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Topical Nitrates

Zhili He, Ping Zhang, Linwei Wu, Andrea M Rocha, Qichao Tu, Zhou Shi, Bo Wu, Yujia Qin, Jianjun Wang, Qingyun Yan, Daniel Curtis, Daliang Ning, Joy D Van Nostrand, Liyou Wu, Yunfeng Yang, Dwayne A Elias, David B Watson, Michael W W Adams, Matthew W Fields, Eric J Alm, Terry C Hazen, Paul D Adams, Adam P Arkin, Jizhong Zhou
Contamination from anthropogenic activities has significantly impacted Earth's biosphere. However, knowledge about how environmental contamination affects the biodiversity of groundwater microbiomes and ecosystem functioning remains very limited. Here, we used a comprehensive functional gene array to analyze groundwater microbiomes from 69 wells at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center (Oak Ridge, TN), representing a wide pH range and uranium, nitrate, and other contaminants. We hypothesized that the functional diversity of groundwater microbiomes would decrease as environmental contamination (e...
February 20, 2018: MBio
Lauren K Hoffman, Isabelle Raymond, Leon Kircik
BACKGROUND: Tinea pedis is the most common dermatophyte infection. Treatment is critical to alleviate pruritic symptoms, to reduce the risk for secondary bacterial infection, and to limit the spread of infection to other body sites or other individuals. The objective of this study was to compare the abilities of econazole nitrate topical foam, 1% and ketoconazole cream (2%) to reduce pruritus, thus improving quality of life, and to determine patient preference for the foam product versus the cream product in patients with interdigital tinea pedis...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
Chikako Ogawa, Yoshiaki Sato, Chiyo Suzuki, Azusa Mano, Atsushi Tashiro, Takafumi Niwa, Sayako Hamazaki, Yoshihiro Tanahashi, Midori Suzumura, Satoshi Hayano, Masahiro Hayakawa, Takeshi Tsuji, Shin Hoshino, Yuichiro Sugiyama, Hiroyuki Kidokoro, Jun-Ichi Kawada, Hideki Muramatsu, Akihiro Hirakawa, Masahiko Ando, Jun Natsume, Seiji Kojima
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this prospective multicenter randomized controlled trial was to compare the efficacy of silver nitrate cauterization against that of topical steroid ointment in the treatment of neonatal umbilical granuloma. METHODS: An open-label, non-inferiority randomized controlled trial was conducted from January 2013 to January 2016. The primary endpoint for the silver nitrate cauterization and topical steroid ointment groups was the healing rate after 2 weeks of treatment, applying a non-inferiority margin of 10%...
2018: PloS One
Libin Wu, Xiaodong Liu, Yunting Fang, Shengjie Hou, Liqiang Xu, Xueying Wang, Pingqing Fu
The nitrogen (N) utilization strategy of plants has become a topic of interest within the field of phytoecology. However, few studies have considered N cycling on coral island ecosystems from the perspective of their evolution. The aim of this study was to test the impacts of biological transport by seabirds, on the sources and uses of N by plants, and pathways of N cycling in soil-plant ecosystems on coral islands. A series of eight coral islands were investigated, five of which were affected to a varying extent by seabirds...
January 29, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Paul Curtiss, Zachary Schwager, Gabriela Cobos, Kristen Lo Sicco, Andrew G Franks
BACKGROUND: Multiple placebo controlled trials have assessed locally applied topical nitrate preparations in treating Raynaud's phenomenon (RP). OBJECTIVES: The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the effects of local topical nitrates in primary and secondary RP with respect to a combined endpoint integrating parameters of digital blood flow and clinical severity. METHODS: A systematic review was performed using MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane library...
February 2, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Ambar Banerjee, Souloke Sen, Ankan Paul
Though Dinitrosyl-Iron complexes (DNICs) are largely believed to act as NO carriers, topical experiments on model DNICs have suggested that they can also act as Nitrating agents in presence of dioxygen. Oxygen activation by DNICs have been implicated as a possible route for protein tyrosine nitration (PTN), which leads to neurodegenerative disorders. Herein using static and dynamic theoretical techniques we unravel a previously unknown dual state mechanistic paradigm for dioxygen activation of a biomimetic nitrating DNIC complex leading to phenolic nitration...
