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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429052/the-skeletal-impact-of-the-chemotherapeutic-agent-etoposide
#1
A J Koh, B P Sinder, P Entezami, L Nilsson, L K McCauley
Effects of the chemotherapeutic agent etoposide on the skeleton were determined in mice. Numbers of bone marrow cells were reduced and myeloid cells were increased. Bone volume was significantly decreased with signs of inhibition of bone formation. Etoposide after pre-treatment with zoledronic acid still reduced bone but overall bone volume was higher than with etoposide alone. INTRODUCTION: Chemotherapeutics target rapidly dividing tumor cells yet also impact hematopoietic and immune cells in an off target manner...
April 20, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428481/serum-tartrate-resistant-acid-phosphatase-5b-levels-are-associated-with-the-severity-and-extent-of-coronary-atherosclerosis-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#2
Taichirou Morisawa, Akihiro Nakagomi, Keiichi Kohashi, Yoshiki Kusama, Wataru Shimizu
AIMS: Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP)-5b and osteoprotegerin (OPG) are specific and sensitive markers of bone resorption in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The TRACP-5b level is associated with the severity of RA and CKD, while the OPG level is associated with the severity of coronary atherosclerosis and calcification, and can predict a poor outcome in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the impact of TRACP-5b on coronary atherosclerosis in CAD patients remains unclear...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425564/osteoblast-role-in-osteoarthritis-pathogenesis
#3
REVIEW
Nicola Maruotti, Addolorata Corrado, Francesco Paolo Cantatore
Even if osteoarthritis pathogenesis is still poorly understood, numerous evidences suggest that osteoblasts dysregulation plays a key role in osteoarthritis pathogenesis. An abnormal expression of OPG and RANKL has been described in osteoarthritis osteoblasts, which is responsible for abnormal bone remodeling and decreased mineralization. Alterations in genes expression are involved in dysregulation of osteoblast function, bone remodeling and mineralization, leading to osteoarthritis development. Moreover, osteoblasts produce numerous transcription factors, growth factors and other proteic molecules which are involved in osteoarthritis pathogenesis...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424452/parathyroid-hormone-activates-phospholipase-c-plc-independent-protein-kinase-c-signaling-pathway-via-protein-kinase-a-pka-dependent-mechanism-a-new-defined-signaling-route-would-induce-alternative-consideration-to-previous-conceptions
#4
Guojun Tong, Yue Meng, Song Hao, Shaoyu Hu, Youhua He, Wenjuan Yan, Dehong Yang
BACKGROUND Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is an effective anti-osteoporosis agent, after binding to its receptor PTHR1, several signaling pathways, including cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) and phospholipase C (PLC)/protein kinase C (PKC), are initiated through G proteins; with the cAMP/PKA pathway as the major pathway. Earlier studies have reported that PTHR1 might also activate PKC via a PLC-independent mechanism, but this pathway remains unclear. MATERIAL AND METHODS In HEK293 cells, cAMP accumulation was measured with ELISA and PKC was measured with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis using CKAR plasmid...
April 20, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421466/parathyroid-diseases-and-t-cells
#5
REVIEW
M Neale Weitzmann, Roberto Pacifici
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes studies into the permissive role of T cells in the bone catabolic effects of hyperparathyroidism and parathyroid hormone (PTH). RECENT FINDINGS: Work in animals combined with recent translational studies in humans now highlight the potent amplificatory action of T cells on PTH-induced bone resorption. Mechanistic animal studies reveal a complex pathway by which PTH exploits natural self-renewal functions of CD4(+) T cells, to drive TNFα production that promotes formation of IL-17A secreting Th17 T cells...
April 18, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420351/prognostic-significance-of-trail-r3-and-ccr-2-expression-in-tumor-epithelial-cells-of-patients-with-early-breast-cancer
#6
Vivian Labovsky, Leandro Marcelo Martinez, Kevin Mauro Davies, María de Luján Calcagno, Hernán García-Rivello, Alejandra Wernicke, Leonardo Feldman, Ayelén Matas, María Belén Giorello, Francisco Raúl Borzone, Hosoon Choi, Scott C Howard, Norma Alejandra Chasseing
BACKGROUND: Tumor epithelial cells (TEpCs) and spindle-shaped stromal cells, not associated with the vasculature, of patients with early breast cancer express osteoprotegerin (OPG), tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand, stromal cell derived factor-1, interleukin-6, macrophage colony stimulating factor, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand-2 (CCL-2) and their receptors at significantly higher levels compared with non-neoplastic breast tissues...
