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Falguni Basuli, Xiang Zhang, Mark R Williams, Jurgen Seidel, Michael V Green, Peter L Choyke, Rolf E Swenson, Elaine M Jagoda
INTRODUCTION: Equilibrium single-photon radionuclide imaging methods for assessing cardiac function and the integrity of the vascular system have long been in use for both clinical and research purposes. However, positron-emitting blood pool agents that could provide PET equivalents to these (and other) clinical procedures have not yet been adopted despite technical imaging advantages offered by PET. Our goal was to develop a PET blood pool tracer that not only meets necessary in vivo biological requirements but can be produced with an uncomplicated and rapid synthesis method which would facilitate clinical translation...
May 30, 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Fahimeh Abedinifar, S Morteza F Farnia, Mohammad Mahdavi, Hamid Nadri, Alireza Moradi, Jahan B Ghasemi, Tuba Tüylü Küçükkılınç, Loghman Firoozpour, Alireza Foroumadi
A series of benzofuran-2-carboxamide-N-benzyl pyridinium halide derivatives (6a-o) are synthesized as new cholinesterase inhibitors. The synthetic pathway involves the reaction of salicylaldehyde derivatives and ethyl bromoacetate, followed by hydrolysis and amidation with 3- and 4-picolyl amine. Subsequently, N-((pyridin-4-yl) methyl) benzofuran-2-carboxamide and substituted N-((pyridin-3-yl) methyl) benzofuran-2-carboxamides reacts with benzyl halides to afford target compounds (6a-o). The chemical structures of all derivatives were confirmed by spectroscopic methods...
June 6, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
Uttariya Roy, Shubhalakshmi Sengupta, Priya Banerjee, Papita Das, Avijit Bhowal, Siddhartha Datta
This study focuses on the investigation of removal of textile dye (Reactive Yellow) by a combined approach of sorption integrated with biodegradation using low cost adsorbent fly ash immobilized with Pseudomonas sp. To ensure immobilization of bacterial species on treated fly ash, fly ash with immobilized bacterial cells was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and fluorescence microscopy. Comparative batch studies were carried out using Pseudomonas sp, fly ash and immobilized Pseudomonas sp on flyash and were observed that immobilized Pseudomonas sp on flyash acted as better decolourizing agent...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Kun Zeng, Hong Zheng, Congbo Cai, Yu Yang, Kaihua Zhang, Zhong Chen
In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the acquired images are usually not of high enough resolution due to constraints such as long sampling times and patient comfort. High-resolution MRI images can be obtained by super-resolution techniques, which can be grouped into two categories: single-contrast super-resolution and multi-contrast super-resolution, where the former has no reference information, and the latter applies a high-resolution image of another modality as a reference. In this paper, we propose a deep convolutional neural network model, which performs single- and multi-contrast super-resolution reconstructions simultaneously...
June 14, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Sateesh Dubbu, Ashish Kumar Verma, Kadigachalam Parasuraman, Yashwant D Vankar
Synthesis of 1,2-annulated-C-aryl glycosides has been achieved in a stereoselective manner through the Diels-Alder reaction between carbohydrate-derived terminally unsubstituted dienes and in situ generated arynes. In these reactions, formation of sugar-fused (or branched) naphthalenes was also observed and found to be temperature dependent and thus constituting one of the salient features of this work. The synthetic importance of 1,2-annulated-C-aryl glycosides has been explored by transforming them into densely oxygenated products by functionalizing the unsubstituted exo-double bond...
June 6, 2018: Carbohydrate Research
Yasuhiro Kamada, Hibiki Yakabu, Toshio Ichiba, Ayumi Tamanaha, Maria Shimoji, Megumi Kato, Chie Norimoto, Risa Yamasiro, Ikuko Miyagi, Akikazu Sakudo, Yasuharu Tanaka
Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) is one of the most promising strategies for cancer chemotherapy, and a number of inhibitors possessing nicotinamide-like structures are being developed. To discover new types of PARP1 inhibitors, we screened a large number of substances of plant origin and isolated two inhibitory substances from the leaves of Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merrill & L.M. Perry. The inhibitory substances were identified as vescalagin and its epimer castalagin by analyses using nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry...
