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Hypoxia weight loss

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429032/obstructive-sleep-apnoea-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-are-they-connected
#1
Yingjuan Mok, Chee Wei Tan, Hang Siang Wong, Choon How How, Kah Leong Alvin Tan, Pon Poh Hsu
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), a sleep-related breathing condition, is diagnosed based on a patient's apnoea-hypopnea index from a sleep study, and the presence or absence of symptoms. Diabetes mellitus (DM) and OSA share a significant common risk factor, obesity, with all three conditions contributing to the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. The pathophysiological links between OSA and DM are still unclear, but intermittent hypoxia may be an important mechanism. More awareness of the possible link between OSA and DM is needed, given their increasing prevalence locally and worldwide...
April 2017: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359241/obesity-and-cancer-biological-links-and-treatment-implications
#2
Alessandro Ottaiano, Chiara De Divitiis, Monica Capozzi, Antonio Avallone, Carmen Pisano, Sandro Pignata, Salvatore Tafuto
Obesity is an epidemic disease and correlates with cardiovascular diseases increasing the overall mortality. However, it has been recently demonstrated that cancer is an unexpected consequence of obesity. In most of the studies it is evaluated with body mass index (BMI): high BMI increases cancer risk and reduces survival of many solid tumors. The main biologic and clinic topics regarding obese cancer patients are here presented and discussed. Hyperinsulinemia and Insulin-like Growth Factors (IGFs) are among the most important links between cancer and obesity...
March 30, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179648/diet-induced-weight-loss-decreases-adipose-tissue-oxygen-tension-with-parallel-changes-in-adipose-tissue-phenotype-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-overweight-humans
#3
R G Vink, N J Roumans, M Čajlaković, J P M Cleutjens, M V Boekschoten, P Fazelzadeh, M A A Vogel, E E Blaak, E C Mariman, M A van Baak, G H Goossens
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Although adipose tissue (AT) hypoxia is present in rodent models of obesity, evidence for this in humans is limited. Here, we investigated the effects of diet-induced weight loss (WL) on abdominal subcutaneous AT oxygen tension (pO2), AT blood flow (ATBF), AT capillary density, AT morphology and transcriptome, systemic inflammatory markers and insulin sensitivity in humans. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Fifteen overweight and obese individuals underwent a dietary intervention (DI), consisting of a 5-week very-low-calorie diet (VLCD, 500 kcal day(-1); WL), and a subsequent 4-week weight stable diet (WS)...
March 7, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144885/effects-of-obesity-on-protein-kinase-c-brain-creatine-kinase-transcription-and-autophagy-in-cochlea
#4
Juen-Haur Hwang
Diet-induced obesity (DIO) has been shown to exacerbate hearing degeneration via increased hypoxia, inflammatory responses, and cell loss via both caspase-dependent and caspase-independent apoptosis signaling pathways. This study aimed to investigate the effects of DIO on the mRNA expressions of protein kinase c-β (PKC-β), brain creatine kinase (CKB), transcription modification genes, and autophagy-related genes in the cochlea of CD/1 mice. Sixteen 4-week-old male CD/1 mice were randomly divided into 2 groups...
January 31, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992500/discovery-of-novel-small-molecule-inhibitors-of-vegf-expression-in-tumor-cells-using-a-cell-based-high-throughput-screening-platform
#5
Liangxian Cao, Marla Weetall, Jenelle Bombard, Hongyan Qi, Tamil Arasu, William Lennox, Jean Hedrick, Josephine Sheedy, Nicole Risher, Peter C Brooks, Panayiota Trifillis, Christopher Trotta, Young-Choon Moon, John Babiak, Neil G Almstead, Joseph M Colacino, Thomas W Davis, Stuart W Peltz
Current anti-VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A) therapies to treat various cancers indiscriminately block VEGF function in the patient resulting in the global loss of VEGF signaling which has been linked to dose-limiting toxicities as well as treatment failures due to acquired resistance. Accumulating evidence suggests that this resistance is at least partially due to increased production of compensatory tumor angiogenic factors/cytokines. VEGF protein production is differentially controlled depending on whether cells are in the normal "homeostatic" state or in a stressed state, such as hypoxia, by post-transcriptional regulation imparted by elements in the 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTR) of the VEGF mRNA...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990642/anemia-tolerance-during-normo-hypo-and-hypervolemia
#6
Malte Krömker, Patrick Lauscher, Harry Kertscho, Kai Zacharowski, Peter Rosenberger, Jens Meier
BACKGROUND: Restrictive intraoperative fluid management has been demonstrated to improve outcome of visceral and lung surgery in several studies. However, subsequent hypovolemia (HOV) may be accompanied by a decrease of anemia tolerance, resulting in increased transfusion needs. We therefore investigated the effect of volume status on anemia tolerance. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Eighteen domestic pigs of either sex (mean weight, 23.5 ± 4.8 kg) were anesthetized, ventilated, and randomized into three experimental groups: normovolemia (no intervention), HOV (blood loss of 40% of blood volume), and hypervolemia (HEV; volume infusion of 40% of blood volume)...
