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Topical Nitrates

M Ivaskiene, A P Matusevicius, A Grigonis, G Zamokas, L Babickaite
In the field of veterinary dermatology dermatophytosis is one of the most frequently occurring infectious diseases, therefore its treatment should be effective, convenient, safe and inexpensive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of newly developed topical formulations in the treatment of cats with dermatophytosis. Evaluation of clinical efficacy and safety of terbinafine and econazole formulations administered topically twice a day was performed in 40 cats. Cats, suffering from the most widely spread Microsporum canis-induced dermatophytosis and treated with terbinafine hydrochloride 1% cream, recovered within 20...
September 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Jae Yong Kim, Soo Yeon Kim, Mi Hyun Cheon, Eun-Soon Kim, In Seok Song, Myoung Joon Kim, Hungwon Tchah
AIM: To investigate the antiangiogenic effects and safety of topically administered low-molecular-weight heparin-taurocholate 7 (LHT7) on corneal neovascularization (CoNV). METHODS: Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed into four groups of six rats each. The central corneas were cauterized using a silver/potassium nitrate solution. From 2d after cauterization, 12.5 mg/mL (low LHT7 group) or 25 mg/mL (high LHT7 group) LHT7 was topically administered three times daily; 12...
2016: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Amy M Holmes, Julian Lim, Hauke Studier, Michael S Roberts
The use of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) within the healthcare sector and consumer products is rapidly increasing. There are now a range of diverse-shaped Ag NPs that are commercially available and many of the products containing nanosilver are topically applied to human skin. Currently, there is limited data on the extent to which the antimicrobial efficacy and cytotoxicity of Ag NPs is related to their shape and how the shape of the Ag NPs affects their distribution in both intact and burn wounded human skin after topical application...
October 5, 2016: Nanotoxicology
Alan B Fleischer, Isabelle Raymond
Econazole nitrate topical foam, 1%, is indicated for the treatment of interdigital tinea pedis caused by <em>Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes,</em> and <em>Epidermophyton floccosum</em> in patients 12 years of age and older. The symptom of itch or pruritus was evaluated in two randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, vehicle-controlled, multicenter Phase III studies in which econazole foam was compared with foam vehicle in subjects with interdigital tinea pedis. A thin, uniform layer of study treatment was applied once daily to all clinically affected interdigital regions of both feet for four weeks...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
Natalija Topić Popović, Ivančica Strunjak-Perović, Josip Barišić, Slavko Kepec, Margita Jadan, Blanka Beer-Ljubić, Vesna Matijatko, Dušan Palić, Goran Klobučar, Sanja Babić, Jasenka Gajdoš Kljusurić, Rozelindra Čož-Rakovac
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of treated wastewaters on native wild Prussian carp inhabiting effluent-receiving waters (ERC) receiving municipal and sugar plant treated wastewaters, further downstream waters (DW), and a detached canal unaffected by the WWTP activities. To that end, general fish health status was determined, including plasma biochemical, haematological, oxidative stress and tissue histopathological indices, over three seasons. The greatest tissue alterations were in fall in ERC during sugar beet processing, as hypertrophy of gill epithelial and interlamellar cells, necrosis and lymphocytic infiltration, hyperplasia and hypertrophy of renal tubules, distention of hepatic sinusoids...
November 2016: Environmental Pollution
Joseph A Fournier, William Carpenter, Luigi De Marco, Andrei Tokmakoff
The long-range influence of ions in solution on the water hydrogen-bond (H-bond) network remains a topic of vigorous debate. Recent spectroscopic and theoretical studies have, for the most part, reached the consensus that weakly coordinating ions only affect water molecules in the first hydration shell. Here, we apply ultrafast broadband two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy to aqueous nitrate and carbonate in neat H2O to study the solvation structure and dynamics of ions on opposite ends of the Hofmeister series...
