danov, Katherina Sewald, Christian Buj, Otto Creutzenberg, Thomas Tillmann, Gerhard Pohlmann, Heinrich Ernst, Christina Ziemann, Gereon Hüttmann, Holger Heine, Henning Bockhorn, Tanja Hansen, Peter König, Heinz Fehrenbach
BACKGROUND: Carbon black nanoparticles (CBNP) are mainly composed of carbon, with a small amount of other elements (including hydrogen and oxygen). The toxicity of CBNP has been attributed to their large surface area, and through adsorbing intrinsically toxic substances, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). It is not clear whether a PAH surface coating changes the toxicological properties of CBNP by influencing their physicochemical properties, through the specific toxicity of the surface-bound PAH, or by a combination of both...
March 21, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323966/persistent-reduction-of-circulating-myeloid-calcifying-cells-in-acromegaly-relevance-to-the-bone-vascular-axis
#7
Gian Paolo Fadini, Francesca Dassie, Roberta Cappellari, Mariasara Persano, Saula Vigili de Kreutzenberg, Chiara Martini, Matteo Parolin, Angelo Avogaro, Roberto Vettor, Pietro Maffei
Context: Acromegaly is a systemic disease characterized by persistent bone pathology and excess cardiovascular mortality. Despite multiple concomitant risk factors, atherosclerosis does not seem to be accelerated in acromegaly. Objective: To compare the levels of circulating myeloid calcifying cells (MCCs), which promote ectopic calcification and inhibit angiogenesis, in individuals with or without acromegaly. Design: Cross-sectional case-control study...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321061/effects-of-denosumab-on-bone-metabolic-markers-and-bone-mineral-density-in-patients-treated-with-glucocorticoids
#8
Masato Sawamura, Atsushi Komatsuda, Masaru Togashi, Hideki Wakui, Naoto Takahashi
Objective We performed a prospective study to determine the efficacy and safety of denosumab on bone metabolic indices and bone mineral density (BMD) in 29 patients receiving long-term glucocorticoids (GCs) who had clinical risk factors for fracture. Methods Among these patients, 16 had systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 6 RA, 4 other autoimmune diseases, and 3 renal diseases. All patients received donosumab 60 mg at baseline and 6 months. Serum N-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) levels were measured as bone metabolic indices...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300668/protective-effects-of-coffee-against-oxidative-stress-induced-by-the-tobacco-carcinogen-benzo-%C3%AE-pyrene
#9
Sandra Kalthoff, Steffen Landerer, Julia Reich, Christian P Strassburg
AIMS: Coffee consumption has been epidemiologically associated with a lower risk for liver cirrhosis and cancer. UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT1A) catalyze the detoxification of reactive metabolites thereby acting as indirect antioxidants. Aim of the study was to examine UGT1A regulation in response to Benzo[α]pyrene (BaP) to elucidate the potentially protective effects of coffee on BaP-induced oxidative stress and toxicity. RESULTS: In cell culture (HepG2, KYSE70 cells) and in htgUGT1A-WT mice, UGT1A transcription was activated by BaP, while it was reduced or absent htgUGT1A-SNP (containing 10 commonly occurring UGT1A-SNPs) mice...
March 12, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299856/effects-of-a-short-term-supranutritional-selenium-supplementation-on-redox-balance-physiology-and-insulin-related-metabolism-in-heat-stressed-pigs
#10
F Liu, P Celi, J J Cottrell, S S Chauhan, B J Leury, F R Dunshea
Heat stress (HS) disrupts redox balance and insulin-related metabolism. Supplementation with supranutritional amounts of selenium (Se) may enhance glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity and reduce oxidative stress, but may trigger insulin resistance. Therefore, the aim of this experiment was to investigate the effects of a short-term high Se supplementation on physiology, oxidative stress and insulin-related metabolism in heat-stressed pigs. Twenty-four gilts were fed either a control (0.20 ppm Se) or a high Se (1...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293779/effect-of-osteoporosis-medication-on-changes-in-bone-mineral-density-and-bone-turnover-markers-after-24-month-administration-of-daily-teriparatide-comparison-among-minodronate-raloxifene-and-eldecalcitol
#11
Shinichi Nakatoh
This study reveals the changes in bone mineral density (BMD), the turnover rate, and the balance [multiple of median formation/multiple of median resorption (MoMf/MoMr)] affected by the selection of different bone resorption inhibitors after 24-month daily teriparatide (20 µg/day) administration. The turnover rate was calculated as √(MoMf(2) + MoMr(2)), where MoMf = bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) value/18.6 and MoMr = tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP-5b) value/463. One hundred and twenty-one osteoporotic women (mean age 82...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287133/activated-full-length-myosin-x-moves-processively-on-filopodia-with-large-steps-toward-diverse-two-dimensional-directions
#12
Osamu Sato, Hyun Suk Jung, Satoshi Komatsu, Yoshikazu Tsukasaki, Tomonobu M Watanabe, Kazuaki Homma, Mitsuo Ikebe
Myosin-X, (Myo 10), is an unconventional myosin that transports the specific cargos to filopodial tips, and is associated with the mechanism underlying filopodia formation and extension. To clarify the innate motor characteristic, we studied the single molecule movement of a full-length myosin-X construct with leucine zipper at the C-terminal end of the tail (M10(Full)LZ) and the tail-truncated myosin-X without artificial dimerization motif (BAP-M10(1-979)HMM). M10(Full)LZ localizes at the tip of filopodia like myosin-X full-length (M10(Full))...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283091/cyp1a1-i462v-polymorphism-is-associated-with-reduced-genotoxicity-in-yeast-despite-positive-association-with-increased-cancer-risk
#13
Julian Freedland, Cinzia Cera, Michael Fasullo
CYP1A1 functions in detoxifying xenobiotics but occasionally converts compounds into potent genotoxins. CYP1A1 activates polyaromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzo[a]pyrene 7,8 dihydrodiol (BaP-DHD), rendering them genotoxic. Particular alleles of CYP1A1, such as CYP1A1 I462V have been correlated with a higher incidence of breast and lung cancer, but it is unknown whether these variants express enzymes in vivo that are more potent in generating genotoxins. We individually expressed CYP1A1 (CYP1A1.1), CYP1A1 T461N (CYP1A1...
