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Alzheimer Spinal cord

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344865/isolation-of-distinct-types-of-neurons-from-fresh-brain-tissue-using-laser-microdissection-in-combination-with-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#1
Luisa Aring, Simone Steinbach, Katrin Marcus, Caroline May
Humans age and the ageing process affects cells in all areas of the human body, including nerve cells within the brain. With advancing age there is also a rise in the probability of developing a neurodegenerative disorder such as, e.g., amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, or Alzheimer's disease. In all these age-related neurodegenerative disorders, distinct neuron populations within specific brain regions are primarily affected. For example, Parkinson's disease is characterized by a slowly progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra whereas the entorhinal cortex is first affected in Alzheimer's disease...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329976/therapeutic-potential-of-spinal-glp-1-receptor-signaling
#2
REVIEW
Dongao Zhang, Gang Lv
GLP-1 signaling pathway has been well studied for its role in regulating glucose homeostasis, as well as its beneficial effects in energy and nutrient metabolism. A number of drugs based on GLP-1 have been used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. GLP-1R is expressed in multiple organs and numerous experimental studies have demonstrated that GLP-1 signaling pathway exhibits pro-survival functions in various disorders. In the central nervous system, stimulation of GLP-1R produces neuroprotective effects in specific neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease...
January 9, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286334/a-single-neonatal-exposure-to-bmaa-in-a-rat-model-produces-neuropathology-consistent-with-neurodegenerative-diseases
#3
Laura Louise Scott, Timothy Grant Downing
Although cyanobacterial β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) has been implicated in the development of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), Parkinson's Disease (PD) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), no BMAA animal model has reproduced all the neuropathology typically associated with these neurodegenerative diseases. We present here a neonatal BMAA model that causes β-amyloid deposition, neurofibrillary tangles of hyper-phosphorylated tau, TDP-43 inclusions, Lewy bodies, microbleeds and microgliosis as well as severe neuronal loss in the hippocampus, striatum, substantia nigra pars compacta, and ventral horn of the spinal cord in rats following a single BMAA exposure...
December 29, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280981/%C3%AE-n-methylamino-l-alanine-bmaa-toxicity-is-gender-and-exposure-age-dependent-in-rats
#4
Laura Louise Scott, Timothy Grant Downing
Cyanobacterial β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has been suggested as a causative or contributory factor in the development of several neurodegenerative diseases. However, no BMAA animal model has adequately shown clinical or behavioral symptoms that correspond to those seen in either Alzheimer's Disease (AD), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) or Parkinson's Disease (PD). We present here the first data that show that when neonatal rats were exposed to BMAA on postnatal days 3, 4 and 5, but not on gestational day 14 or postnatally on days 7 or 10, several AD and/or PD-related behavioral, locomotor and cognitive deficits developed...
December 27, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228660/motor-deficits-are-independent-of-axonopathy-in-an-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model-of-tgcrnd8-mice
#5
Qiuju Yuan, Jian Yang, Wutian Wu, Zhi-Xiu Lin
There have been an increasing number of reports of non-cognitive symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Some symptoms are associated with the loss of motor functions, e.g. gait disturbances, disturbed activity level and balance. Consistent with clinical findings, several AD mouse models harboring amyloid pathology develop motor impairment. Although the factors that contribute to the motor deficits have not yet been determined, it has been suggested that axonopathy is one of the key factors that may contribute to this particular feature of the disease...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185388/%C3%AE-lipoic-acid-functional-fatty-acid-as-a-novel-therapeutic-alternative-for-central-nervous-system-diseases-a-review
#6
Fatemeh Seifar, Mohammad Khalili, Habib Khaledyan, Shirin Amiri Moghadam, Azimeh Izadi, Amirreza Azimi, Seied Kazem Shakouri
OBJECTIVES: α-lipoic acid (ALA) is a natural antioxidant which acts as a cofactor of bioenergetic mitochondrial enzymes. Along with its mitochondrial action, ALA and its reduced form have many biological functions resulting in a wide variety of actions such as anti-inflammation and antioxidant protection, scavenging reactive oxygen species, regenerating other antioxidant agents, such as vitamins C and E, and cytosolic glutathione, chelating the transitional metal ions (e.g. iron and copper), and modulating the signal transduction of nuclear factor...