August 3, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Mahima Manian, Kumpal Madrasi, Ayyappa Chaturvedula, Ajay K Banga
Effective topical therapy of cutaneous fungal diseases requires the delivery of the active agent to the target site in adequate concentrations to produce a pharmacological effect and inhibit the growth of the pathogen. In addition, it is important to determine the concentration of the drug in the skin in order to evaluate the subsequent efficacy and potential toxicity for topical formulations. For this purpose, an anhydrous gel containing sertaconazole nitrate as a model drug was formulated and the amount of the drug in the skin was determined by in vitro tape stripping...
2016: Pharmaceutics
Mollie L Mesman, Allison L Kirby, Wayne S Rosenkrantz, Craig E Griffin
BACKGROUND: Topical antimicrobial therapy is increasingly important in the treatment of canine pyoderma as the incidence of multidrug resistance has risen. However, little information is reported on the persistence of activity of topical antimicrobial products. OBJECTIVE: To determine the residual antibacterial activity of canine hairs treated with antimicrobial sprays. ANIMALS: Twelve privately owned dogs with no history of dermatological disease...
August 2016: Veterinary Dermatology
Sarita Tiwari, Bijaya Ketan Sarangi, Sanjog T Thul
Mitigation of arsenic (As) pollution is a topical environmental issue of high R&D priority. The present investigation was carried out to isolate As resistant endophytes from the roots of Indian ecotype Pteris vittata and characterize their As transformation and tolerance ability, plant growth promoting characteristics and their role to facilitate As uptake by the plant. A total of 8 root endophytes were isolated from plants grown in As amended soil (25 mg As kg(-1)). These isolates were studied for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), arsenite As(III) - arsenate As(V) transformation ability, plant growth promoting (PGP) characteristics through siderophore, indole acetic acid (IAA) production, phosphatase, ACC deaminase activity, and presence of arsenite oxidase (aox) and arsenite transporter (arsB) genes...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Manuel Lasch, Amelia Caballero-Martinez, Kerstin Troidl, Irmengard Schloegl, Thomas Lautz, Elisabeth Deindl
l-Arginine is the common substrate for nitric oxide synthases (NOS) and arginase. Whereas the contribution of NOS to collateral artery growth (arteriogenesis) has been demonstrated, the functional role of arginase remains to be elucidated and was topic of the present study. Arteriogenesis was induced in mice by ligation of the femoral artery. Laser Doppler perfusion measurements demonstrated a significant reduction in arteriogenesis in mice treated with the arginase inhibitor nor-NOHA (N(ω)-hydroxy-nor-arginine)...
August 2016: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Yuan Lei, Maomao Song, Jihong Wu, Chao Xing, Xinghuai Sun
PURPOSE: To investigate endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and the response of conventional outflow facility to nitric oxide donors and a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor in caveolin-1 (CAV1) knockout (KO) mice. METHODS: Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured in both CAV1 KO and wild-type (WT) mice by rebound tonometry. The expressions of caveolin-2 (CAV2), eNOS, eNOS-phospho Ser1177, eNOS-phospho Thr495, Akt, Akt-phospho Ser473, and nitrotyrosin were measured by Western blot analysis...
May 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Aisah A Aubdool, Xenia Kodji, Nayaab Abdul-Kader, Richard Heads, Elizabeth S Fernandes, Stuart Bevan, Susan D Brain
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) activation is known to mediate neurogenic vasodilatation. We investigated the mechanisms involved in TRPA1-mediated peripheral vasodilatation in vivo using the TRPA1 agonist cinnamaldehyde. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Changes in vascular ear blood flow were measured in anaesthetized mice using laser Doppler flowmetry. KEY RESULTS: Topical application of cinnamaldehyde to the mouse ear caused a significant increase in blood flow in the skin of anaesthetized wild-type (WT) mice but not in TRPA1 knockout (KO) mice...
August 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Zulfiqar Ahmad Rehan, Lassaad Gzara, Sher Bahadar Khan, Khalid A Alamry, M S El-Shahawi, Mohammad H Albeirutty, Alberto Figoli, Enrico Drioli, Abdullah M Asiri
BACKGROUND: The membrane processes are interesting and economical techniques for reuse of municipal and industrial wastewater as well as seawater desalination. Several studies have focused on the effect of the incorporation of nanoparticles in polymeric membrane matrix on the biofouling properties. Few relevant patents to the topic have been reviewed and cited. METHODS: Polyethersulfone (PES) membranes filled with silver nanoparticles AgNPs were prepared by non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS) process using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as additive and N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as solvent...
