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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679910/proteus-vulgaris-pt-electrode-system-for-urea-to-nitrogen-conversion-in-synthetic-urine
#1
Myreisa Morales-Cruz, Marjorie López-Nieves, Roberto Morales-Hernández, Gian C Rivera-Crespo, Gary A Toranzos, Ileana González-González, Carlos R Cabrera
One of the most challenging problems when trying to recycle urine for different purposes is the removal of urea. In this project we studied an ureolysis system using the bacterium Proteus vulgaris for the transformation of urea to ammonia and its subsequent oxidation to nitrogen at a Pt working electrode. Our system was tested under different pH, microbial reaction times, and urea and bacteria concentrations. Our results indicate that a pH8 is optimal for the combined Proteus vulgaris urease activity and the ammonia oxidation reaction at a Pt electrode...
April 4, 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679891/removal-of-arsenic-and-mercury-species-from-water-by-covalent-triazine-framework-encapsulated-%C3%AE-fe-2-o-3-nanoparticles
#2
Karen Leus, Karel Folens, Nina Ricci Nicomel, Jeffrey Paulo H Perez, Maria Filippousi, Maria Meledina, Marinela M Dîrtu, Stuart Turner, Gustaaf Van Tendeloo, Yann Garcia, Gijs Du Laing, Pascal Van Der Voort
The covalent triazine framework, CTF-1, served as host material for the in situ synthesis of Fe2 O3 nanoparticles. The composite material consisted of 20 ± 2 m% iron, mainly in γ-Fe2 O3 phase. The resulting γ-Fe2 O3 @CTF-1 was examined for the adsorption of AsIII , AsV and HgII from synthetic solutions and real surface-, ground- and wastewater. The material shows excellent removal efficiencies, independent from the presence of Ca2+ , Mg2+ or natural organic matter and only limited dependency on the presence of phosphate ions...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679804/cytotoxicity-of-paramagnetic-cations-loaded-polydopamine-nanoparticles
#3
Milena A Vega, Celia Nieto, Gema Marcelo, Eva M Martín Del Valle
Polydopamine (PD) is a synthetic melanin pigment of great importance in biomedicine, where its affinity for metallic cations, especially paramagnetic ions, has sparked interest in its use in the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. In this work, we report the cytotoxicity of metal-enriched PD nanoparticles on NIH3T3, a healthy cell line and BT474, a breast cancer cell line. Remarkably, it was found that the metal- enriched PD particles (Mn+  = Fe3+ , Fe2+ and Cu2+ ) were highly cytotoxic to the breast cancer cells, even after 24 h of treatment...
April 12, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679800/synthetic-investigation-of-binary-ternary-cr-iii-hydroxycarboxylic-acid-aromatic-chelator-systems-structure-specific-influence-on-adipogenic-biomarkers-linked-to-insulin-mimesis
#4
O Tsave, C Gabriel, M Kafantari, M Yavropoulou, J G Yovos, C P Raptopoulou, V Psycharis, A Terzis, C Mateescu, A Salifoglou
In an attempt to understand the aqueous interactions of Cr(III) with low-molecular mass physiological ligands and examine its role as an adipogenic metallodrug agent in Diabetes mellitus II, the pH-specific synthesis in the binary-ternary Cr(III)-(HA = hydroxycarboxylic acid)-(N,N)-aromatic chelator (AC) (HA = 2-hydroxyethyl iminodiacetic acid/heidaH2 , quinic acid; AC = 1,10-phenanthroline/phen) systems was pursued, leading to four new crystalline compounds. All materials were characterized by elemental analysis, UV-Visible, FT-IR, and ESI-MS spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and X-Ray crystallography...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679594/design-and-synthesis-of-a-new-peptide-derived-from-fasciola-gigantica-cathepsin-l1-with-potential-application-in-serodiagnosis-of-fascioliasis
#5
Behnam Meshgi, Fatemeh Jalousian, Saeid Fathi, Zahra Jahani
Fascioliasis is a global parasitic disease that affects domestic animals and causes considerable economic losses in the process of domestic animal breeding in endemic regions. The cause of the disease involves a liver trematode of the genus Fasciola, which secretes materials into a host's body (mainly proteins) in order to protect it from the host's immune system. These materials can be involved in the migration, growth, and nutrition of the parasite. Among the expressive proteins of Fasciola, proteases have been introduced as the appropriate targets for diagnosis, treatment, and vaccination against parasites...
April 18, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679549/chm-1-a-novel-microtubule-destabilizing-agent-exhibits-antitumor-activity-via-inducing-the-expression-of-sirt2-in-human-breast-cancer-cells
#6
Chin-Wei Liu, Ying-Chao Lin, Chao-Ming Hung, Bing-Lan Liu, Sheng-Chu Kuo, Chi-Tang Ho, Tzong-Der Way, Chih-Hsin Hung
Breast cancer is a major public health problem throughout the world. In this report, we investigated whether CHM-1, a novel synthetic antimitotic agent could be developed into a potent antitumor agent for treating human breast cancer. CHM-1 induced growth inhibition in MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-453 and MCF-7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Importantly, CHM-1 is less toxic to normal breast (HBL-100) cells. CHM-1 interacted with tubulin, markedly inhibited tubulin polymerization, and disrupted microtubule organization...