April 18, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420224/silk-fibroin-alginate-hydroxyapatite-composite-particles-in-bone-tissue-engineering-applications-in-vivo
#7
You-Young Jo, Seong-Gon Kim, Kwang-Jun Kwon, HaeYong Kweon, Weon-Sik Chae, Won-Geun Yang, Eun-Young Lee, Hyun Seok
The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo bone regeneration capability of alginate (AL), AL/hydroxyapatite (HA), and AL/HA/silk fibroin (SF) composites. Forty Sprague Dawley rats were used for the animal experiments. Central calvarial bone (diameter: 8.0 mm) defects were grafted with AL, AL/HA, or AL/HA/SF. New bone formation was evaluated by histomorphometric analysis. To demonstrate the immunocompatibility of each group, the level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression was studied by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) at eight weeks post implantation...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418701/cementogenesis-is-inhibited-under-a-mechanical-static-compressive-force-via-piezo1
#8
Ying-Ying Zhang, Yi-Ping Huang, Hua-Xiang Zhao, Ting Zhang, Feng Chen, Yan Liu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether Piezo1, a mechanotransduction gene mediates the cementogenic activity of cementoblasts under a static mechanical compressive force. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Murine cementoblasts (OCCM-30) were exposed to a 2.0 g/cm(2) static compressive force for 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours. Then the expression profile of Piezo1 and the cementogenic activity markers osteoprotegerin (Opg), osteopontin (Opn), osteocalcin (Oc), and protein tyrosine phosphataselike member A (Ptpla) were analyzed...
April 18, 2017: Angle Orthodontist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416991/can-denosumab-be-a-substitute-competitor-or-complement-to-bisphosphonates
#9
REVIEW
Su Young Kim, Hwoe Gyeong Ok, Christof Birkenmaier, Kyung Hoon Kim
Osteoblasts, originating from mesenchymal cells, make the receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in order to control differentiation of activated osteoclasts, originating from hematopoietic stem cells. When the RANKL binds to the RANK of the pre-osteoclasts or mature osteoclasts, bone resorption increases. On the contrary, when OPG binds to the RANK, bone resorption decreases. Denosumab (AMG 162), like OPG (a decoy receptor), binds to the RANKL, and reduces binding between the RANK and the RANKL resulting in inhibition of osteoclastogenesis and reduction of bone resorption...
April 2017: Korean Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402971/implicating-receptor-activator-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-rank-rank-ligand-signalling-in-microglial-responses-to-toll-like-receptor-stimuli
#10
Anton Kichev, Pascale Eede, Pierre Gressens, Claire Thornton, Henrik Hagberg
Inflammation in the perinatal brain caused by maternal or intrauterine fetal infection is now well established as an important contributor to the development of perinatal brain injury. Exposure to inflammatory products can impair perinatal brain development and act as a risk factor for neurological dysfunction, cognitive disorders, cerebral palsy, or preterm birth. Pre-exposure to inflammation significantly exacerbates brain injury caused by hypoxic/ischaemic insult. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is a family of cytokines largely involved in inflammation signalling...
April 13, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399815/complete-manuscript-title-changes-in-rankl-during-the-first-two-years-after-cart-initiation-in-hiv-infected-cart-na%C3%A3-ve-adults
#11
Inger Hee Mathiesen, Mohammad Salem, Jan Gerstoft, Julie Christine Gaardbo, Niels Obel, Court Pedersen, Henrik Ullum, Susanne Dam Nielsen, Ann-Brit Eg Hansen
BACKGROUND: By assessing the changes in concentration of soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor κ B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegrin (OPG) after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in treatment-naïve HIV-infected patients we aimed to evaluate whether the initial accelerated bone loss could be mediated by increased soluble RANKL (sRANKL) levels associated with CD4+ T cell recovery. METHODS: We used multiplex immunoassays to determine sRANKL and OPG concentrations in plasma from 48 HIV patients at baseline and 12, 24, 48 and 96 weeks after cART initiation...
