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Thoracic Injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633902/calcium-sensing-receptor-initiating-cystathionine-gamma-lyase-hydrogen-sulfide-pathway-to-inhibit-platelet-activation-in-hyperhomocysteinemia-rat
#1
Yuwen Wang, Ziqing Zhao, Sa Shi, Fei Gao, Jichao Wu, Shiyun Dong, Weihua Zhang, Yanhong Liu, Xin Zhong
Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy, high homocysteine) induces the injury of endothelial cells (ECs). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) protects ECs and inhibits the activation of platelets. Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) regulates the production of endogenous H2S. However, whether CaSR inhibits the injury of ECs and the activation of platelets by regulating the endogenous cystathionine-gamma-lyase (CSE, a major enzyme that produces H2S)/H2S pathway in hyperhomocysteinemia has not been previously investigated. Here, we tested the ultrastructure alterations of ECs and platelets, the changes in the concentration of serum homocysteine and the parameters of blood of hyperhomocysteinemia rats were measured...
June 17, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628603/field-and-en-route-resuscitative-endovascular-occlusion-of-the-aorta-a-feasible-military-reality
#2
Viktor A Reva, Tal M Hörer, Andrey I Makhnovskiy, Mikhail V Sokhranov, Igor M Samokhvalov, Joseph J DuBose
BACKGROUND: Severe noncompressible torso hemorrhage remains a leading cause of potentially preventable death in modern military conflicts. Resuscitative endovascular occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) has demonstrated potential as an effective adjunct to the treatment of noncompressible torso hemorrhage in the civilian early hospital and even prehospital settings-but the application of this technology for military prehospital use has not been well described. We aimed to assess the feasibility of both field and en route prehospital REBOA in the military exercise setting, simulating a modern armed conflict...
July 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628542/a-rare-intramedullary-spinal-cord-metastasis-from-a-retroperitoneal-leiomyosarcoma-presenting-as-a-non-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#3
Andrew Lamberth Parker, Terrence Pugh, Mark A Hirsch
Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a rare but well-recognized malignant soft tissue sarcoma of smooth muscle origin. Metastases commonly occur in the lungs, liver, kidney, brain, and bone. Cases of metastatic osseous lesions or other extradural space-occupying masses secondary to LMS leading to neurologic compromise are relatively commonplace in the literature. Conversely, cases of intramedullary spinal cord metastasis (ISCM), an unusual entity as a sequela of any cancer, are exceedingly rare as a consequence of LMS. Only 2 cases of an ISCM from LMS are currently documented in the literature, and to the best of our knowledge, no case is described in the rehabilitation literature...
July 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627225/the-relationships-between-bnp-and-neurocardiac-injury-severity-noninvasive-cardiac-output-and-outcomes-after-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#4
Amber McAteer, Marilyn Hravnak, Yuefang Chang, Elizabeth A Crago, Matthew J Gallek, Khalil M Yousef
INTRODUCTION: Neurocardiac injury, a type of myocardial dysfunction associated with neurological insult to the brain, occurs in 31-48% of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) patients. Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is commonly used to diagnose neurocardiac injury. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), another cardiac marker, is more often used to evaluate degree of heart failure. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between BNP and (a) neurocardiac injury severity according to cTnI, (b) noninvasive continuous cardiac output (NCCO), and (c) outcomes in aSAH patients...
January 1, 2017: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626634/an-unusual-late-onset-of-pulmonary-alveolar-microlithiasis-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#5
Alexandros Stamatopoulos, Davide Patrini, Sofoklis Mitsos, Reena Khiroya, Elaine Borg, Martin Hayward, David Lawrence, Nikolaos Panagiotopoulos
Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is an uncommon genetic disorder associated with alveolar cell injury. This injury is caused in most cases by inactivating mutations in SLC34A2 gene, which is responsible for the production of a sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporter. The dysfunction or deficiency of this transporter leads to the aggregation of local phosphate intra-alveolarly and formation of microliths. Most of the patients are asymptomatic at the time of the diagnosis but as the disease progress it leads to fatal respiratory or cardiac failure...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625277/the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-hemoptysis
#6
Harald Ittrich, Maximilian Bockhorn, Hans Klose, Marcel Simon
BACKGROUND: Hemoptysis, i.e., the expectoration of blood from the lower airways, has an annual incidence of approximately 0.1% in ambulatory patients and 0.2% in inpatients. It is a potentially life-threatening medical emergency and carries a high mortality. METHODS: This review article is based on pertinent publications retrieved by a selective search in PubMed. RESULTS: Hemoptysis can be a sign of many different diseases. Its cause remains unknown in about half of all cases...
June 5, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623748/occupant-thorax-response-variations-due-to-arm-position-and-restraint-systems-in-side-impact-crash-scenarios
#7
Donata Gierczycka, Duane S Cronin
Recent epidemiological studies have identified that thoracic side airbags may vary in efficacy to reduce injury severity in side impact crash scenarios, while previous experimental and epidemiological studies have presented contrasting results. This study aimed to quantify the variations in occupant response in side impact conditions using a human body computational model integrated with a full vehicle model. The model was analyzed for a Moving Deformable Barrier side impact at 61km/h to assess two pre-crash arm positions, the incorporation of a seatbelt, and a thorax air bag on thorax response...