June 18, 2018: Fitoterapia
Ahmed M Eissa, Flavio S V Barros, Pavle Vrljicak, Jan J Brosens, Neil R Cameron
Novel approaches for culturing primary human cells in vitro are increasingly needed to study cell and tissue physiology and to grow replacement tissue for regenerative medicine. Conventional 2D monolayer cultures of endometrial epithelial and stromal cells fail to replicate the complex 3D architecture of tissue. A fully synthetic scaffold that mimics the microenvironment of the human endometrium can ultimately provide a robust platform for investigating tissue physiology and, hence, take significant steps towards tackling female infertility and IVF failure...
June 21, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Ross Kent, Samantha Halliwell, Kate Young, Neil Swainston, Neil Dixon
The ability of RNA to sense, regulate and store information is an attractive attribute for a variety of functional applications including the development of regulatory control devices for synthetic biology. RNA folding and function is known to be highly context sensitive, which limits the modularity and reuse of RNA regulatory devices to control different heterologous sequences and genes. We explored the cause and effect of sequence context sensitivity for translational ON riboswitches located in the 5' UTR, by constructing and screening a library of N-terminal synonymous codon variants...
June 21, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Elizaveta Chervyachkova, Seraphine Valeska Wegner
Towards the bottom-up assembly of synthetic cells from molecular building blocks it is an ongoing challenge to assemble micrometer sized compartments that host different processes into precise multicompartmental assemblies, also called prototissues. The difficulty lies in controlling interactions between different compartments dynamically both in space and time, as these interactions determine how they organize with respect to each other and how they work together. In this study, we have been able to control the self-assembly and social self-sorting of four different types of colloids, which we use as a model for synthetic cells, into two separate families with visible light...
June 21, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Tomoko Tsuchiya, Kenshiro Shiraishi, Keiichi Nakagawa, Jae-Ryong Kim, Shiro Kanegasaki
Background and purpose: Intravenous administration of a single amino acid-substituted chemokine CCL3 derivative named eMIP elicits the abscopal effect (an effect distal to the target), after local irradiation at a tumor-bearing site. To distinguish the active portion of eMIP, we tested the antitumor activity of chemically synthesized partial peptides of eMIP. Synthetic peptide has various advantages in its clinical application. Material and methods: Colon26 adenocarcinoma cells were implanted subcutaneously in the right and left flanks of mice...
March 2018: Clinical and Translational Radiation Oncology
Yasuhiro Isogai, Eisuke Takao, Ryuta Nakamura, Minoru Kato, Shigeki Kawabata
Proteins are attractive materials for supramolecular chemistry due to their multifunctionality and self-organization ability. In this work, we synthesized a diheme compound, in which two iron-protoporphyrin IX molecules are associated via a linker chain, and introduced it into a de novo designed four-helix bundle protein with two heme-binding sites. The protein gradually bound the diheme compound by bis -histidyl ligation and formed supramolecular polymers. Polymer formation was observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), which revealed the highly branched, dendritic forms of the fibrous architecture...
June 2018: FEBS Open Bio
Massimo Cecchini, Roberto Bedini, Davide Mosetti, Sonia Marino, Serenella Stasi
Background: In recent years, the interest in health and safety in the workplace has increased. Agriculture is one of the human work activities with the highest risk indexes. Studies on risk perception of agricultural workers are often referred to as specific risk factors (especially pesticides), but the risk perception plays an important role in preventing every kind of accident and occupational disease. Methods: The aim of this research is to test a new method for understanding the relation between risk perception among farmers and the main risk factors to which they are exposed...