April 29, 2016: Recent Patents on Nanotechnology
Birgit Linnemann, Matthias Erbe
The primary goal of therapy is to reduce the frequency and intensity of Raynaud's attacks and to minimize the related morbidity rather than to cure the underlying condition. Treatment strategies depend on whether Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is primary or secondary. All patients should be instructed about general measures to maintain body warmth and to avoid triggers of RP attacks. Pharmacologic intervention can be useful for patients with severe and frequent RP episodes that impair the patient's quality of life...
2016: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
V V Pande, N A Kadnor, Rupali N Kadam, S A Upadhye
Present study was taken up to develop a topical formulation that releases the drug in controlled manner, reduce the side effects associated with topical drug delivery and improve product efficacy with aid of microsponges. Microsponges loaded with sertaconazole nitrate were prepared by using quasi emulsion solvent diffusion with five different proportions of the polymer (Eudragit RS 100). The developed microsponges were analyzed for particle size, production yield, entrapment efficiency and drug content. Scanning electron microscopic images of microsponges revealed that they are spherical in shape and contain pores...
November 2015: Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Alireza Firooz, Roshanak Namdar, Shohreh Nafisi, Howard I Maibach
Various nano-based strategies for increasing the efficiency of topical drugs have offered the potential advantage of miconazole skin delivery. Miconazole nitrate is an antifungal drug with a drawback of poor skin-penetration in the treatment of deep seated fungal skin infections. Drug entrapment in nanoparticles such as ethosome, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and nano structured lipid carriers (NLCs) can facilitate localized drug delivery and remove the skin barriers for an efficient drug delivery...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Hashmat Ullah, Muhammad Farid Khan, Syed Umer Jan, Farwa Hashmat
Toxicities of heavy metals is a burning issue and a topic of interest among the toxicologists throughout the world. Metals are always in use of man since long but in recent years the use of cadmium has increased in the form of various cadmium compounds such as cadmium compounds as stabilizers in plastic pipe industries and in the preparations of different alloys etc. Cadmium is even used in phosphate fertilizers and thus comes directly or indirectly in contact with human eatables like crops, vegetables and fruits...
January 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Michelle C de Souza, Gabriela Stepavoi
Topical silver nitrate may be used in oral and maxillofacial clinical settings owing to its astringent, caustic and disinfectant properties. Uses of the toughened silver nitrate pencil stick include haemostasis at bleeding points and for the management of aphthous ulcers, hypergranulation tissue, warts and verrucas. We present an interesting case of apparent silver nitrate-induced, bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the hard palate following mucosal lesion biopsy in a multiple myeloma patient receiving zoledronic acid intravenous infusions...
October 2015: Dental Update
Julian Balzer, Kiara Heuer, Erhan Demir, Martin A Hoffmanns, Sabrina Baldus, Paul C Fuchs, Peter Awakowicz, Christoph V Suschek, Christian Opländer
The proliferation of fibroblasts and myofibroblast differentiation are crucial in wound healing and wound closure. Impaired wound healing is often correlated with chronic bacterial contamination of the wound area. A new promising approach to overcome wound contamination, particularly infection with antibiotic-resistant pathogens, is the topical treatment with non-thermal "cold" atmospheric plasma (CAP). Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) devices generate CAP containing active and reactive species, which have antibacterial effects but also may affect treated tissue/cells...
2015: PloS One
Yiyao Wang, Huaizheng Li, Zuxin Xu
Nutrient transport and loss in farmlands are affected by factors such as land cover, fertilization, soil type, rainfall, and management practices. We investigated the temporal and spatial changes in macronutrient transport and loss after fertilization and precipitation in manure-fertilized eggplant farmland in an alluvial plain. Upon adding topical fertilizer, concentrations of most nutrients in runoff and groundwater increased, and nitrogen runoff increased from 22.11 to 35.81 kg/ha, although eggplant yield did not increase correspondingly...
January 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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