April 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388147/two-photon-absorption-line-strengths-for-nitric-oxide-comparison-of-theory-and-sub-doppler-laser-induced-fluorescence-measurements
#12
Waruna D Kulatilaka, Robert P Lucht
We discuss the results of high-resolution, sub-Doppler two-photon-absorption laser-induced fluorescence (TPALIF) spectroscopy of nitric oxide at low pressure and room temperature. The measurements were performed using the single-longitudinal mode output of a diode-laser-seeded optical parametric generator (OPG) system with a measured frequency bandwidth of 220 MHz. The measurements were performed using a counter-propagating pump beam geometry, resulting in sub-Doppler TPALIF spectra of NO for various rotational transitions in the (0,0) vibrational band of the A(2)Σ(+) - X(2)Π electronic transition...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387755/transglutaminases-factor-xiii-a-and-tg2-regulate-resorption-adipogenesis-and-plasma-fibronectin-homeostasis-in-bone-and-bone-marrow
#13
Aisha Mousa, Cui Cui, Aimei Song, Vamsee D Myneni, Huifang Sun, Jin Jin Li, Monzur Murshed, Gerry Melino, Mari T Kaartinen
Appropriate bone mass is maintained by bone-forming osteoblast and bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) lineage cells control osteoclastogenesis via expression of RANKL and OPG (receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand and osteoprotegerin), which promote and inhibit bone resorption, respectively. Protein crosslinking enzymes transglutaminase 2 (TG2) and Factor XIII-A (FXIII-A) have been linked to activity of myeloid and MSC lineage cells; however, in vivo evidence has been lacking to support their function...
April 7, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387573/metformin-inhibits-rankl-and-sensitizes-cancer-stem-cells-to-denosumab
#14
Elisabet Cuyàs, Begoña Martin-Castillo, Joaquim Bosch-Barrera, Javier A Menendez
The increased propensity of BRCA1 mutation carriers to develop aggressive breast tumors with stem-like properties begins to be understood in terms of osteoprotegerin (OPG)-unrestricted cross-talk between RANKL-overproducing progesterone-sensor cells and cancer-initiating RANK(+) responder cells that reside within pre-malignant BRCA1(mut/+) breast epithelial tissue. We recently proposed that, in the absence of hormone influence, cancer-initiating cells might remain responsive to RANKL stimulation, and hence to the therapeutic effects of the anti-RANKL antibody denosumab because genomic instability induced by BRCA1 haploinsufficiency might suffice to cell-autonomously hyperactivate RANKL gene expression...
April 7, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386349/pyrroloquinoline-quinone-prevents-testosterone-deficiency-induced-osteoporosis-by-stimulating-osteoblastic-bone-formation-and-inhibiting-osteoclastic-bone-resorption
#15
Xuan Wu, Jie Li, Hengwei Zhang, Hui Wang, Guoyong Yin, Dengshun Miao
Accumulating evidences suggest that oxidative stress caused and deteriorated the aging related osteoporosis and pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a powerful antioxidant. However, it is unclear whether PQQ can prevent testosterone deficiency-induced osteoporosis. In this study, the orchidectomized (ORX) mice were supplemented in diet with/without PQQ for 48 weeks, and compared with each other and with sham mice. Results showed that bone mineral density, trabecular bone volume, collagen deposition and osteoblast number were decreased significantly in ORX mice compared with shame mice, whereas PQQ supplementation largely prevented these alterations...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385082/hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-modulates-serum-opg-rankl-in-femoral-head-necrosis-patients
#16
Giuliano Vezzani, Silvia Quartesan, Pasqua Cancellara, Enrico Camporesi, Devanand Mangar, Thomas Bernasek, Prachiti Dalvi, Zhongjin Yang, Antonio Paoli, Alex Rizzato, Gerardo Bosco