June 2018: Safety and Health At Work
Yuki Kinjo, Shogo Takatsuka, Naoki Kitano, Shun Kawakubo, Masahiro Abe, Keigo Ueno, Yoshitsugu Miyazaki
CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T ( i NKT) cells are innate-type lymphocytes that express a T-cell receptor (TCR) containing an invariant α chain encoded by the Vα14 gene in mice and Vα24 gene in humans. These i NKT cells recognize endogenous, microbial, and synthetic glycolipid antigens presented by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like molecule CD1d. Upon TCR stimulation by glycolipid antigens, i NKT cells rapidly produce large amounts of cytokines, including interferon-γ (IFNγ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Naveen K Kalagatur, Oriparambil S Nirmal Ghosh, Naveen Sundararaj, Venkataramana Mudili
Application of synthetic fungicides in agricultural commodities has been restricted due to development of fungicide resistance fungi and deleterious impact on environment and health of farm animals and humans. Hence, there is an urge for development of mycobiocides, and the present study was undertaken to determine the antifungal activity of Cymbopogon martinii essential oil (CMEO) on post-harvest pathogen Fusarium graminearum . The CMEO was extracted by hydrodistillation and GC-MS chemical profile revealed the presence of 46 compounds and abundant was geraniol (19...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Dusan Kolar
Treatment-resistant mood disorders and anxiety disorders require intensive treatment, but treatment options should balance benefits and adverse effects or other potential detrimental effects on patients, including the risk of developing prescription medication addiction. Some of the newer treatment modalities for mood and anxiety disorders may have similar properties to benzodiazepines. The goal of this review was to identify the potential for developing dependence on the novel treatment approaches to treatment-resistant depression and refractory anxiety disorders...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Jammula S Srinivas, Prakash Panagatla, Mukunda Reddy Damalacheru
Introduction: Reconstruction of complex abdominal wall defects is both challenging and technically demanding for plastic surgeon. Objectives in abdominal wall reconstruction are consistent and include restoration of abdominal wall integrity, protection of intra abdominal viscera and prevention of herniation. Materials: We conducted a retrospective study on five patients in whom lateral thigh flaps such as anterolateral thigh (ALT) flaps and tensor fascia lata (TFL) myocutaneous flaps as pedicled or free flaps were used for complex abdominal wall Type II defects over a 5- years period between 2007 and 2012...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery: Official Publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India
Matthias Braun, Sandra Fernau, Peter Dabrock
Synthetic biology is currently one of the most frequently addressed emerging biotechnologies. Developments within this field receive a great deal of attention in media coverage, in which they are frequently illustrated by certain forms of metaphorical speech. Although it can be assumed that societal perceptions and evaluations of emerging biotechnologies are shaped by media coverage and its transported images, there is a lack of empirical research examining the reporting on synthetic biology as well as the use and function of metaphors within media articles...
2018: PloS One
Daniel Pletzer, Sarah C Mansour, Robert E W Hancock
With the antibiotic development pipeline running dry, many fear that we might soon run out of treatment options. High-density infections are particularly difficult to treat due to their adaptive multidrug-resistance and currently there are no therapies that adequately address this important issue. Here, a large-scale in vivo study was performed to enhance the activity of antibiotics to treat high-density infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It was shown that synthetic peptides can be used in conjunction with the antibiotics ciprofloxacin, meropenem, erythromycin, gentamicin, and vancomycin to improve the treatment outcome of murine cutaneous abscesses caused by clinical hard-to-treat pathogens including all ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae) pathogens and Escherichia coli...
June 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Kirby K H Smithe, Chris D English, Saurabh V Suryavanshi, Eric Pop
Two-dimensional semiconductors such as monolayer MoS2 are of interest for future applications including flexible electronics and end-of-roadmap technologies. Most research to date has focused on low-field mobility, but the peak current-driving ability of transistors is limited by the high-field saturation drift velocity, vsat . Here, we measure high-field transport as a function of temperature for the first time in high-quality synthetic monolayer MoS2 . We find that in typical device geometries self-heating can significantly reduce vsat during high-field operation...
June 21, 2018: Nano Letters
Julian Tu, Minghao Xu, Saba Parvez, Randall T Peterson, Raphael M Franzini
Dissociative bioorthogonal reactions allow for chemically controlling the release of bioactive agents and reporter probes. Here we describe 3-isocyanopropyl substituents as masking groups that can be effectively removed in biological systems. 3-isocyanopropyl derivatives react with tetrazines to afford 3-oxopropyl groups that eliminate diverse functionalities. The study shows that the reaction is rapid and can liberate phenols and amines near-quantitatively under physiological conditions. The reaction is compatible with living organisms as demonstrated by the release of a resorufin fluorophore and a mexiletine drug in zebrafish embryos implanted with tetrazine-modified beads...
June 21, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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