June 13, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623121/radiomics-based-assessment-of-radiation-induced-lung-injury-after-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy
#8
Angel Moran, Megan E Daly, Stephen S F Yip, Tokihiro Yamamoto
BACKGROUND: Over 50% of patients who receive stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) develop radiographic evidence of radiation-induced lung injury. Radiomics is an emerging approach that extracts quantitative features from image data, which may provide greater value and a better understanding of pulmonary toxicity than conventional approaches. We aimed to investigate the potential of computed tomography-based radiomics in characterizing post-SBRT lung injury. METHODS: A total of 48 diagnostic thoracic computed tomography scans (acquired prior to SBRT and at 3, 6, and 9 months post-SBRT) from 14 patients were analyzed...
May 25, 2017: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622848/average-male-and-female-virtual-dummy-model-biorid-and-evarid-simulations-with-two-seat-concepts-in-the-euro-ncap-low-severity-rear-impact-test-configuration
#9
Astrid Linder, Kristian Holmqvist, Mats Y Svensson
Soft tissue neck injuries, also referred to as whiplash injuries, which can lead to long term suffering accounts for more than 60% of the cost of all injuries leading to permanent medical impairment for the insurance companies, with respect to injuries sustained in vehicle crashes. These injuries are sustained in all impact directions, however they are most common in rear impacts. Injury statistics have since the mid-1960s consistently shown that females are subject to a higher risk of sustaining this type of injury than males, on average twice the risk of injury...
June 13, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621630/evaluation-of-surgical-treatment-for-neuropathic-pain-from-neuroma-in-patients-with-injured-peripheral-nerves
#10
Valérie Decrouy-Duruz, Thierry Christen, Wassim Raffoul
OBJECTIVE Chronic neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury is a major clinical problem. Its management is difficult, and therapeutic approaches vary and include oral medication, neurostimulation, and surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the adequacy of surgical nerve revision in a large series of patients with long-term follow-up. METHODS The authors reviewed the charts of 231 patients (335 nerve injuries) who experienced neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury and underwent surgery for nerve revision at the authors' institution between 1997 and 2012...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620788/comparison-of-intraoperative-neurophysiologic-monitoring-outcomes-between-cervical-and-thoracic-spine-surgery
#11
Shujie Wang, Yuan Tian, Xiangquan Lin, Zhifu Ren, Yu Zhao, Jiliang Zhai, Xiaojuan Zhang, Yanwei Zhao, Yingyue Dong, Congran Zhao, Ye Tian
PURPOSE: The objective is to compare the intraoperative monitoring (IOM) outcomes between degenerative cervical and thoracic spine decompression surgery. METHOD: A total of 97 patients with cervical compression myelopathy (CCM) and 75 patients with thoracic compression myelopathy (TCM) were prospectively collected between December 2012 and June 2015 in our spine center. Somatosensory-evoked potentials (SSEP) and motor-evoked potentials (MEP) were used for IOM. The postoperative neurologic status of each patient was assessed immediately after surgery...
June 15, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620562/delayed-chyle-leak-following-anterior-cervical-spinal-surgery-a-case-report-and-management-algorithm
#12
Kyle Mueller, Hasan R Syed, Jay W Rhee, Mani N Nair
Injury to the thoracic duct during anterior cervical spine surgery is a rare occurrence. A delayed chyle leak following an elective anterior cervical spinal surgery has not been reported in the literature. We present a report of a 59-year-old female with multiple prior neck surgeries who underwent an anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF). The patient developed a delayed thoracic duct injury on postoperative day (POD) one, as no injury was noted intraoperatively. She was managed with conservative care involving a low-fat diet along with octreotide which led to the resolution of her symptoms...
May 9, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618859/sitagliptin-attenuates-endothelial-dysfunction-of-zucker-diabetic-fatty-rats
#13
Huanyuan Wang, Yi Zhou, Zhiying Guo, Yu Dong, Jiahui Xu, Haixia Huang, Huirong Liu, Wen Wang
Although the contributions of sitagliptin to endothelial function in diabetes mellitus were previously reported, the potential mechanisms still remain undefined. Our research was intended to explore the underlying mechanisms of protective effects of sitagliptin treatment on endothelial dysfunction in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Male lean nondiabetic Zucker rats were used as control and male obese ZDF rats were randomly divided into ZDF and ZDF + sitagliptin groups. The significant decrease in endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by acetylcholine was observed in mesenteric arteries and thoracic aorta rings of ZDF rats...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616278/management-of-the-vertebral-artery-during-thoracic-endovascular-aortic-repair-with-coverage-of-the-left-subclavian-artery
#14
Jian Zhu, Er-Ping Xi, Shui-Bo Zhu, Gui-Lin Yin, Rong-Ping Wang, Yu Zhang
BACKGROUND: The application of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR), a minimally invasive operation, in the aortic arch has been a challenge of cardiovascular surgery in recent years. This study aimed to investigate management of the vertebral artery with coverage of the left subclavian artery (LSA) during TEVAR. METHODS: From January 2007 to September 2014 in the Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery at Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Region, 160 patients underwent LSA closure or partial coverage during TEVAR of an aortic lesion near the LSA...