March 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932989/hypoxic-living-and-exercise-training-alter-adipose-tissue-leptin-leptin-receptor-in-rats
#7
Yingli Lu, Lianshi Feng, Minhao Xie, Li Zhang, Jianfang Xu, Zihong He, Tongjian You
Background: Hypobaric hypoxia results in weight loss in obese individuals, and exercise training is advocated for the treatment of obesity and its related metabolic dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hypoxic living and exercise training on obesity and adipose tissue leptin/leptin receptor in dietary-induced obese rats. Methods: One hundred and thirty high-fat diet fed Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into one of the following groups (n = 10 each): control, sedentary hypoxic living for 1-4 weeks (SH1, SH2, SH3, and SH4), living, and exercise training in normoxic conditions for 1-4 weeks (TN1, TN2, TN3, and TN4), and living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions for 1-4 weeks (TN1, TN2, TN3, and TN4)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895554/systemic-radical-scavenger-treatment-of-a-mouse-model-of-rett-syndrome-merits-and-limitations-of-the-vitamin-e-derivative-trolox
#8
Oliwia A Janc, Marc A Hüser, Katharina Dietrich, Belinda Kempkes, Christiane Menzfeld, Swen Hülsmann, Michael Müller
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder typically arising from spontaneous mutations in the X-chromosomal methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. The almost exclusively female Rett patients show an apparently normal development during their first 6-18 months of life. Subsequently, cognitive- and motor-impairment, hand stereotypies, loss of learned skills, epilepsy and irregular breathing manifest. Early mitochondrial impairment and oxidative challenge are considered to facilitate disease progression...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784476/-effects-of-prenatal-maternal-seizure-on-hippocampal-damage-and-cognitive-deficits-in-offspring-rats
#9
Y Lu, W P Wang, X X Wang, J J Feng, Z P Guo, L M Liu, T Xie, R R Zhao, Y L Cai
Objective: To observe hippocampal damage and cognitive impairment of offspring exposed to prenatal maternal seizure induced by amygdala kindling, and to explore the underlying mechanism by the detection of pathological changes of placenta. Method: Adult female SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group(8 rats), kindling group(12 rats) and sham group(8 rats). All the rats were allowed to mate after one week's fully kindling. The pregnant rats in kindling group received electric stimulation every 48 h...
October 2, 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630206/increased-interleukin-32-levels-in-obesity-promote-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-extracellular-matrix-remodeling-effect-of-weight-loss
#10
Victoria Catalán, Javier Gómez-Ambrosi, Amaia Rodríguez, Beatriz Ramírez, Víctor Valentí, Rafael Moncada, Manuel F Landecho, Camilo Silva, Javier Salvador, Gema Frühbeck
Interleukin (IL)-32 is a recently described cytokine involved in the regulation of inflammation. We aimed to explore whether IL-32 could function as an inflammatory and angiogenic factor in human obesity and obesity-associated type 2 diabetes. Samples obtained from 90 subjects were used in the study. Obese patients exhibited higher expression levels of IL-32 in visceral adipose tissue (AT) as well as in subcutaneous AT and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. IL32 was mainly expressed by stromovascular fraction cells, and its expression was significantly enhanced by inflammatory stimuli and hypoxia, whereas no changes were found after the incubation with anti-inflammatory cytokines...
