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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911749/casting-a-wide-net-role-of-perineuronal-nets-in-neural-plasticity
#1
Barbara A Sorg, Sabina Berretta, Jordan M Blacktop, James W Fawcett, Hiroshi Kitagawa, Jessica C F Kwok, Marta Miquel
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are unique extracellular matrix structures that wrap around certain neurons in the CNS during development and control plasticity in the adult CNS. They appear to contribute to a wide range of diseases/disorders of the brain, are involved in recovery from spinal cord injury, and are altered during aging, learning and memory, and after exposure to drugs of abuse. Here the focus is on how a major component of PNNs, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, control plasticity, and on the role of PNNs in memory in normal aging, in a tauopathy model of Alzheimer's disease, and in drug addiction...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911071/severe-brain-injury-in-massachusetts-assessing-the-continuum-of-care
#2
Laura Lorenz, Gabrielle Katz
Acquired brain injury (ABI) is a major public health problem in Massachusetts (Hackman et al, 2014) and includes traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke, ABI-related infectious diseases, metabolic disorders affecting the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), and brain tumor. Advances in emergency medical care and neurosurgery mean that more people are surviving severe traumatic brain injury (Trexler et al, 2014). Yet many patients with severe TBI in particular, are not receiving inpatient services after initial treatment (Hackman et al, 2014; CDC, 2014) or later that are known to be effective (Malec & Kean, 2015; Lewis & Horn, 2015; BI Commission, 2011; Kolakowsky-Hayner et al, 2000; Interviews)...
December 10, 2015: Issue Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866120/evidence-based-guidelines-on-the-therapeutic-use-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs
#3
REVIEW
Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur, Andrea Antal, Samar S Ayache, David H Benninger, Jérôme Brunelin, Filippo Cogiamanian, Maria Cotelli, Dirk De Ridder, Roberta Ferrucci, Berthold Langguth, Paola Marangolo, Veit Mylius, Michael A Nitsche, Frank Padberg, Ulrich Palm, Emmanuel Poulet, Alberto Priori, Simone Rossi, Martin Schecklmann, Sven Vanneste, Ulf Ziemann, Luis Garcia-Larrea, Walter Paulus
A group of European experts was commissioned by the European Chapter of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology to gather knowledge about the state of the art of the therapeutic use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) from studies published up until September 2016, regarding pain, Parkinson's disease, other movement disorders, motor stroke, poststroke aphasia, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, consciousness disorders, Alzheimer's disease, tinnitus, depression, schizophrenia, and craving/addiction...
October 29, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699087/guanosine-a-neuromodulator-with-therapeutic-potential-in-brain-disorders
#4
Débora Lanznaster, Tharine Dal-Cim, Tetsadê C B Piermartiri, Carla I Tasca
Guanosine is a purine nucleoside with important functions in cell metabolism and a protective role in response to degenerative diseases or injury. The past decade has seen major advances in identifying the modulatory role of extracellular action of guanosine in the central nervous system (CNS). Evidence from rodent and cell models show a number of neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of guanosine preventing deleterious consequences of seizures, spinal cord injury, pain, mood disorders and aging-related diseases, such as ischemia, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases...
October 2016: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678294/protective-roles-of-slc30a3-against-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-via-erk1-2-activation
#5
Hisaka Kurita, Rika Okuda, Kazuki Yokoo, Masatoshi Inden, Isao Hozumi
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been thought to be involved to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) or Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The previous studies have shown that SLC30A3 level is decreased in prefrontal cortex of AD patients. In addition, we have shown that level of zinc (Zn) is increased in cerebrospinal fluid and SLC30A3 level is decreased in spinal cord of ALS patients. It was thought that both SLC30A3 and ER stress could be related to the cause of AD and ALS, however the relationship between ER stress and SLC30A3 has not been elucidated...
October 28, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553276/calcium-s-role-as-nuanced-modulator-of-cellular-physiology-in-the-brain
#6
Hilaree N Frazier, Shaniya Maimaiti, Katie L Anderson, Lawrence D Brewer, John C Gant, Nada M Porter, Olivier Thibault
Neuroscientists studying normal brain aging, spinal cord injury, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative diseases have focused considerable effort on carefully characterizing intracellular perturbations in calcium dynamics or levels. At the cellular level, calcium is known for controlling life and death and orchestrating most events in between. For many years, intracellular calcium has been recognized as an essential ion associated with nearly all cellular functions from cell growth to degeneration...
August 20, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549144/role-of-kca3-1-channels-in-cns-diseases-a-concise-review
#7
Sinoy Sugunan, Sreekala S Nampoothiri, Tanya Garg, Rajanikant G Krishnamurthy
KCa3.1 protein is part of a heterotetrameric voltage-independent potassium channel, the activity of which depends on the intracellular calcium binding to calmodulin. KCa3.1 is immensely significant in regulating immune responses and primarily expressed in cells of hematopoietic lineage. It is one of the attractive pharmacological targets that are known to inhibit neuroinflammation. KCa3.1 blockers mediate neuroprotection through multiple mechanisms, such as by targeting microglia-mediated neuronal killing. KCa3...