May 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616159/thoracic-outlet-syndrome-as-a-consequence-of-isolated-atraumatic-first-rib-fracture
#15
Aleem K Mirza, Audra A Duncan
Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (nTOS) resulting from an isolated first rib fracture is extremely infrequent. We report a case of performance limiting nTOS in a college athlete who was initially evaluated and treated for upper extremity ligamentous injury with only transient improvement. Subsequent noninvasive studies were consistent with TOS physiology and MRA showed a large hypertrophic callus on the first rib adjacent to the brachial plexus. With continued athletic limitations and radiographic findings consistent with TOS, surgical decompression was performed resulting in resolution of symptoms...
June 2017: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615341/high-frequency-epidural-stimulation-across-the-respiratory-cycle-evokes-phrenic-short-term-potentiation-after-incomplete-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Elisa J Gonzalez-Rothi, Kristi A Streeter, Marie H Hanna, Anna C Stamas, Paul J Reier, David M Baekey, David D Fuller
C2 spinal hemilesion (C2Hx) paralyzes the ipsilateral diaphragm, but recovery is possible through activation of "crossed spinal" synaptic inputs to ipsilateral phrenic motoneurons. We tested the hypothesis that high frequency epidural stimulation (HF-ES) would potentiate ipsilateral phrenic output after subacute and chronic C2Hx. HF-ES (300 Hz) was applied to the ventrolateral C4 or T2 spinal cord ipsilateral to C2Hx in anesthetized and mechanically ventilated adult rats. Stimulus duration was 60-sec and currents ranged from 100-1000 µA...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614863/-anesthetic-management-in-thoracic-trauma-patients
#17
Alf Kozian, Astrid Bergmann, Thomas Hachenberg, Thomas Schilling
In daily practice, management of patients with blunt thoracic trauma is challenging for the anesthetist. Injuries of airways, lungs, diaphragm, heart and large vessels are the main difficulties.Respiratory and circulatory physiology in general is affected by general anesthesia, which may result in an increased number of perioperative complications. Therefore, anesthetic management of patients with thoracic trauma needs to address different clinical topics: management of difficult airways, intrinsic effects of anesthetics and mechanical ventilation on respiratory and cardiac function, the adequate replacement of blood loss as well as type and extent of the surgical intervention...
June 2017: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614862/-thoracic-trauma-prehospital-treatment
#18
Michael Hansen, Thomas Hachenberg
Penetrating thoracic injuries are rare in Germany and common in urban regions. 10 percent of the patients in Emergency Departments suffer from blunt thoracic trauma. Mechanism of trauma can predict the severity of the injuries. Very fast life-threatening injuries with hemodynamic problems like tension pneumothorax or cardiac tamponade have to be diagnosed. Prehospital emergency physicians need skills in ultrasound for diagnosis and in invasive therapy like chest tube or pericardium drainage tube. The application of an algorithm in exploration of a thoracic trauma seems to be useful...
June 2017: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613935/obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-subclinical-interstitial-lung-disease-in-mesa
#19
John S Kim, Anna J Podolanczuk, Priya Borker, Steven M Kawut, Ganesh Raghu, Joel D Kaufman, Karen D Hinckley Stukovsky, Eric A Hoffman, R Graham Barr, Daniel J Gottlieb, Susan S Redline, David J Lederer
RATIONALE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been postulated to contribute to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis by promoting alveolar epithelial injury via tractional forces and intermittent hypoxia. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether OSA is associated with subclinical interstitial lung disease (ILD) and with biomarkers of alveolar epithelial injury and remodeling. METHODS: We performed cross-sectional analyses of 1,690 community-dwelling adults who underwent 15-channel in-home polysomnography and thoracic computed tomography (CT) imaging in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis...
June 14, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612467/the-effect-of-age-and-demographics-on-rib-shape
#20
Sven A Holcombe, Stewart C Wang, James B Grotberg
Elderly populations have a higher risk of rib fractures and other associated thoracic injuries than younger adults, and the changes in body morphology that occur with age are a potential cause of this increased risk. Rib centroidal path geometry for 20 627 ribs was extracted from computed tomography (CT) scans of 1042 live adult subjects, then fitted to a six-parameter mathematical model that accurately characterizes rib size and shape, and a three-parameter model of rib orientation within the body. Multivariable regression characterized the independent effect of age, height, weight, and sex on the rib shape and orientation across the adult population, and statistically significant effects were seen from all demographic factors (P < 0...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
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