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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454295/synthetic-and-genetically-encoded-fluorescent-neural-activity-indicators
#1
REVIEW
Claire Deo, Luke D Lavis
The ultimate goal of neuroscience is to relate the complex activity of cells and cell-networks to behavior and cognition. This requires tools and techniques to visualize neuronal activity. Fluorescence microscopy is an ideal tool to measure activity of cells in the brain due to the high sensitivity of the technique and the growing portfolio of optical hardware and fluorescent sensors. Here, we give a chemist's perspective on the recent progress of fluorescent activity indicators that enable the measurement of cellular events in the living brain...
February 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454158/polyisocyanopeptide-hydrogels-a-novel-thermo-responsive-hydrogel-supporting-pre-vascularization-and-the-development-of-organotypic-structures
#2
Jakub Zimoch, Joan Simó Padial, Agnes S Klar, Queralt Vallmajo-Martin, Martin Meuli, Thomas Biedermann, Christopher J Wilson, Alan Rowan, Ernst Reichmann
Molecular and mechanical interactions with the 3D extracellular matrix are essential for cell functions such as survival, proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Thermo-responsive biomimetic polyisocyanopeptide (PIC) hydrogels are promising new candidates for 3D cell, tissue, and organ cultures. This is a synthetic, thermo-responsive and stress-stiffening material synthesized via polymerization of the corresponding monomers using a nickel perchlorate as a catalyst. It can be tailored to meet various demands of cells by modulating its stiffness and through the decoration of the polymer with short GRGDS peptides using copper free click chemistry...
February 14, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454157/nanofibrous-plga-electrospun-scaffolds-modified-with-type-i-collagen-influence-hepatocyte-function-and-support-viability-in-vitro
#3
Jessica H Brown, Prativa Das, Michael D DiVito, David Ivancic, Lay Poh Tan, Jason A Wertheim
A major challenge of maintaining primary hepatocytes in vitro is progressive loss of hepatocyte-specific functions, such as protein synthesis and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) catalytic activity. We developed a three-dimensional (3D) nanofibrous scaffold made from poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymer using a newlyoptimizedwet electrospinning techniquethat resulted in a highly porous structure that accommodated inclusion of primary human hepatocytes. Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (type I collagen or fibronectin) at varying concentrations were chemically linked to electrospun PLGA using amine coupling to develop an in vitro culture system containing the minimal essential ECM components of the liver micro-environment that preserve hepatocyte function in vitro...
February 14, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453997/effects-of-para-methoxyamphetamine-pma-on-agonistic-encounters-between-male-mice
#4
Mercedes Martín-López, Ana T Muela, María Cavas, José Francisco Navarro
Para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA) is a synthetic drug chemically similar to the recreational drug 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy") and often replaces MDMA in tablets that show an "ecstasy" logo. PMA displays a higher toxic potential than MDMA, but the behavioral profile of PMA has been scarcely studied in animal models. Here we evaluated the effects of PMA (2, 4, 8, and 12 mg/kg, i.p.) on agonist encounters between male mice using an ethopharmacological approach, the isolation-induced aggression model...
February 14, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453843/behavioral-economics-and-the-public-acceptance-of-synthetic-biology
#5
Adam Oliver
Different applications of synthetic biology are alike in that their possible negative consequences are highly uncertain, potentially catastrophic, and perhaps irreversible; therefore, they are also alike in that public attitudes about them are fertile ground for behavioral economic phenomena. Findings from behavioral economics suggest that people may not respond to such applications according to the normal rules of economic evaluation, by which the value of an outcome is multiplied by the mathematical probability that the outcome will occur...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453841/beyond-cost-benefit-analysis-in-the-governance-of-synthetic-biology
#6
Wendell Wallach, Marc Saner, Gary Marchant
For many innovations, oversight fits nicely within existing governance mechanisms; nevertheless, others pose unique public health, environmental, and ethical challenges. Synthetic artemisinin, for example, has many precursors in laboratory-developed drugs that emulate natural forms of the same drug. The policy challenges posed by synthetic artemisinin do not differ significantly in kind from other laboratory-formulated drugs. Synthetic biofuels and gene drives, however, fit less clearly into existing governance structures...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453839/making-policies-about-emerging-technologies
#7
Gregory E Kaebnick, Michael K Gusmano
Can we make wise policy decisions about still-emerging technologies-decisions that are grounded in facts yet anticipate unknowns and promote the public's preferences and values? There is a widespread feeling that we should try. There also seems to be widespread agreement that the central element in wise decisions is the assessment of benefits and costs, understood as a process that consists, at least in part, in measuring, tallying, and comparing how different outcomes would affect the public interest. But how benefits and costs are best weighed when making decisions about whether to move forward with an emerging technology is not clear...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453838/from-cba-to-precautionary-appraisal-practical-responses-to-intractable-problems
#8
Andrew Stirling, Josie Coburn