March 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279692/ovarian-effects-of-prenatal-exposure-to-benzo-a-pyrene-roles-of-embryonic-and-maternal-glutathione-status
#14
Ulrike Luderer, Meagan B Myers, Malathi Banda, Karen L McKim, Laura Ortiz, Barbara L Parsons
Females deficient in the glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit (Gclm) of the rate-limiting enzyme in glutathione synthesis are more sensitive to ovarian follicle depletion and tumorigenesisby prenatal benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) exposure than Gclm+/+ mice. We investigated effects of prenatal exposure to BaP on reproductive development and ovarian mutations in Kras, a commonly mutated gene in epithelial ovarian tumors. Pregnantmice were dosed from gestational day 6.5 through 15.5 with 2mg/kg/day BaP or vehicle...
March 6, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278179/manufacture-of-low-benzo-a-pyrene-sesame-seed-sesamum-indicum-l-oil-using-a-self-designed-apparatus
#15
Ji Yoon Yi, Hui Ju Kim, Myong-Soo Chung
The aim of this study was to lower benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) contents in sesame seed oil (SSO) during manufacture by using a self-designed apparatus, to determine its optimal conditions, and to analyze antioxidants in SSO which might be related to BaP content reduction. Washing and spin-drying steps reduce exogenous BaP contamination, and the reduced moisture in seeds lowered BaP content in final SSO. A ventilation system in the roasting step inhibits BaP formation and reabsorption, followed by a controlled compression step...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268029/exposure-to-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-atmospheric-pm1-0-of-urban-environments-carcinogenic-and-mutagenic-respiratory-health-risk-by-age-groups
#16
Dayana M Agudelo-Castañeda, Elba C Teixeira, Ismael L Schneider, Sheila Rincón Lara, Luis F O Silva
We investigated the carcinogenic and mutagenic respiratory health risks related to the exposure to atmospheric PAHs in an urban area. Our study focused in the association of these pollutants and their possible effect in human health, principally respiratory and circulatory diseases. Also, we determined a relationship between the inhalation risk of PAHs and meteorological conditions. We validated the hypothesis that in winter PAHs with high molecular weight associated to submicron particles (PM1) may increase exposure risk, especially for respiratory diseases, bronchitis and pneumonia diseases...
March 4, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263535/exposure-of-rats-to-exogenous-endocrine-disruptors-17alpha-ethinylestradiol-and-benzo-a-pyrene-and-an-estrogenic-hormone-estradiol-induces-expression-of-cytochromes-p450-involved-in-their-metabolism
#17
Lucie Borek-Dohalska, Zuzana Klusonova, Jana Holecova, Marketa Martinkova, Frantisek Barta, Helena Dracinska, Tomas Cajthaml, Marie Stiborova
OBJECTIVES: The term "endocrine disruptor" (ED) is used for compounds that mimic or antagonize the effects of endogenous hormones. Synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and a human carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) are assigned as exogenous endocrine disruptors and an estrogenic hormone estradiol is a natural endogenous disruptor. Here, the potency of these three disruptors administered to rats individually and in combination to induce expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes involved in their own metabolism (CYP1A1, 2C and 3A) in vivo was investigated...
December 18, 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260342/-study-on-the-expression-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-protein-during-benzo-a-pyrene-induced-carcinogenesis
#18
P Gu, H L Liu, Y X Deng, W Gao, J J Liu, X F Huang, X Y Li, H Y Huang
Objective: To explore the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR) protein during benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) induced carcinogenesis. Methods: This study, we firstly utilized immunofluorescence assay and Western-blot to examine EGFR expression of the BaP which was constructed previously by project team induced malignant transformation human bronchial epithelial cell (BTC) and the control (16HBE cell). Then, we selected 36 healthy SD rats, divided into two groups according to simple random method, 18 rats each group...
March 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258041/angiogenic-activity-in-vivo-of-the-particulate-matter-pm10
#19
Simona Catino, Maria Tutino, Simona Ruggieri, Christian Marinaccio, Roberto Giua, Gianluigi de Gennaro, Patrizia Corsi, Giorgio Assennato, Domenico Ribatti
BACKGROUND: Particulate matter (PM) is the most efficient vehicle for the inhalation and absorption of toxic substances into the body. METHOD: The present study was aimed at testing the hypothesis that PM10 samples collected on quartz filters exert an angiogenic activity in vivo in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. RESULTS: When the low, medium, and high PM10 concentrations filters were tested in the CAM assay, an increasing number of microvessels was detectable after 4 days of applications of the filters...
February 28, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251670/retrospective-audit-of-antimicrobial-prescribing-practices-for-acute-exacerbations-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-diseases-in-a-large-regional-hospital
#20
D J Brownridge, S T R Zaidi
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and frequent exacerbations are associated with an increased risk of death, deterioration in lung function and reduced quality of life. Current Australian guidelines developed by the Lung Foundation of Australia (the COPD-X Plan) recommends the use of a short course of corticosteroids and oral antibiotics (amoxycillin or doxycycline) as part of the treatment of an AECOPD; however, it was noted that clinical practice at the study hospital had deviated from these guidelines...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
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