November 29, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176903/axonal-and-myelinic-pathology-in-5xfad-alzheimer-s-mouse-spinal-cord
#7
Tak-Ho Chu, Karen Cummins, Joseph S Sparling, Shigeki Tsutsui, Craig Brideau, K Peter R Nilsson, Jeffrey T Joseph, Peter K Stys
As an extension of the brain, the spinal cord has unique properties which could allow us to gain a better understanding of CNS pathology. The brain and cord share the same cellular components, yet the latter is simpler in cytoarchitecture and connectivity. In Alzheimer's research, virtually all focus is on brain pathology, however it has been shown that transgenic Alzheimer's mouse models accumulate beta amyloid plaques in spinal cord, suggesting that the cord possesses the same molecular machinery and conditions for plaque formation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142138/chitotriosidase-chit1-is-increased-in-microglia-and-macrophages-in-spinal-cord-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-levels-correlate-with-disease-severity-and-progression
#8
Petra Steinacker, Federico Verde, Lubin Fang, Emily Feneberg, Patrick Oeckl, Sigrun Roeber, Sarah Anderl-Straub, Adrian Danek, Janine Diehl-Schmid, Klaus Fassbender, Klaus Fliessbach, Hans Foerstl, Armin Giese, Holger Jahn, Jan Kassubek, Johannes Kornhuber, G Bernhard Landwehrmeyer, Martin Lauer, Elmar Hans Pinkhardt, Johannes Prudlo, Angela Rosenbohm, Anja Schneider, Matthias L Schroeter, Hayrettin Tumani, Christine A F von Arnim, Jochen Weishaupt, Patrick Weydt, Albert C Ludolph, Deniz Yilmazer Hanke, Markus Otto
OBJECTIVES: Neurochemical markers of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) that reflect underlying disease mechanisms might help in diagnosis, staging and prediction of outcome. We aimed at determining the origin and differential diagnostic and prognostic potential of the putative marker of microglial activation chitotriosidase (CHIT1). METHODS: Altogether 316 patients were included, comprising patients with sporadic ALS, ALS mimics (disease controls (DCo)), frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and healthy controls (Con)...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137141/steroid-and-xenobiotic-receptor-signalling-in-apoptosis-and-autophagy-of-the-nervous-system
#9
REVIEW
Agnieszka Wnuk, Małgorzata Kajta
Apoptosis and autophagy are involved in neural development and in the response of the nervous system to a variety of insults. Apoptosis is responsible for cell elimination, whereas autophagy can eliminate the cells or keep them alive, even in conditions lacking trophic factors. Therefore, both processes may function synergistically or antagonistically. Steroid and xenobiotic receptors are regulators of apoptosis and autophagy; however, their actions in various pathologies are complex. In general, the estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptors mediate anti-apoptotic signalling, whereas the androgen (AR) and glucocorticoid (GR) receptors participate in pro-apoptotic pathways...
November 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057990/spinal-cord-injury-and-alzheimer-s-disease-risk-a-population-based-retrospective-cohort-study
#10
Tian-Shin Yeh, Yu-Chun Ho, Cherng-Lan Hsu, Shin-Liang Pan
STUDY DESIGN: Propensity score-matched, retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVES: To determine the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: The present study used Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. METHODS: A total of 9257 patients who had ⩾2 ambulatory visits with a diagnosis of SCI in 2001 were included in the SCI group. The non-SCI group consisted of 37,028 propensity score-matched patients without a diagnosis of SCI...
October 23, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024655/lost-in-transportation-nucleocytoplasmic-transport-defects-in-als-and-other-neurodegenerative-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Hong Joo Kim, J Paul Taylor
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. The hallmark pathological feature in most cases of ALS is nuclear depletion and cytoplasmic accumulation of the protein TDP-43 in degenerating neurons. Consistent with this pattern of intracellular protein redistribution, impaired nucleocytoplasmic trafficking has emerged as a mechanism contributing to ALS pathology. Dysfunction in nucleocytoplasmic transport is also an emerging theme in physiological aging and other related neurodegenerative diseases, such as Huntington's and Alzheimer's diseases...
October 11, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966628/optogenetics-and-its-application-in-neural-degeneration-and-regeneration
#12
REVIEW
Josue D Ordaz, Wei Wu, Xiao-Ming Xu
Neural degeneration and regeneration are important topics in neurological diseases. There are limited options for therapeutic interventions in neurological diseases that provide simultaneous spatial and temporal control of neurons. This drawback increases side effects due to non-specific targeting. Optogenetics is a technology that allows precise spatial and temporal control of cells. Therefore, this technique has high potential as a therapeutic strategy for neurological diseases. Even though the application of optogenetics in understanding brain functional organization and complex behaviour states have been elaborated, reviews of its therapeutic potential especially in neurodegeneration and regeneration are still limited...
August 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965171/targeting-of-disordered-proteins-by-small-molecules-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#13
Francesca Longhena, PierFranco Spano, Arianna Bellucci
The formation of protein aggregates and inclusions in the brain and spinal cord is a common neuropathological feature of a number of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and many others. These are commonly referred as neurodegenerative proteinopathies or protein-misfolding diseases. The main characteristic of protein aggregates in these disorders is the fact that they are enriched in amyloid fibrils. Since protein aggregation is considered to play a central role for the onset of neurodegenerative proteinopathies, research is ongoing to develop strategies aimed at preventing or removing protein aggregation in the brain of affected patients...
October 1, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940129/the-role-of-smurf1-in-neuronal-necroptosis-after-lipopolysaccharide-induced-neuroinflammation
#14
Lifei Shao, Xiaojuan Liu, Shunxing Zhu, Chun Liu, Yilu Gao, Xide Xu
The role of inflammation in neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease is gradually recognized and leads to an urgent challenge. Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor 1 (Smurf1), one member of the HECT family, is up-regulated by proinflammatory cytokines and associated with apoptosis in acute spinal cord injury. However, the function of Smurf1 through promoting neuronal necroptosis is still limited in the central nervous system (CNS). Hence, we developed a neuroinflammatory model in adult rats following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) lateral ventral injection to elaborate whether Smurf1 is involved in necroptosis in CNS injury...
