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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740382/circadian-rhythm-dysfunction-accelerates-disease-progression-in-a-mouse-model-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#1
Zhilin Huang, Qiang Liu, Yu Peng, Jiaying Dai, Youna Xie, Weineng Chen, Simei Long, Zhong Pei, Huanxing Su, Xiaoli Yao
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by interactions between environmental factors and genetic susceptibility. Circadian rhythm dysfunction (CRD) is a significant contributor to neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. However, whether CRD contributes to the progression of ALS remains little known. We performed behavioral and physiological tests on SOD1G93A ALS model mice with and without artificially induced CRD, and on wild-type controls; we also analyzed spinal cord samples histologically for differences between groups...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725981/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-als-and-alzheimer-s-disease-ad-are-characterised-by-differential-activation-of-er-stress-pathways-focus-on-upr-target-genes
#2
L Montibeller, J de Belleroche
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays an important role in maintenance of proteostasis through the unfolded protein response (UPR), which is strongly activated in most neurodegenerative disorders. UPR signalling pathways mediated by IRE1α and ATF6 play a crucial role in the maintenance of ER homeostasis through the transactivation of an array of transcription factors. When activated, these transcription factors induce the expression of genes involved in protein folding and degradation with pro-survival effects...
May 4, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706957/microglia-and-beyond-innate-immune-cells-as-regulators-of-brain-development-and-behavioral-function
#3
REVIEW
Kathryn M Lenz, Lars H Nelson
Innate immune cells play a well-documented role in the etiology and disease course of many brain-based conditions, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, and brain cancers. In contrast, it is only recently becoming clear that innate immune cells, primarily brain resident macrophages called microglia, are also key regulators of brain development. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding microglia in brain development, with particular emphasis on how microglia during development are distinct from microglia later in life...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679161/present-and-future-of-ultra-high-field-mri-in-neurodegenerative-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Graziella Donatelli, Roberto Ceravolo, Daniela Frosini, Michela Tosetti, Ubaldo Bonuccelli, Mirco Cosottini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With a high signal-to-noise ratio, unparalleled spatial resolution, and improved contrasts, ultra-high field MR (≥ 7 T) has great potential in depicting the normal radiological anatomy of smaller structures in the brain and can also provide more information about morphological, quantitative, and metabolic changes associated with a wide range of brain disorders. By focusing attention on specific brain regions believed to be associated with early pathological change, or by more closely inspecting recognized foci of brain pathology, ultra-high field MR can improve the accuracy and sensitivity of neuroimaging...
April 20, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595076/anti-apoptotic-mechanisms-of-acupuncture-in-neurological-diseases-a-review
#5
Wa Cai, Wei-Dong Shen
Apoptosis, known as programmed cell death, plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases. Most of these diseases can be obviously alleviated by means of acupuncture treatment. Current research studies have shown that the efficacy of acupuncture to these medical conditions is closely associated with the anti-apoptotic potentials. Mainly based on the acupuncture's anti-apoptotic efficacy in prevalent neurological disorders, including cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, Alzheimer's disease, depression or stress related-modes, spinal cord injuries, etc...
2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568268/synergistic-effect-on-neurodegeneration-by-n-truncated-a%C3%AE-4-42-and-pyroglutamate-a%C3%AE-3-42-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Jose S Lopez-Noguerola, Nicolai M E Giessen, Maximilian Ueberück, Julius N Meißner, Charlotte E Pelgrim, Johnathan Adams, Oliver Wirths, Yvonne Bouter, Thomas A Bayer
The N-terminally truncated pyroglutamate Aβ3-42 (AβpE3-42 ) and Aβ4-42 peptides are known to be highly abundant in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Both peptides show enhanced aggregation and neurotoxicity in comparison to full-length Aβ, suggesting that these amyloid peptides may play an important role in the pathogenesis of AD. The aim of the present work was to study the direct effect of the combination of AβpE3-42 and Aβ4-42 on ongoing AD-related neuron loss, pathology, and neurological deficits in transgenic mice...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559889/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-spinal-cord-contributes-to-the-development-of-morphine-tolerance
#7
Daiqiang Liu, Yaqun Zhou, Yawen Peng, Peng Su, Zheng Li, Qiaoqiao Xu, Ye Tu, Xuebi Tian, Hui Yang, Zhen Wu, Wei Mei, Feng Gao
Morphine tolerance remains an intractable problem, which hinders its prolonged use in clinical practice. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been proved to play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, atherosclerosis, cancer, etc. In this study, we provide the first direct evidence that ER stress may be a significant driver of morphine tolerance. Binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP), the ER stress marker, was significantly upregulated in neurons in spinal dorsal horn in rats being treated with morphine for 7 days...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504292/current-clinical-applications-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-in-neurological-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Woo Suk Tae, Byung Joo Ham, Sung Bom Pyun, Shin Hyuk Kang, Byung Jo Kim
Diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) is a noninvasive medical imaging tool used to investigate the structure of white matter. The signal contrast in DTI is generated by differences in the Brownian motion of the water molecules in brain tissue. Postprocessed DTI scalars can be used to evaluate changes in the brain tissue caused by disease, disease progression, and treatment responses, which has led to an enormous amount of interest in DTI in clinical research. This review article provides insights into DTI scalars and the biological background of DTI as a relatively new neuroimaging modality...