August 22, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546055/the-choroid-plexus-in-health-and-in-disease-dialogues-into-and-out-of-the-brain
#8
Fernanda Marques, João Carlos Sousa, Alexandra Brito, Jens Pahnke, Cecilia Santos, Margarida Correia-Neves, Joana Almeida Palha
This article brings the choroid plexus into the context of health and disease. It is remarkable that the choroid plexus, composed by the monolayer of epithelial cells that lie in a highly vascularized stroma, floating within the brain ventricles, gets so little attention in major physiology and medicine text books and in the scientific literature in general. Consider that it is responsible for producing most of the about 150mL of cerebrospinal fluid that fills the brain ventricles and the subarachnoid space and surrounds the spinal cord in the adult human brain, which is renewed approximately 2-3 times daily...
August 18, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540523/the-evaluation-of-nerve-growth-factor-over-expression-on-neural-lineage-specific-genes-in-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#9
Yousef Mortazavi, Fatemeh Sheikhsaran, Gholamreza Khamisipour Khamisipour, Masoud Soleimani, Ali Teimuri, Somayeh Shokri
OBJECTIVE: Treatment and repair of neurodegenerative diseases such as brain tumors, spinal cord injuries, and functional disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, are challenging problems. A common treatment approach for such disorders involves the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as an alternative cell source to replace injured cells. However, use of these cells in hosts may potentially cause adverse outcomes such as tumorigenesis and uncontrolled differentiation. In attempt to generate mesenchymal derived neural cells, we have infected MSCs with recombinant lentiviruses that expressed nerve growth factor (NGF) and assessed their neural lineage genes...
July 2016: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539630/risk-of-dementia-in-patients-with-spinal-cord-injury-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study
#10
ShihWei Huang, WeiTe Wang, LinChuan Chou, TsanHon Liou, Hui-Wen Lin
Spinal cord injury (SCI) can cause physical disability and psychological distress; however, whether SCI is a risk factor for dementia is unclear. This study evaluated the incidence of dementia in patients with SCI. Study participants were recruited from a nationwide cohort during 2004-2007 and categorized into SCI (patients diagnosed with SCI; n = 941) and non-SCI (age- and sex-matched controls; n = 5,060) cohorts. Each participant was followed for 7 years until diagnosis of dementia or December 31, 2010, whichever occurred first...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528056/micrornas-key-players-in-microglia-and-astrocyte-mediated-inflammation-in-cns-pathologies
#11
REVIEW
Aparna Karthikeyan, Radhika Patnala, Shweta P Jadhav, Ling Eng-Ang, S Thameem Dheen
The significance of microglia and astrocytes in neural development, in maintaining synaptic connections and homeostasis in the healthy brain is well established. Microglia are dynamic immune cells of the brain that elicit an immune response during brain damage and also participate in tissue repair and regeneration, while astrocytes contribute to the local inflammatory response by producing proinflammatory cytokines and resolving neuronal damage through production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and neurotrophic factors...
2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500182/altered-t-ucrs-expression-profile-in-the-spinal-cord-of-mice-with-neuropathic-pain
#12
Bao-Chun Jiang, Tian Yang, Li-Na He, Yuan-Xiang Tao, Yong-Jing Gao
Spinal cord plays an important role in the transmission and modulation of nociceptive information. Global changes in gene expression in the spinal cord contribute to the induction and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Transcribed Ultraconserved Regions (T-UCRs), a novel class of long noncoding RNAs, can regulate gene expression at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels and are related to many human diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and heart diseases. In this study, we screened abnormal T-UCRs expression in the spinal cord under spinal nerve ligation (SNL)-induced neuropathic pain condition...
2016: Translational Perioperative and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450295/type-2-cannabinoid-receptors-in-neurodegeneration
#13
Tiziana Bisogno, Sergio Oddi, Alessandra Piccoli, Domenico Fazio, Mauro Maccarrone
Based on its wide expression in immune cells, type-2 cannabinoid (CB2) receptors were traditionally thought to act as "peripheral receptors" with an almost exclusively immunomodulatory function. However, their recent identification in mammalian brain areas, as well as in distinct neuronal cells, has opened the way to a re-consideration of CB2 signaling in the context of brain pathophysiology, synaptic plasticity and neuroprotection. To date, accumulated evidence from several independent preclinical studies has offered new perspectives on the possible involvement of CB2 signaling in brain and spinal cord traumatic injury, as well as in the most relevant neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's chorea...