September 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912161/disruption-of-bmal1-impairs-blood-brain-barrier-integrity-via-pericyte-dysfunction
#15
Ryota Nakazato, Kenji Kawabe, Daisuke Yamada, Shinsuke Ikeno, Michihiro Mieda, Shigeki Shimba, Eiichi Hinoi, Yukio Yoneda, Takeshi Takarada
Circadian rhythm disturbances are well established in neurological diseases. However, how these disruptions cause homeostatic imbalances remains poorly understood. Brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein 1 (Bmal1) is a major circadian clock transcriptional activator, and Bmal1 deficiency in male Bmal1nestin(-/-) mice induced marked astroglial activation without affecting the number of astrocytes in the brain and spinal cord. Bmal1 deletion caused blood-brain barrier (BBB) hyperpermeability with an age-dependent loss of pericyte coverage of blood vessels in the brain...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889992/astrocytic-expression-of-the-cxcl12-receptor-cxcr7-ackr3-is-a-hallmark-of-the-diseased-but-not-developing-cns
#16
Malte Puchert, Fabian Pelkner, Gregor Stein, Doychin N Angelov, Johannes Boltze, Daniel-Christoph Wagner, Francesca Odoardi, Alexander Flügel, Wolfgang J Streit, Jürgen Engele
Based on our previous demonstration of CXCR7 as the major mediator of CXCL12 signaling in cultured astrocytes, we have now compared astrocytic expression of the CXCL12 receptors, CXCR7 and CXCR4, during CNS development and disease. In addition, we asked whether disease-associated conditions/factors affect expression of CXCL12 receptors in astrocytes. In the late embryonic rat brain, CXCR7(+)/GFAP(+) cells were restricted to the ventricular/subventricular zone while CXCR4 was widely absent from GFAP-positive cells...
September 8, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877271/spinal-cord-homogenates-from-sod1-familial-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-induce-sod1-aggregation-in-living-cells
#17
Edward Pokrishevsky, Ran Ha Hong, Ian R Mackenzie, Neil R Cashman
Mutant Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) can confer its misfolding on wild-type SOD1 in living cells; the propagation of misfolding can also be transmitted between cells in vitro. Recent studies identified fluorescently-tagged SOD1G85R as a promiscuous substrate that is highly prone to aggregate by a variety of templates, in vitro and in vivo. Here, we utilized several SOD1-GFP reporter proteins with G37R, G85R, or G93A mutations in SOD1. We observed that human spinal cord homogenates prepared from SOD1 familial ALS (FALS) can induce significantly more intracellular reporter protein aggregation than spinal cord homogenates from sporadic ALS, Alzheimer's disease, multiple system atrophy or healthy control individuals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861160/long-nonding-rna-uca1-regulates-neural-stem-cell-differentiation-by-controlling-mir-1-hes1-expression
#18
Jiaolin Zheng, Dan Yi, Yu Liu, Mingqiu Wang, Yulan Zhu, Huaizhang Shi
Neural stem cells are able to self-renew and generate glial and neuronal lineages. Neural stem cell may serve as therapeutic method for neurological disorders including spinal cord injuries, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are longer than 200 nucleotides with limited protein-coding capacity. Recent studies have demonstreated that lncRNAs play an important role in several cellular processes including cell differentiation, cell development, proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and migration...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818082/comparing-chronic-condition-rates-using-icd-9-and-icd-10-in-va-patients-fy2014-2016
#19
Jean Yoon, Adam Chow
BACKGROUND: Management of patients with chronic conditions relies on accurate measurement. It is unknown how transition to the ICD-10 coding system affected reporting of chronic condition rates over time. We measured chronic condition rates 2 years before and 1 year after the transition to ICD-10 to examine changes in prevalence rates and potential measurement issues in the Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system. METHODS: We developed definitions for 34 chronic conditions using ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes and compared the prevalence rates of these conditions from FY2014 to 2016 in a 20% random sample (1...
August 17, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761431/synaptosomal-associated-protein-25-may-be-an-intervention-target-for-improving-sensory-and-locomotor-functions-after-spinal-cord-contusion
#20
Zhan-Qiong Zhong, Yang Xiang, Xi Hu, You-Cui Wang, Xi Zeng, Xiao-Meng Wang, Qing-Jie Xia, Ting-Hua Wang, Xiao Zhang
Synaptosomal-associated protein 25 kDa (SNAP-25) is localized on the synapse and participates in exocytosis and neurotransmitter release. Decreased expression of SNAP-25 is associated with Alzheimer's disease and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. However, the expression of SNAP-25 in spinal cord contusion injury is still unclear. We hypothesized that SNAP-25 is associated with sensory and locomotor functions after spinal cord injury. We established rat models of spinal cord contusion injury to detect gene changes with a gene array...
June 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
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