January 7, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Victoria Díaz-Tomé, Andrea Luaces-Rodríguez, Jesús Silva-Rodríguez, Sara Blanco-Dorado, Laura García-Quintanilla, José Llovo Taboada, José Blanco-Méndez, Michel Herranz, María Gil-Martínez, María Jesús Lamas, Miguel González-Barcia, Francisco J Otero-Espinar, Anxo Fernández-Ferreiro
Econazole is a feasible alternative treatment in the management of fungal keratitis. Nevertheless, its low water solubility is considered the main limitation to the incorporation into ophthalmic formulations. In this work, econazole nitrate is solubilized by using cyclodextrins to achieve an optimum therapeutic concentration. Phase solubility diagrams suggest a-cyclodextrin as the most effective cyclodextrin and later the inclusion complex formed with this one was characterised in solution by 1D, 2D-NMR and molecular modelling...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
S M Sahebally, B Meshkat, S R Walsh, D Beddy
AIM: Chronic anal fissures (CAFs) are frequently encountered in coloproctology clinics. Chemical sphincterotomy with pharmacological agents is recommended as first-line therapy. Topical nitrates (TN) heal CAF effectively but recurrences are common. An alternative treatment modality is injection of botulinum toxin (BT) into the anal sphincter. We aimed to perform an updated systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the effectiveness of BT and TN in the management of CAF. METHOD: PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched for relevant articles from inception until March 2017...
January 2018: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
Rafaela Cáceres, Krystyna Malińska, Oriol Marfà
Composting could be regarded as a process of processes because it entails a number of complex chemical and microbiological reactions and transformations. Nitrification is one of such processes that normally takes place during the curing phase. This process has been studied in detail for wastewater treatment, and it is becoming an extensively studied topic within composting. In the past, nitrate presence in compost has been clearly perceived as a maturation indicator; however, nowadays, nitrate formation is also conceived as a way of conserving nitrogen in compost...
November 15, 2017: Waste Management
Angela Abruzzo, Barbara Giordani, Carola Parolin, Beatrice Vitali, Michele Protti, Laura Mercolini, Martina Cappelletti, Stefano Fedi, Federica Bigucci, Teresa Cerchiara, Barbara Luppi
The purpose of this work was to prepare and characterize an innovative formulation for vaginal delivery of econazole nitrate, commonly used for the treatment of Candida infections. A novel biosurfactant isolated from a vaginal Lactobacillus strain was used to prepare phosphatidylcholine based mixed vesicles. Biosurfactant was produced by Lactobacillus gasseri BC9, isolated from the vagina of a healthy premenopausal woman, and was chemically characterized by FT-IR and ESI-MS. Mixed vesicles, obtained through film rehydration and extrusion method, were characterized in terms of size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, mucoadhesion properties and econazole release...
January 15, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Alicia R Mathers, Cara D Carey, Meaghan E Killeen, Sonia R Salvatore, Laura K Ferris, Bruce A Freeman, Francisco J Schopfer, Louis D Falo
Endogenous electrophilic fatty acids mediate anti-inflammatory responses by modulating metabolic and inflammatory signal transduction and gene expression. Nitro-fatty acids and other electrophilic fatty acids may thus be useful for the prevention and treatment of immune-mediated diseases, including inflammatory skin disorders. In this regard, subcutaneous (SC) injections of nitro oleic acid (OA-NO2 ), an exemplary nitro-fatty acid, inhibit skin inflammation in a model of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Given the nitration of unsaturated fatty acids during metabolic and inflammatory processes and the growing use of fatty acids in topical formulations, we sought to further study the effect of nitro-fatty acids on cutaneous inflammation...
February 1, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
C Connolly, S Tierney, P Grace
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) has diverse roles as a biological messenger. [1] Topically applied nitrate donors cause relaxation of the internal anal sphincter (IAS) and facilitate healing of anal fissures [2,3]. Systemic nitrates are commonly used for the treatment of ischaemic heart disease, yet the effects of systemically administered nitrates on the smooth muscle of the IAS are unknown. AIM: Our aim was to test the hypothesis that systemically administered nitrates at a normal dose, cause inhibition of anal sphincter activity...
September 13, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Michelle Plum, Oussayma Moukhachen
Vasopressor extravasation is a rare adverse drug reaction that can lead to tissue damage, ischemia, and necrosis of the affected area when vasopressors are administered peripherally. Phentolamine, a nonselective, reversible alpha antagonist, is the current standard treatment for this adverse reaction, but it is often unavailable for use. This review seeks to synthesize the available data in order to recommend alternative pharmacological options for use when phentolamine is not available. After an extensive literature search, 16 publications were reviewed...