December 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628483/hypoxia-driven-hif2a-coordinates-mouse-liver-regeneration-by-coupling-parenchymal-growth-to-vascular-expansion
#11
Philipp Kron, Michael Linecker, Perparim Limani, Andrea Schlegel, Patryk Kambakamba, Jean-Marie Lehn, Claude Nicolau, Rolf Graf, Bostjan Humar, Pierre-Alain Clavien
Interaction between sinusoidal endothelial cells and hepatocytes is a prerequisite for liver function. Upon tissue loss, both liver cell populations need to be regenerated. Repopulation occurs in a coordinated pattern, first through the regeneration of parenchyme (hepatocytes), which then produces vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to enable the subsequent angiogenic phase. The signals that instruct hepatocytes to induce timely VEGF remain unidentified. Given that liver is highly vascularized, we reasoned that fluctuations in oxygenation after tissue loss may contribute to the coordination between hepatocyte and sinusoidal endothelial cell proliferation...
September 15, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624688/increased-hemoglobin-oxygen-affinity-ameliorates-bleomycin-induced-hypoxemia-and-pulmonary-fibrosis
#12
Xin Geng, Kobina Dufu, Athiwat Hutchaleelaha, Qing Xu, Zhe Li, Chien-Ming Li, Mira P Patel, Nicholas Vlahakis, Josh Lehrer-Graiwer, Donna Oksenberg
Although exertional dyspnea and worsening hypoxia are hallmark clinical features of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), no drug currently available could treat them. GBT1118 is a novel orally bioavailable small molecule that binds to hemoglobin and produces a concentration-dependent left shift of the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve with subsequent increase in hemoglobin-oxygen affinity and arterial oxygen loading. To assess whether pharmacological modification of hemoglobin-oxygen affinity could ameliorate hypoxemia associated with lung fibrosis, we evaluated GBT1118 in a bleomycin-induced mouse model of hypoxemia and fibrosis...
September 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578020/sodium-butyrate-a-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-exhibits-neuroprotective-neurogenic-effects-in-a-rat-model-of-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia
#13
Malgorzata Ziemka-Nalecz, Joanna Jaworska, Joanna Sypecka, Rafał Polowy, Robert K Filipkowski, Teresa Zalewska
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury still remains an important issue as it is a major cause of neonatal death and neurological dysfunctions. Currently, there are no well-established treatments to reduce brain damage and its long-term sequel in infants. Recently, reported data show that histone deacetylase inhibitors provide neuroprotection in adult stroke models. However, the proof of their relevance in vivo after neonatal HI brain injury remains particularly limited. In the present study, we show neuroprotective/neurogenic effect of sodium butyrate (SB), one of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis), in the dentate gyrus of HI-injured immature rats...
August 30, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570189/selective-accumulation-of-biotin-in-arterial-chemoreceptors-requirement-for-carotid-body-exocytotic-dopamine-secretion
#14
Patricia Ortega-Sáenz, David Macías, Konstantin L Levitsky, José A Rodríguez-Gómez, Patricia González-Rodríguez, Victoria Bonilla-Henao, Ignacio Arias-Mayenco, José López-Barneo
KEY POINTS: Biotin, a vitamin whose main role is as a coenzyme for carboxylases, accumulates at unusually large amounts within cells of the carotid body (CB). In biotin-deficient rats biotin rapidly disappears from the blood; however, it remains at relatively high levels in CB glomus cells. The CB contains high levels of mRNA for SLC5a6, a biotin transporter, and SLC19a3, a thiamine transporter regulated by biotin. Animals with biotin deficiency exhibit pronounced metabolic lactic acidosis...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552063/combining-hypobaric-hypoxia-or-hyperbaric-oxygen-postconditioning-with-memantine-reduces-neuroprotection-in-7-day-old-rat-hypoxia-ischemia
#15
Marcin Gamdzyk, Apolonia Ziembowicz, Ewelina Bratek, Elzbieta Salinska
BACKGROUND: Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia causes brain injury in neonates, but a fully successful treatment to prevent changes in the brain has yet to be developed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combining memantine treatment with HBO (2.5 ATA) or HH (0.47 ATA) on neonatal hypoxia-ischemia brain injury. METHODS: 7-day old rats were subjected to hypoxia-ischemia (H-I) and treated with combination of memantine and HBO or HH. The brain damage was evaluated by examination of infarct area and the number of apoptotic cells in CA1 region of hippocampus...
