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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27437212/comparative-study-of-genexpert-with-zn-stain-and-culture-in-samples-of-suspected-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#1
Monika Agrawal, Ashish Bajaj, Vinay Bhatia, Sarjana Dutt
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis remains one of the deadliest communicable diseases. There are number of tests available for the diagnosis of tuberculosis but conventional microscopy has low sensitivity and culture although gold standard, but takes longer time for positivity. On the other side, Nucleic acid amplification techniques due to its rapidity and sensitivity not only help in early diagnosis and management of tuberculosis especially in patients with high clinical suspicion like immunocompromised patients, history of contact with active tuberculosis patient etc...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27383932/bronchoscopic-diagnostic-procedures-and-microbiological-examinations-in-proving-endobronchial-tuberculosis
#2
Abdullah Şimşek, İlhami Yapıcı, Mesiha Babalık, Zekiye Şimşek, Mustafa Kolsuz
Objective: To determine the proportional distribution of endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB) subtypes and to evaluate the types of bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures that can prove granulomatous inflammation. Methods: This was a retrospective study of 18 HIV-negative patients with biopsy-proven EBTB treated between 2010 and 2014. Results: The most common EBTB subtypes, as classified by the bronchoscopic features, were tumorous and granular (in 22...
May 2016: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27084815/do-we-need-transbronchial-lung-biopsy-if-we-have-bronchoalveolar-lavage-xpert%C3%A2-mtb-rif
#3
Y Mok, T Y Tan, T R Tay, H S Wong, P Y Tiew, J W Kam, C Siao
BACKGROUND: Studies evaluating the role of transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) in diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) date back decades and have shaped current practice. However, with the recent advent of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) Xpert® MTB/RIF, it is time to re-evaluate the role of TBLB. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of BAL and TBLB with the addition of BAL Xpert on diagnostic PTB yields and time to treatment initiation in sputum-scarce or acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear-negative PTB patients...
May 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26150643/a-mimic-s-imitator-a-cavitary-pneumonia-in-a-myasthenic-patient-with-history-of-tuberculosis
#4
Raquel Ramos Garcia, Nitin Bhanot, Zaw Min
A 77-year-old man with myasthenia gravis receiving prednisone and plasmapheresis was found to have right upper lobe cavitary pneumonia on radiological imaging studies after thymectomy. He had a remote history of treated pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) at the age of 19. On the basis of history of TB and current prednisone therapy, reactivation of pulmonary TB was highly suspected. Branching Gram-positive bacilli were identified on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). BAL Ziehl-Neelsen Acid-fast bacilli stain was negative, but a modified Kinyoun stain revealed branching, beaded, filamentous bacilli, suggestive of Nocardia spp...
2015: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26069841/pulmonary-alveolar-proteinosis-in-a-10-year-old-girl-masquerading-as-tuberculosis
#5
Abhamoni Baro, Ira Shah, Parmarth Chandane, Indu Khosla
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare pulmonary disease. Diagnosis is established by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), which has macroscopic 'milky appearance', and in the presence of typical computed tomography, findings are diagnostic of PAP but, however, the feature of periodic acid-Schiff-positive eosinophilic proteinaceous fluid raises the confidence of the diagnosis. We report late-onset PAP in a 10-year-old girl who had acid fast bacilli on an initial BAL examination, but was subsequently diagnosed as PAP...
June 2015: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26069424/utility-of-line-probe-assay-for-the-early-detection-of-multidrug-resistant-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#6
K Madhuri, Smita Deshpande, Sujata Dharmashale, Renu Bharadwaj
BACKGROUND: Despite endorsement of the line probe assay (LPA) for the diagnosis of drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis patients, there is limited data available on the performance of LPAs in India, especially from high burden states like Maharashtra, for the early diagnosis and detection of drug resistance, in order to initiate timely and appropriate treatment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utility of the line probe assay (LPA) for the early diagnosis of drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis as compared to the 'Gold standard' 1% proportion method (PM)...
April 2015: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25703755/diagnostic-yield-of-bronchoalveolar-lavage-gene-xpert-in-smear-negative-and-sputum-scarce-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#7
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Kanwal Fatima Khalil, Tariq Butt
OBJECTIVE: To measure the diagnostic yield of Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) gene Xpert (Xpert MTB/RIF assay), to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and rifampicin resistance and compare it with that of mycobacterial cultures in a suspected case of pulmonary tuberculosis. STUDY DESIGN: An analytical study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Pulmonology, Fauji Foundation Hospital (FFH), Rawalpindi, from December 2012 to August 2013...