September 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27335539/clinical-trial-perspective-for-adult-and-juvenile-huntington-s-disease-using-genetically-engineered-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#14
REVIEW
Peter Deng, Audrey Torrest, Kari Pollock, Heather Dahlenburg, Geralyn Annett, Jan A Nolta, Kyle D Fink
Progress to date from our group and others indicate that using genetically-engineered mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to secrete brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) supports our plan to submit an Investigational New Drug application to the Food and Drug Administration for the future planned Phase 1 safety and tolerability trial of MSC/BDNF in patients with Huntington's disease (HD). There are also potential applications of this approach beyond HD. Our biological delivery system for BDNF sets the precedent for adult stem cell therapy in the brain and could potentially be modified for other neurodegenerative disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), Alzheimer's disease, and some forms of Parkinson's disease...
May 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27306045/reduced-thermal-sensitivity-and-increased-opioidergic-tone-in-the-tastpm-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Yahyah Aman, Thomas Pitcher, Raffaele Simeoli, Clive Ballard, Marzia Malcangio
Individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are in susceptible patient groups in which pain is an important clinical issue that is often underdiagnosed. However, it is unclear whether decreased pain complaints in patients with AD result from elevated pain tolerance or an impaired ability to communicate sensations. Here, we explored if AD-related pathology is present in key regions of the pain pathway and assessed whether nociceptive thresholds to acute noxious stimulation are altered in the double-mutant APPswe × PS1...
October 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27190276/intermittent-hypoxia-training-protects-cerebrovascular-function-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Eugenia B Manukhina, H Fred Downey, Xiangrong Shi, Robert T Mallet
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a leading cause of death and disability among older adults. Modifiable vascular risk factors for AD (VRF) include obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, sleep apnea, and metabolic syndrome. Here, interactions between cerebrovascular function and development of AD are reviewed, as are interventions to improve cerebral blood flow and reduce VRF. Atherosclerosis and small vessel cerebral disease impair metabolic regulation of cerebral blood flow and, along with microvascular rarefaction and altered trans-capillary exchange, create conditions favoring AD development...
June 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27152104/clinical-proteomics-of-enervated-neurons
#17
REVIEW
Mohor Biplab Sengupta, Arunabha Chakrabarti, Suparna Saha, Debashis Mukhopadhyay
The dynamic field of neurosciences entails ever increasing search for molecular mechanisms of disease states, especially in the domain of neurodegenerative disorders. The previous century heralded the techniques in proteomics when indexing of the human proteomes relating to various disease conditions became important. Early stage research in certain diseases or pathological conditions requires a more holistic approach of first discovering the proteins of interest for the condition. Despite its limitations, proteomics is one of the most powerful techniques available to us today to dissect the molecular scenario in a particular disease situation...
2016: Clinical Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27049459/therapeutic-targeting-of-complement-to-modify-disease-course-and-improve-outcomes-in-neurological-conditions
#18
REVIEW
Faith H Brennan, John D Lee, Marc J Ruitenberg, Trent M Woodruff
The recognition that complement proteins are abundantly present and can have pathological roles in neurological conditions offers broad scope for therapeutic intervention. Accordingly, an increasing number of experimental investigations have explored the potential of harnessing the unique activation pathways, proteases, receptors, complexes, and natural inhibitors of complement, to mitigate pathology in acute neurotrauma and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we review mechanisms of complement activation in the central nervous system (CNS), and explore the effects of complement inhibition in cerebral ischemic-reperfusion injury, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease...
June 2016: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27033360/neuro-protective-mechanisms-of-lycium-barbarum
#19
REVIEW
Xiwen Xing, Fenyong Liu, Jia Xiao, Kwok Fai So
Neuronal diseases, including retinal disorders, stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and spinal cord injury, affect a large number of people worldwide and cause heavy social and economic burdens. Although many efforts have been made by scientists and clinicians to develop novel drug and healthcare strategies, few of them received satisfactory outcomes to date. Lycium barbarum is a traditional homology of medicine and food in Chinese medicine, with the capability to nourish the eyes, liver and kidneys...
September 2016: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27013875/detection-of-hyperphosphorylated-tau-protein-and-%C3%AE-synuclein-in-spinal-cord-of-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Yanjun Guo, Luning Wang, Mingwei Zhu, Honghong Zhang, Yazhuo Hu, Zhitao Han, Jia Liu, Weiqin Zhao, Dexin Wang
The aim of this study was to investigate the neuropathological features of the spinal cord in patients suffering with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Spinal cord tissue collected from three AD patients and eight controls was selected for the study. Data were collected at T2, T8, T10, L4, and S2 spinal levels. The sections were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin and Gallyas-Braak staining methods and then were immunostained with antibodies such as phosphorylated tau protein (AT8), α-synuclein, Aβ, amyloid precursor protein, ubiquitin, and TDP-43...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
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