October 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27380075/illinois-river-nitrate-nitrogen-concentrations-and-loads-long-term-variation-and-association-with-watershed-nitrogen-inputs
#16
Gregory F McIsaac, Mark B David, George Z Gertner
The Illinois River is a major contributor of nitrate-N to the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico, where nitrate is a leading cause of summertime benthic hypoxia. Corn-soybean production on tile-drained land is a leading source of nitrate-N in this river system, in addition to municipal wastewater discharge. We calculated annual nitrate-N loads in the Illinois River at Valley City from 1976 to 2014 by linear interpolation. Although there was not a significant trend in annual loads during the entire study period, there was a significant downward trend in flow-weighted nitrate-N concentration after 1990 despite high concentrations in 2013 after the 2012 drought...
July 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27324067/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#17
Judith Aron-Wisnewsky, Karine Clement, Jean-Louis Pépin
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and more importantly its hallmark, chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), are established factors in the pathogenesis and exacerbation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This has been clearly demonstrated in rodent models exposed to intermittent hypoxia, and strong evidence now also exists in both paediatric and adult human populations. OSA and CIH induce insulin-resistance and dyslipidemia which are involved in NAFLD physiopathogenesis. CIH increases the expression of the hypoxia inducible transcription factor HIF1α and that of downstream genes involved in lipogenesis, thereby increasing β-oxidation and consequently exacerbating liver oxidative stress...
August 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27267822/involvement-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1-%C3%AE-hif-1%C3%AE-in-inhibition-of-benzene-on-mouse-hematopoietic-system
#18
Xing Meng, Juan Zhang, Lihong Yin, Yuepu Pu
Benzene is an occupational and environmental pollutant that damages the hematopoietic system through oxidant mechanisms. The aims of this study were to assess the role of oxidation in benzene-mediated damage by determination of the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to evaluate the role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in this process. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to benzene at varying concentrations of 60, 150, or 300 mg/kg/d for 15 d. Mice in the benzene groups displayed weight loss, and hematologic consequences including decreased red and white blood cell counts, reduced platelet count, diminished hemoglobin content, and lower number of hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow (BM)...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26932203/dexmedetomidine-postconditioning-reduces-brain-injury-after-brain-hypoxia-ischemia-in-neonatal-rats
#19
Xiaoyan Ren, Hong Ma, Zhiyi Zuo
Perinatal asphyxia can lead to death and severe disability. Brain hypoxia-ischemia (HI) injury is the major pathophysiology contributing to death and severe disability after perinatal asphyxia. Here, seven-day old Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to left brain HI. Dexmedetomidine was given intraperitoneally after the brain HI. Yohimbine or atipamezole, two α2 adrenergic receptor antagonists, were given 10 min before the dexmedetomidine injection. Neurological outcome was evaluated 7 or 28 days after the brain HI...
June 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26891273/%C3%AE-adrenergic-signaling-in-rat-heart-is-similarly-affected-by-continuous-and-intermittent-normobaric-hypoxia
#20
Klara Hahnova, Dita Kasparova, Jitka Zurmanova, Jan Neckar, Frantisek Kolar, Jiri Novotny
Chronic hypoxia may produce a cardioprotective phenotype characterized by increased resistance to ischemia-reperfusion injury. Nevertheless, the molecular basis of cardioprotective effects of hypoxia is still not quite clear. The present study investigated the consequences of a 3-week adaptation to cardioprotective (CNH, continuous normobaric hypoxia) and nonprotective (INH, intermittent normobaric hypoxia; 23 h/day hypoxia followed by 1 h/day reoxygenation) regimen of hypoxia on β-adrenergic signaling in the rat myocardium...
April 2016: General Physiology and Biophysics
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