April 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501041/plumbagin-ameliorates-memory-dysfunction-in-streptozotocin-induced-alzheimer-s-disease-via-activation-of-nrf2-are-pathway-and-inhibition-of-%C3%AE-secretase
#9
Kartik T Nakhate, Ashish P Bharne, Vinay Sagar Verma, Deepali N Aru, Dadasaheb M Kokare
Although plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) protects against cerebral ischemia and spinal cord injury-induced oxidative stress and inflammation by activating the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 /antioxidant response element (Nrf2/ARE) pathway, its role in the amelioration of neurodegenerative diseases remains unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the effect of plumbagin on Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like condition in mice. The animals were treated intracerebroventricularly with streptozotocin (STZ; 3 mg/kg) twice, on day 1 and 3, to induce AD-like condition, and the symptoms were evaluated after 14 days...
May 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497366/confocal-synaptology-synaptic-rearrangements-in-neurodegenerative-disorders-and-upon-nervous-system-injury
#10
REVIEW
Maja Vulovic, Nevena Divac, Igor Jakovcevski
The nervous system is a notable exception to the rule that the cell is the structural and functional unit of tissue systems and organs. The functional unit of the nervous system is the synapse, the contact between two nerve cells. As such, synapses are the foci of investigations of nervous system organization and function, as well as a potential readout for the progression of various disorders of the nervous system. In the past decade the development of antibodies specific to presynaptic terminals has enabled us to assess, at the optical, laser scanning microscopy level, these subcellular structures, and has provided a simple method for the quantification of various synapses...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474391/support-service-utilization-and-out-of-pocket-payments-for-health-services-in-a-population-based-sample-of-adults-with-neurological-conditions
#11
Adebimpe O Obembe, Charlie H Goldsmith, Lisa A Simpson, Brodie M Sakakibara, Janice J Eng
BACKGROUND: Social support can help to deal with the consequences of neurological conditions and promote functional independence and quality of life. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of neurological conditions on the use of support and health-care services in a population-based sample of community-dwelling adults with neurological conditions. METHODS: Data were from the Survey of Living with Neurological Conditions in Canada, which was derived from a representative sample of household residents...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434537/how-can-a-ketogenic-diet-improve-motor-function
#12
REVIEW
Charlotte Veyrat-Durebex, Pascal Reynier, Vincent Procaccio, Rudolf Hergesheimer, Philippe Corcia, Christian R Andres, Hélène Blasco
A ketogenic diet (KD) is a normocaloric diet composed by high fat (80-90%), low carbohydrate, and low protein consumption that induces fasting-like effects. KD increases ketone body (KBs) production and its concentration in the blood, providing the brain an alternative energy supply that enhances oxidative mitochondrial metabolism. In addition to its profound impact on neuro-metabolism and bioenergetics, the neuroprotective effect of specific polyunsaturated fatty acids and KBs involves pleiotropic mechanisms, such as the modulation of neuronal membrane excitability, inflammation, or reactive oxygen species production...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405032/the-multisystem-degeneration-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-neuropathological-staging-and-clinical-translation
#13
Federico Verde, Kelly Del Tredici, Heiko Braak, Albert Ludolph
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is traditionally considered a disease affecting exclusively motor neurons. However, much evidence points towards additional involvement of brain systems other than the motor. As much as half of ALS patients display cognitive-behavioral disturbances. ALS shares with a considerable proportion of FTD cases the same neuropathological substrate, namely, inclusions of abnormally phosphorylated protein TDP-43 (pTDP-43). In analogy with pathological staging systems elaborated in the past decades for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), a model of staging of pTDP-43 pathology in sporadic ALS (sALS) has been recently proposed...
