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Radhika V Seimon, Nikita Hostland, Stephanie L Silveira, Alice A Gibson, Amanda Sainsbury
BACKGROUND: Obesity treatments aim to maximize fat loss, particularly abdominal or visceral fat, without compromising lean or bone mass. However, the literature contains numerous examples of obesity treatments that - in addition to fat loss - result in loss of lean mass and/or bone mass. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Because of the known effects of energy restriction to increase activity of the hypothalamo-pitutiary adrenal (HPA) axis in lean humans and animals, and because increases in circulating glucocorticoid levels could potentially contribute to adverse body compositional changes with obesity treatments, we conducted a systematic PubMed search to determine whether HPA axis activation also occurs in response to energy restriction in obese humans and animals...
September 2013: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
M K Javaid, Cyrus Cooper
Osteoporosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality through its association with age-related fractures. Although most effort in fracture prevention has been directed at retarding the rate of age-related bone loss, and reducing the frequency and severity of trauma among elderly people, evidence is growing that peak bone mass is an important contributor to bone strength during later life. The normal patterns of skeletal growth have been well characterized in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. It has been confirmed that boys have higher bone mineral content, but not volumetric bone density, than girls...
June 2002: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
M J Naidich, E J Russell
Recent advances in MR imaging have enabled the radiologist to view the pituitary gland in its normal and diseased states to a greater extent than ever before. The techniques for obtaining quality images of the sellar region and the normal appearance of the pituitary gland are discussed. This article also discusses the imaging of several pituitary disease processes, with emphasis on pitutiary adenomas and recent advances in diagnosis and follow-up. Current controversies also are addressed.
March 1999: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
S L Asa
The pathologist plays an important role in the distinction of pituitary adenomas from other tumors and tumor-like lesions of the sellar region, and in the accurate morphologic characterization of pitutiary adenomas. A clinicopathologic classification of pituitary adenomas is based on cell differentiation correlated with clinical evidence of hormone secretion; this classification emphasizes clinically relevant features that can offer guidance for patient management. The application of a rational approach to the immunohistochemical analysis of these lesions can be used to evaluate pathogenetic and prognostic markers and to predict responses to specific therapeutic modalities...
March 1999: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
B R Haugen, N S Brown, W M Wood, D F Gordon, E C Ridgway
TSHbeta is a subunit of TSH that is uniquely expressed and regulated in the thyrotrope cells of the anterior pituitary gland. Thyroid hormone receptors (TR) are known to mediate T3 suppression of TSHbeta gene expression at the level of promoter activity. The role of other nuclear receptors in regulation of this gene is less clearly defined. Retinoid X receptors (RXR) are a family of nuclear transcription factors that function both as 9-cis-retinoic acid (RA) ligand-dependent receptors and heterodimeric partners with TR and other nuclear receptors...
April 1997: Molecular Endocrinology
L D Wilson, M P Truong, A R Barber, T T Aoki
To evaluate pituitary and pituitary-dependent target organ function in men infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 26 ambulatory HIV-positive men (13 with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]) and nine healthy control men were administered rapid sequential injections of thyrotropin (TSH)-releasing hormone (TRH), gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), ovine corticotropin (ACTH)-releasing hormone (oCRH), and human growth hormone-(GH)-releasing hormone (hGHRH). Blood samples were collected before and for 90 minutes after the injections for immunoassay of pituitary hormones, cortisol, testosterone, and free thyroxine (fT(4))...
June 1996: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
A M Mancini, A Guitelman, C A Vargas, L Debeljuk, N J Aparicio
The effect of acute and chronic administration of sulpiride sulphate on serum prolactin levels in humans was studied. Six normal women and four normal men received an i.m. injection of 100 mg sulpiride at 0800 h. A control group received saline solution 0.9%. Blood samples were taken before and 30, 60 and 120 minutes after the injection. Serum prolactin was determined by a double antibody radioimmunoassay technique. Sulpiride induced in all subjects a quick and marked increment of serum prolactin levels with peak values at 30 minutes...
January 1976: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
B Holmström, K Fhölenhag
Twelve different human growth hormone preparations used concurrently for the treatment of pituitary dwarfism have been studied by gel filtration and radioimmunoassay for GH, FSH, LH and TSH. The GH content of the vials as stated by the manufacturer could be verified by radioimmunoassay in all but one preparation tht contained much less than indicated. All preparations which had been extracted from acetone-preserved glands by various methods were shown to contain large amounts of aggregated growth hormone. By contrast, preparations extraced from frozed pituitaries contained GH mainly in the native monomeric form...
May 1975: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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