The purpose of this essay is to critically review the design of methods for ethically robust forms of technology appraisal in the regulation of research and innovation in synthetic biology. It will focus, in particular, on the extent to which cost-benefit analysis offers a basis for informing decisions about which technological pathways to pursue and which to discourage. A further goal is to consider what (if anything) the precautionary principle might offer in enabling better decisions. And this, in turn, raises questions about why mention of precaution can excite accusations of unscientific bias or irrational, "anti-innovation" extremism...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453835/lessons-from-environmental-regulation
#9
Amy Sinden
Much of the most substantive and in-depth experience with formal cost-benefit analysis in the public policy realm has occurred in the context of federal environmental regulation in the United States. This experience has many important lessons to teach in the realm of synthetic biology. Indeed, many of the dangers and pitfalls that arise when decision-makers use formal CBA to evaluate environmental regulation seem likely to arise in the synthetic biology context as well, sometimes in particularly troubling forms...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453831/evaluation-of-a-recombinant-multiepitope-antigen-for-diagnosis-of-hepatitis-c-virus-a-lower-cost-alternative-for-antigen-production
#10
Ronaldo Luis Thomasini, Hortencia Gisele Amaro Souza, Oscar Bruna-Romero, Antonio Helvecio Totola, Neiva Sellan Lopes Gonçales, Cristiano Xavier Lima, Mauro Martins Teixeira
BACKGROUND: The most of the hepatitis C-infected patients remain undiagnosed until they develop severe liver damage or submitted for serological screening. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a recombinant multiepitope protein for detection of IgG anti-hepatitis C virus. METHOD: A synthetic gene was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was purified. Human serum panel consisted of 88 positives (20 HCV genotyped) and 376 negatives for hepatitis C, 6 positives for human acquired immunodeficiency virus, 6 syphilis positives, 6 hepatitis B positives were tested by IgG antihepatitis C virus using the protein by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453777/intramuscular-allopregnanolone-and-ganaxolone-in-a-mouse-model-of-treatment-resistant-status-epilepticus
#11
Dorota Zolkowska, Chun-Yi Wu, Michael A Rogawski
Allopregnanolone (5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one) and its synthetic 3β-methyl analog, ganaxolone, are positive allosteric modulators of synaptic and extrasynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptors that exhibit antiseizure activity in diverse animal seizure models, including models of status epilepticus (SE). The 2 neuroactive steroids are being investigated as treatments for SE, including as a treatment for SE induced by chemical threat agents. Intramuscular injection is the preferred route of administration in the prehospital treatment of SE...
February 17, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453611/comparative-study-of-phototoxicity-of-protoporphyrin-ix-synthetic-and-extracted-from-ssp-rattus-novergicus-albinus-rats-toward-murine-melanoma-cells
#12
E R Reis, L P Ferreira, E M D Nicola, I Borissevitch
Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is a precursor of heme synthesis and is known to be an active photosensitizer and precursor of photosensitizers applied in photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photodynamic diagnostics (PDD). On irradiation with visible light, PpIX undergoes phototransformation, producing photoproducts which may also be phototoxic and increase its efficacy. The mechanism of PpIX phototransformation depends on environmental characteristics and can be different in vitro and in vivo. In this paper, we present a comparative study of the photoactivity of synthetic PpIX and PpIX extracted from the Harderian gland of ssp Rattus novergicus albinus rats, along with their photoproducts toward murine B16F-10 melanoma cells...
February 16, 2018: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453387/structural-determinants-of-the-sine-b2-element-embedded-in-the-long-non-coding-rna-activator-of-translation-as-uchl1
#13
Peter Podbevšek, Francesca Fasolo, Carlotta Bon, Laura Cimatti, Sabine Reißer, Piero Carninci, Giovanni Bussi, Silvia Zucchelli, Janez Plavec, Stefano Gustincich
Pervasive transcription of mammalian genomes leads to a previously underestimated level of complexity in gene regulatory networks. Recently, we have identified a new functional class of natural and synthetic antisense long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) that increases translation of partially overlapping sense mRNAs. These molecules were named SINEUPs, as they require an embedded inverted SINE B2 element for their UP-regulation of translation. Mouse AS Uchl1 is the representative member of natural SINEUPs. It was originally discovered for its role in increasing translation of Uchl1 mRNA, a gene associated with neurodegenerative diseases...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453276/entropy-drives-selective-fluorine-recognition-in-the-fluoroacetyl-coa-thioesterase-from-streptomyces-cattleya
#14
Amy M Weeks, Ningkun Wang, Jeffrey G Pelton, Michelle C Y Chang
Fluorinated small molecules play an important role in the design of bioactive compounds for a broad range of applications. As such, there is strong interest in developing a deeper understanding of how fluorine affects the interaction of these ligands with their targets. Given the small number of fluorinated metabolites identified to date, insights into fluorine recognition have been provided almost entirely by synthetic systems. The fluoroacetyl-CoA thioesterase (FlK) from Streptomyces cattleya thus provides a unique opportunity to study an enzyme-ligand pair that has been evolutionarily optimized for a surprisingly high 10 6 selectivity for a single fluorine substituent...