April 18, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679331/synthesis-of-self-assembling-peptide-based-hydrogels-for-regenerative-medicine-using-solid-phase-peptide-synthesis
#7
E Thomas Pashuck
Peptide self-assembly is an important field in biomaterials in which short peptides are designed to aggregate into nanostructures that often form hydrogels. These peptides are typically made using solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS), a technique in which amino acids are added sequentially to a growing chain. This technique has been used to synthesize peptides with more than 100 amino acids. However, self-assembling peptides are designed to aggregate in solution, which often reduces coupling efficiency during synthesis and makes purification more difficult...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679330/in-vitro-model-of-macrophage-biomaterial-interactions
#8
Claire E Witherel, Pamela L Graney, Kara L Spiller
Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, facilitated by biomaterial-based therapies, hold promise for the repair, replacement, or regeneration of damaged tissue. The success or failure of all implanted biomaterials, ranging from stainless steel total joint replacements to naturally or synthetically derived skin grafts, is predominantly mediated by macrophages, the primary cell of the innate immune system. In an effort to better assess safety and efficacy of novel biomaterials, evaluating and understanding macrophage-biomaterial interactions is a necessary first step...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679326/synthetic-peg-hydrogel-for-engineering-the-environment-of-ovarian-follicles
#9
Uziel Mendez, Hong Zhou, Ariella Shikanov
The functional unit within the ovary is the ovarian follicle, which is also a morphological unit composed of three basic cell types: the oocyte, granulosa, and theca cells. Similar to human ovarian follicles, mouse follicles can be isolated from their ovarian environment and cultured in vitro to study folliculogenesis, or follicle development for days or weeks. Over the course of the last decade, follicle culture in a three-dimensional (3D) environment exponentially improved the outcomes of in vitro folliculogenesis...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679325/biofunctionalization-of-poly-acrylamide-gels
#10
Julieta I Paez, Aleeza Farrukh, Oya Ustahüseyin, Aránzazu Del Campo
Engineering novel biomaterials that mimic closer in vivo scenarios requires the simple and quantitative incorporation of multiple instructive signals to gain a higher level of control and complexity at the cell-matrix interface. Poly(acrylamide) (PAAm) gels are very popular among biology labs as 2D model substrates with defined biochemical and mechanical properties. These gels are cost effective, easy to prepare, reproducible, and available in a wide range of stiffness. However, their functionalization with bioactive ligands (cell adhesive proteins or peptides, growth factors, etc...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679268/absorption-characteristics-of-compound-heavy-metals-vanadium-chromium-and-cadmium-in-water-by-emergent-macrophytes-and-its-combinations
#11
Hai Lin, Junfei Liu, Yingbo Dong, Kaiqiang Ren, Yu Zhang
The aim of the present study was to investigate three kinds of emergent macrophytes, i.e., Acorus calamus L., Phragmites communis Trin., and Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb and their combination patterns on their removal efficiency of compound heavy metals (vanadium, chromium, and cadmium) from synthetic aqueous. The results showed that the optimal single-species for compound heavy metals removal was Acorus calamus L. and during experiment period, the average removal efficiency of V5+ , Cr6+ , and Cd2+ was 52...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679256/biomechanical-features-of-six-design-of-the-delta-external-fixator-for-treating-pilon-fracture-a-finite-element-study
#12
Muhammad Hanif Ramlee, Mohd Ayub Sulong, Evelyn Garcia-Nieto, Daniel Angure Penaranda, Antonio Ros Felip, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul Kadir
Pilon fractures can be caused by high-energy vertical forces which may result in long-term patient immobilization. Many experts in orthopedic surgery recommend the use of a Delta external fixator for type III Pilon fracture treatment. This device can promote immediate healing of fractured bone, minimizing the rate of complications as well as allowing early mobilization. The characteristics of different types of the Delta frame have not been demonstrated yet. By using the finite element method, this study was conducted to determine the biomechanical characteristics of six different configurations (Model 1 until Model 6)...
April 21, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679180/comparative-study-of-the-electrochemical-biomedical-and-thermal-properties-of-natural-and-synthetic-nanomaterials
#13
Ferial Ghaemi, Luqman Chuah Abdullah, Hanieh Kargarzadeh, Mahnaz M Abdi, Nur Farhana Waheeda Mohd Azli, Maryam Abbasian
In this research, natural nanomaterials including cellulose nanocrystal (CNC), nanofiber cellulose (NFC), and synthetic nanoparticles such as carbon nanofiber (CNF) and carbon nanotube (CNT) with different structures, sizes, and surface areas were produced and analyzed. The most significant contribution of this study is to evaluate and compare these nanomaterials based on the effects of their structures and morphologies on their electrochemical, biomedical, and thermal properties. Based on the obtained results, the natural nanomaterials with low dimension and surface area have zero cytotoxicity effects on the living cells at 12...