December 1, 2017: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355711/implication-of-the-kallikrein-kinin-system-in-neurological-disorders-quest-for-potential-biomarkers-and-mechanisms
#14
REVIEW
Amaly Nokkari, Hadi Abou-El-Hassan, Yehia Mechref, Stefania Mondello, Mark S Kindy, Ayad A Jaffa, Firas Kobeissy
Neurological disorders represent major health concerns in terms of comorbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite a tremendous increase in our understanding of the pathophysiological processes involved in disease progression and prevention, the accumulated knowledge so far resulted in relatively moderate translational benefits in terms of therapeutic interventions and enhanced clinical outcomes. Aiming at specific neural molecular pathways, different strategies have been geared to target the development and progression of such disorders...
January 25, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344865/isolation-of-distinct-types-of-neurons-from-fresh-brain-tissue-using-laser-microdissection-in-combination-with-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#15
Luisa Aring, Simone Steinbach, Katrin Marcus, Caroline May
Humans age and the ageing process affects cells in all areas of the human body, including nerve cells within the brain. With advancing age there is also a rise in the probability of developing a neurodegenerative disorder such as, e.g., amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, or Alzheimer's disease. In all these age-related neurodegenerative disorders, distinct neuron populations within specific brain regions are primarily affected. For example, Parkinson's disease is characterized by a slowly progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra whereas the entorhinal cortex is first affected in Alzheimer's disease...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329976/therapeutic-potential-of-spinal-glp-1-receptor-signaling
#16
REVIEW
Dongao Zhang, Gang Lv
GLP-1 signaling pathway has been well studied for its role in regulating glucose homeostasis, as well as its beneficial effects in energy and nutrient metabolism. A number of drugs based on GLP-1 have been used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. GLP-1R is expressed in multiple organs and numerous experimental studies have demonstrated that GLP-1 signaling pathway exhibits pro-survival functions in various disorders. In the central nervous system, stimulation of GLP-1R produces neuroprotective effects in specific neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease...
March 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286334/a-single-neonatal-exposure-to-bmaa-in-a-rat-model-produces-neuropathology-consistent-with-neurodegenerative-diseases
#17
Laura Louise Scott, Timothy Grant Downing
Although cyanobacterial β- N -methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) has been implicated in the development of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), Parkinson's Disease (PD) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), no BMAA animal model has reproduced all the neuropathology typically associated with these neurodegenerative diseases. We present here a neonatal BMAA model that causes β-amyloid deposition, neurofibrillary tangles of hyper-phosphorylated tau, TDP-43 inclusions, Lewy bodies, microbleeds and microgliosis as well as severe neuronal loss in the hippocampus, striatum, substantia nigra pars compacta , and ventral horn of the spinal cord in rats following a single BMAA exposure...
December 29, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280981/%C3%AE-n-methylamino-l-alanine-bmaa-toxicity-is-gender-and-exposure-age-dependent-in-rats
#18
Laura Louise Scott, Timothy Grant Downing
Cyanobacterial β- N -methylamino- L -alanine (BMAA) has been suggested as a causative or contributory factor in the development of several neurodegenerative diseases. However, no BMAA animal model has adequately shown clinical or behavioral symptoms that correspond to those seen in either Alzheimer's Disease (AD), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) or Parkinson's Disease (PD). We present here the first data that show that when neonatal rats were exposed to BMAA on postnatal days 3, 4 and 5, but not on gestational day 14 or postnatally on days 7 or 10, several AD and/or PD-related behavioral, locomotor and cognitive deficits developed...
December 27, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228660/motor-deficits-are-independent-of-axonopathy-in-an-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model-of-tgcrnd8-mice
#19
Qiuju Yuan, Jian Yang, Wutian Wu, Zhi-Xiu Lin
There have been an increasing number of reports of non-cognitive symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Some symptoms are associated with the loss of motor functions, e.g. gait disturbances, disturbed activity level and balance. Consistent with clinical findings, several AD mouse models harboring amyloid pathology develop motor impairment. Although the factors that contribute to the motor deficits have not yet been determined, it has been suggested that axonopathy is one of the key factors that may contribute to this particular feature of the disease...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185388/%C3%AE-lipoic-acid-functional-fatty-acid-as-a-novel-therapeutic-alternative-for-central-nervous-system-diseases-a-review
#20
Fatemeh Seifar, Mohammad Khalili, Habib Khaledyan, Shirin Amiri Moghadam, Azimeh Izadi, Amirreza Azimi, Seied Kazem Shakouri
OBJECTIVES: α-lipoic acid (ALA) is a natural antioxidant which acts as a cofactor of bioenergetic mitochondrial enzymes. Along with its mitochondrial action, ALA and its reduced form have many biological functions resulting in a wide variety of actions such as anti-inflammation and antioxidant protection, scavenging reactive oxygen species, regenerating other antioxidant agents, such as vitamins C and E, and cytosolic glutathione, chelating the transitional metal ions (e.g. iron and copper), and modulating the signal transduction of nuclear factor...
November 29, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
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