February 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453274/select-and-resequence-reveals-relative-fitness-of-bacteria-in-symbiotic-and-free-living-environments
#15
Liana T Burghardt, Brendan Epstein, Joseph Guhlin, Matt S Nelson, Margaret R Taylor, Nevin D Young, Michael J Sadowsky, Peter Tiffin
Assays to accurately estimate relative fitness of bacteria growing in multistrain communities can advance our understanding of how selection shapes diversity within a lineage. Here, we present a variant of the "evolve and resequence" approach both to estimate relative fitness and to identify genetic variants responsible for fitness variation of symbiotic bacteria in free-living and host environments. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by characterizing selection by two plant hosts and in two free-living environments (sterilized soil and liquid media) acting on synthetic communities of the facultatively symbiotic bacterium Ensifer meliloti We find ( i ) selection that hosts exert on rhizobial communities depends on competition among strains, ( ii ) selection is stronger inside hosts than in either free-living environment, and ( iii ) a positive host-dependent relationship between relative strain fitness in multistrain communities and host benefits provided by strains in single-strain experiments...
February 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453253/assembly-of-synthetic-functional-cellulosomal-structures-onto-the-lactobacillus-plantarum-cell-surface-a-potent-member-of-the-gut-microbiome
#16
Johanna Stern, Sarah Moraïs, Yonit Ben-David, Rachel Salama, Melina Shamshoum, Raphael Lamed, Yuval Shoham, Edward A Bayer, Itzhak Mizrahi
Heterologous display of enzymes on microbial cell surfaces is an extremely desirable approach, since it enables the engineered microbe to interact directly with the plant-wall extracellular polysaccharide matrix. In recent years, attempts have been made to endow non-cellulolytic microbes with genetically engineered cellulolytic capabilities for improved hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass and for advanced probiotics. Thus far, however, owing to the hurdles of secreting and assembling large, intricate complexes on the bacterial cell wall, only free cellulases or relatively simple cellulosome assemblies have been introduced into live bacteria...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453071/degradation-of-dye-procion-red-mx-5b-by-electrolytic-and-electro-irradiated-technologies-using-diamond-electrodes
#17
Salvador Cotillas, Davide Clematis, Pablo Cañizares, Maria Paola Carpanese, Manuel A Rodrigo, Marco Panizza
This work focuses on the treatment of synthetic wastewater polluted with dye Procion Red MX-5B by different Electrochemical Advanced Oxidation Processes (EAOP) based on diamond anodes. The influence of the current density and the supporting electrolyte has been studied on dye removal and total mineralization of the organic matter. Results show that electrolysis with diamond electrodes is a suitable technology for an efficient degradation of dye. Nonetheless, the process efficiency increases when using chloride as supporting electrolyte because of the electrochemical generation of hypochlorite in wastewater which significantly contribute to dye removal...
February 3, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453069/combined-effect-of-copper-and-hydrodynamic-conditions-on-myriophyllum-alterniflorum-biomarkers
#18
Maha Krayem, Véronique Deluchat, Philippe Hourdin, Patrice Fondanèche, Florence Lecavelier Des Etangs, Véronique Kazpard, Christian Moesch, Pascal Labrousse
The aim of this study is to determine the combined effect of copper and hydrodynamic conditions on the response of certain biomarkers of an aquatic macrophyte, namely Myriophyllum alterniflorum. Watermilfoil biomarkers are monitored in a synthetic medium enriched or not with copper (100 μg.L -1 ) for 21 days in aquarium systems (150 L), under three hydrodynamic conditions: laminar, turbulent, and calm. The studied biomarkers are: respiratory and photosynthetic activities; concentrations of chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids; osmotic potential; hydrogen peroxide content; and growth...
February 9, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452867/deep-inspiration-breath-hold-level-variability-and-deformation-in-locoregional-breast-irradiation
#19
Leigh Conroy, Sarah Quirk, Elizabeth Watt, Gillian Ecclestone, Jessica L Conway, Ivo A Olivotto, Tien Phan, Wendy L Smith
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dosimetric effect of breath hold level variability and deformation on breast, chest wall, internal mammary chain (IMC) nodes, and heart. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Left-sided post-lumpectomy (n = 12) and postmastectomy (n = 3) patients underwent deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) and exhale breath hold (EBH) computed tomography (CT) scans. Forward-planned locoregional breast plans were created on the DIBH scan...
February 13, 2018: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452779/management-of-female-stress-urinary-incontinence-a-care-pathway-and-update
#20
REVIEW
Giampiero Capobianco, Massimo Madonia, Sonia Morelli, Francesco Dessole, Davide De Vita, Pier Luigi Cherchi, Salvatore Dessole
Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a condition characterized by an involuntary loss of urine occurring as result of an increase in intra-abdominal pressure due to effort or exertion or on sneezing or coughing. Estimates of its prevalence in the female population range from 10% to 40%. A literature search of the Medline, Cochrane library, EMBASE, NLH, ClinicalTrials.gov and Google Scholar databases was done up to July 2017, restricted to English-language articles, using terms related to SUI, medical therapy, surgical therapy and treatment options...
March 2018: Maturitas
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