September 2017: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
Harun Cakmak, Esra Gokmen, Gokay Bozkurt, Tolga Kocaturk, Kemal Ergin
AIM: To evaluate the effects of sunitinib (0.5 mg/ml) and bevacizumab (5 mg/ml) on VEGF-A, VEGFR-2 and microRNA (miRNA) levels on corneal neovascularization (CNV). METHODS: In this study, CNV was induced by silver nitrate application to the cornea, and 40 Albino male rats were equally divided into four subgroups: Group 1 (sunitinib): After silver nitrate application to the cornea, 0.5 mg/ml sunitinib eyedrop was administered twice daily for two weeks (n = 10)...
September 20, 2017: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Stefano Veraldi, Rossana Schianchi, Paolo Pontini, Alberto Gorani
BACKGROUND: Tinea corporis is a common mycotic infection in children. Staphylococcus aureus superinfections may be observed in atopic children with tinea corporis suffering from severe pruritus and consequent scratching. OBJECTIVE: From 2006 to 2011, we observed 288 children with mycologically proven tinea corporis. In 39 of them (13.5%) tinea corporis was superinfected by S. aureus: all these children were affected by atopic dermatitis. We interpreted these bacterial superinfections as the clinical result of scratching due to pruritus...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
Gill Norman, Janice Christie, Zhenmi Liu, Maggie J Westby, Jayne M Jefferies, Thomas Hudson, Jacky Edwards, Devi Prasad Mohapatra, Ibrahim A Hassan, Jo C Dumville
BACKGROUND: Burn wounds cause high levels of morbidity and mortality worldwide. People with burns are particularly vulnerable to infections; over 75% of all burn deaths (after initial resuscitation) result from infection. Antiseptics are topical agents that act to prevent growth of micro-organisms. A wide range are used with the intention of preventing infection and promoting healing of burn wounds. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects and safety of antiseptics for the treatment of burns in any care setting...
July 12, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Shaheel M Sahebally, Khalid Ahmed, Raminta Cerneveciute, Asif Iqbal, Stewart R Walsh, Myles R Joyce
BACKGROUND: Chemical sphincterotomy with pharmacological agents is recommended as first line therapy for chronic anal fissures (CAF). Calcium channel blockers (CCB) are associated with similar efficacy but fewer side effects compared to nitrates. However, the optimal formulation (oral versus topical) is unknown. We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the effectiveness of oral and topical CCB in the treatment of CAF. METHODS: PubMed and Embase online databases were searched for relevant articles...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
Genaina Guimarães Soares, Pâmela Amorim Magalhães, Ana Beatriz Monteiro Fonseca, Monica Almeida Tostes, Eduardo Moreira da Silva, Thereza Christina Lopes Coutinho
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of CPP-ACPF paste and fluoride toothpastes on enamel subjected to erosion and erosion plus abrasion in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 220 human enamel blocks were divided into eleven groups (n = 20): CPP-ACPF paste (MPP), potassium nitrate/sodium fluoride toothpaste (PE), sodium fluoride toothpaste (FD), fluoride-free toothpaste (SO) and control (erosion only with no paste or toothpastes; CO) according to the experimental design: erosion or erosion plus abrasion immediately after erosion (ERO+I-ABR) or 30 min after erosion (ERO+30min-ABR)...
2017: Oral Health & Preventive Dentistry
Luisa Christensen, Rob Turner, Sean Weaver, Francesco Caserta, Lisa Long, Mahmoud Ghannoum, Marc Brown
In an effort to increase the efficacy of topical medications for treating onychomycosis, several new nail penetration enhancers were recently developed. In this study, the ability of 10% (wt/wt) miconazole nitrate combined with a penetration enhancer formulation to permeate the nail is demonstrated by the use of a selection of in vitro nail penetration assays. These assays included the bovine hoof, TurChub zone of inhibition, and infected-nail models.
July 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
René Höhn, Alireza Mirshahi, Stefan Nickels, Andreas Schulz, Philipp S Wild, Maria Blettner, Norbert Pfeiffer
BACKGROUND: Intraocular pressure (IOP) is well known to be associated with blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors. The influence of systemic cardiovascular, in particular antihypertensive, medication on IOP is still controversial. This study analyses the association between the use of cardiovascular medications and IOP in a large European cohort. METHODS: The Gutenberg Health Study is a population-based, prospective,observational cohort study in mid-western Germany...
December 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
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