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has beneficial effects on avascular necrosis of femoral head (ANFH), but its mechanism of action is still unclear. We investigated if HBOT upregulates serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) and/or inhibits osteoclast activation. 23 patients with unilateral ANFH at stage I, II and III consented to the study: the patients received standard HBOT. Serum OPG levels were obtained at the beginning of HBOT (T0), after 15 sessions (T1), 30 sessions (T2), after a 30-day break (T3), and after 60 sessions (T4)...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384978/applicability-of-demirjian-s-method-and-modified-cameriere-s-methods-for-dental-age-assessment-in-children
#17
K Pratyusha, Madu Ghanashyam Prasad, Ambati Naga Radhakrishna, Kaniti Saujanya, Narra Venkata Krishna Raviteja, Shalini Chandrasekhar
INTRODUCTION: Tooth development is extensively used for age estimation as a part of forensic science. AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of Demirjian's, Cameriere's and modified Cameriere's population-specific regression equation methods in the dental age estimation of West Godavari children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included orthopantomograms (OPG) of 60 children of West Godavari district with age group between 9 to 14 years on whom all the three methods were used for age estimation...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384521/rna-isolation-from-alveolar-bone-and-gene-expression-analysis-of-rank-rankl-and-opg-a-new-tool-to-monitor-bone-remodeling-and-healing-in-different-bone-substitutes-used-for-prosthetic-rehabilitation
#18
Elena Canciani, Claudia Dellavia, Monica Gioia Marazzi, Davide Augusti, Daniela Carmagnola, Elena Vianello, Luigi Canullo, Emanuela Galliera
OBJECTIVE: (i) To validate a simple and efficient method for extracting high quality RNA from small samples of bone tissue, (ii) to test its application on limited amounts of grafted oral bone and (iii) to analyze the gene expression of the OPG/RANK/RANKL system and IL-6 in "spontaneous healing" and grafted tissue. DESIGN: 26 patients in need of extraction of one lower molar tooth were divided in 3 groups. In group A (8 patients) the alveolar socket was left for spontaneous healing, in group B (8 patients) it was filled with a hydroxyapatite scaffold while in group C (10 patients) it was filled with hydroxyapatite granules...
March 28, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384239/induction-of-osteoblastic-differentiation-of-neural-crest-derived-stem-cells-from-hair-follicles
#19
Eri Urano-Morisawa, Masamichi Takami, Tetsuo Suzawa, Akifumi Matsumoto, Noriko Osumi, Kazuyoshi Baba, Ryutaro Kamijo
The neural crest (NC) arises near the neural tube during embryo development. NC cells migrate throughout the embryo and have potential to differentiate into multiple cell types, such as peripheral nerves, glial, cardiac smooth muscle, endocrine, and pigment cells, and craniofacial bone. In the present study, we induced osteoblast-like cells using whisker follicles obtained from the NC of mice. Hair follicle cells derived from the NC labeled with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) were collected from protein zero-Cre/floxed-EGFP double transgenic mice and cultured, then treated and cultured in stem cell growth medium...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377558/pentraxin-3-as-a-new-indicator-of-cardiovascular%C3%A2-related-death-in-patients-with-advanced-chronic-kidney-disease
#20
Marcin Krzanowski, Katarzyna Krzanowska, Mariusz Gajda, Paulina Dumnicka, Artur Dziewierz, Karolina Woziwodzka, Jan A Litwin, Władysław Sułowicz
INTRODUCTION    Pentraxin3 (PTX3) play an important role in the inflammatory response, taking part in recognizing pathogens and damaged tissues. OBJECTIVES    The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between PTX3 levels and all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients during five-year observation period.  PATIENTS AND METHODS    The study comprised 78 patients (51 hemodialyzed, 27 predialysis). The examined parameters included PTX3, calcium, phosphate, iPTH, interleukin-6 (IL-6), fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), osteopontin (OPN), osteoprotegerin (OPG), osteocalcin (OC), osteopontin (OPN), osteoprotegerin (OPG), osteocalcin, tumor necrosis factor receptor II (TNF-R II), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), stromal cell-derived factor α (SDF1α), and thrombomodulin (TM)...
February 27, 2017: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
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