April 20, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679002/self-replication-of-dna-by-its-encoded-proteins-in-liposome-based-synthetic-cells
#14
Pauline van Nies, Ilja Westerlaken, Duco Blanken, Margarita Salas, Mario Mencía, Christophe Danelon
Replication of DNA-encoded information and its conversion into functional proteins are universal properties of life. In an effort toward the construction of a synthetic minimal cell, we implement here the DNA replication machinery of the Φ29 virus in a cell-free gene expression system. Amplification of a linear DNA template by self-encoded, de novo synthesized Φ29 proteins is demonstrated. Complete information transfer is confirmed as the copied DNA can serve as a functional template for gene expression, which can be seen as an autocatalytic DNA replication cycle...
April 20, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678791/control-of-the-adsorption-properties-of-alginate-guar-gum-matrix-functionalized-with-epichlorohydrin-through-the-addition-of-different-flexible-chain-polymers-as-toll-for-the-chymotrypsinogen-isolation
#15
M Emilia Brassesco, Nadia Woitovich Valetti, Guillermo A Picó
This work addresses the obtaining and characterization of alginate-guar gum matrix, cross-linked with epichlorohydrin in the presence of different flexible chain polymers: polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl pyrrolidine and Pluronic® F68. These matrixes were used for the adsorption of chymotrypsinogen and showed an increasing uptake in presence of the flexible chain polymer in the sense: none < Pluronic 68 < polyvinyl pyrrolidine < polyvinyl alcohol. The adsorption process was found to follow a first order kinetics model and was not influenced by the polymer type...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678666/biochemical-deficits-and-cognitive-decline-in-brain-aging-intervention-by-dietary-supplements
#16
REVIEW
Jit Poddar, Munmun Pradhan, Gargi Ganguly, Sasanka Chakrabarti
The aging of brain in the absence of neurodegenerative diseases, usually called non-pathological brain aging or normal cognitive aging, is characterized by an impairment of memory and cognitive functions. The underlying cellular and molecular changes in the aging brain that include oxidative damage, mitochondrial impairment, changes in glucose-energy metabolism and neuroinflammation have been reported widely from animal experiments and human studies. The cognitive deficit of non-pathological brain aging is the resultant of such inter-dependent and reinforcing molecular pathologies which have striking similarities with those operating in Alzheimer's disease which causes progressive, irreversible and a devastating form of dementia and cognitive decline in the elderly people...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678664/erosion-of-polytetrafluoroethylene-gore-tex%C3%A2-sling-over-20-years-after-placement-for-stress-urinary-incontinence
#17
Julie W Cheng, Andrea Staack
As synthetic material has evolved to improve both the efficacy and biocompatibility of suburethral slings, soft polypropylene slings are currently the gold standard for treatment of stress urinary incontinence. However, reports of complications beyond 10 years are limited and patients can nevertheless present with erosion and other complications from other sling materials that have been used in the past. We present a case of synthetic sling erosion 21 years after placement of a polytetrafluoroethylene sling (Gore-tex®)...
April 17, 2018: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678658/essentiality-conservation-evolutionary-pressure-and-codon-bias-in-bacterial-genomes
#18
Maddalena Dilucca, Giulio Cimini, Andrea Giansanti
Essential genes constitute the core of genes which cannot be mutated too much nor lost along the evolutionary history of a species. Natural selection is expected to be stricter on essential genes and on conserved (highly shared) genes, than on genes that are either nonessential or peculiar to a single or a few species. In order to further assess this expectation, we study here how essentiality of a gene is connected with its degree of conservation among several unrelated bacterial species, each one characterised by its own codon usage bias...
April 17, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678630/characterization-and-simulation-of-noise-in-pet-images-reconstructed-with-osem-development-of-a-method-for-the-generation-of-synthetic-images
#19
P Castro, C Huerga, P Chamorro, J Garayoa, M Roch, L Pérez
INTRODUCTION: The goals of the study are to characterize imaging properties in 2D PET images reconstructed with the iterative algorithm ordered-subset expectation maximization (OSEM) and to propose a new method for the generation of synthetic images. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The noise is analyzed in terms of its magnitude, spatial correlation, and spectral distribution through standard deviation, autocorrelation function, and noise power spectrum (NPS), respectively...
April 17, 2018: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678561/distribution-of-take-home-opioid-antagonist-kits-during-a-synthetic-opioid-epidemic-in-british-columbia-canada-a-modelling-study
#20
Michael A Irvine, Jane A Buxton, Michael Otterstatter, Robert Balshaw, Reka Gustafson, Mark Tyndall, Perry Kendall, Thomas Kerr, Mark Gilbert, Daniel Coombs
BACKGROUND: Illicit use of high-potency synthetic opioids has become a global issue over the past decade. This misuse is particularly pronounced in British Columbia, Canada, where a rapid increase in availability of fentanyl and other synthetic opioids in the local illicit drug supply during 2016 led to a substantial increase in overdoses and deaths. In response, distribution of take-home naloxone (THN) overdose prevention kits was scaled up (6·4-fold increase) throughout the province...
April 17, 2018: Lancet. Public Health
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