February 2015: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25657406/atypical-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis-with-muzzle-area-swelling
#8
Sandeep Arora, Arvinder Singh Bal, Sukriti Baveja, Aradhana Sood, Khushi Ram Rathi, Pradeep Patil
A 50-year-old male presented with recurrent swelling of the muzzle area of the face with history of low-grade intermittent fever of 3 year duration managed variously with antibiotics, systemic steroids, and antituberculous therapy. Skin biopsy revealed a granulomatous infiltration negative for acid-fast bacilli and leishmania donovan bodies. Immunochromatography test for rK 39 antigen and polymerase chain reaction for leishmania was positive. He was diagnosed as a case of post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis, managed with injection sodium stibogluconate and followed-up thereafter...
January 2015: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25617385/utility-of-reflexive-gomori-methenamine-silver-and-acid-fast-bacillus-staining-on-bronchoalveolar-lavage-specimens
#9
Karen S Strenge, Julie E Kunkel, Alan A George, Thomas Mailhiot, Samantha L Butler
OBJECTIVE: Reflexive testing of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens with Gomori methenamine silver (GMS) and acid-fast bacillus (AFB) stains is not routinely performed by most institutions. Instead, these stains are usually ordered to evaluate for the presence of fungal elements and/or acid-fast organisms if initial histopathologic assessment suggests the presence of these pathogens. Our institution, however, performs these stains on all BAL specimens. Thus, we sought to determine whether this practice was cost effective, considering the turnaround time and diagnostic efficacy of these tests...
2015: Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25537975/fatal-aortic-pseudoaneurysm-from-disseminated-mycobacterium-kansasii-infection-case-report
#10
Laleh Ehsani, Sujan C Reddy, Mario Mosunjac, Colleen S Kraft, Jeannette Guarner
Mycobacterium kansasii is a photochromogenic, slow-growing mycobacterium species that can cause pulmonary infection in patients with predisposing lung diseases, as well as extrapulmonary or disseminated disease in immunosuppressed patients. We describe a patient with a myelodysplastic syndrome, disseminated M kansasii infection, and ruptured aortic aneurysm. He had a recent diagnosis of mycobacterium cavitary lung lesions and was transferred to our facility for possible surgical intervention of an aortic aneurysm...
March 2015: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25389506/pulmonary-mycobacterium-kansasii-infection-mimicking-malignancy-on-the-18-f-fdg-pet-scan-in-a-patient-receiving-etanercept-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#11
Zaw Min, Mohan Amlani
A 66-year-old male presented with chest pain, malaise, generalized weakness, and weight loss. He had been receiving etanercept injection for rheumatoid arthritis. Chest X-ray revealed a right upper lobe mass. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed a right apical mass, highly suggestive of a Pancoast tumor. The thoracic fluorine-18 fluoro-deoxy-glucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scan demonstrated significantly high metabolic pulmonary lesions with the standardized uptake value (SUV) of 12...
2014: Case Reports in Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25334428/pulmonary-cutaneous-talcosis
#12
Michael Ghobrial, Hany Farag
ILD Student/Resident Case Report PostersSESSION TYPE: Medical Student/Resident Case ReportPRESENTED ON: Tuesday, October 28, 2014 at 01:30 PM - 02:30 PMINTRODUCTION: Pulmonary Talcosis (PT) is a rare disease mostly due to inhalation of talc. Intravascular PT is a variant that might be seen in IVDU who inject crushed tablets. We report a case of PT in IVDU mimicking pneumonia with unique cutaneous foreign body giant cell reaction similar to the lung lesion.CASE PRESENTATION: A 63 yo AA male with a PMH of HTN, chronic HCV & h/o IVDU presented with persistent dry cough, worsening dyspnea & night sweats for more than 2 months...
October 1, 2014: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25334196/black-lungs-in-a-crack-enthusiast
#13
Bashar Mourad, Hammad Bhatti, James Cury, Adil Shujaat
Miscellaneous Student/Resident Case Report Posters IISESSION TYPE: Medical Student/Resident Case ReportPRESENTED ON: Tuesday, October 28, 2014 at 01:30 PM - 02:30 PMINTRODUCTION: Cocaine use is widespread in the United States, with 5 to 8 million current abusers. The principal method of intoxication is smoked cocaine, often referred to as "crack". It is the most commonly used illicit drug among patients seen in the emergency department, and the most frequent cause of drug-related deaths. Pulmonary sequelae include respiratory symptoms, such as persistent cough, wheeze, dyspnea and hemoptysis, deterioration in lung function, and pulmonary infiltrates or interstitial pneumonitis...
October 1, 2014: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25334194/disseminated-bacillus-calmette-guerin-bcg-osis-in-an-immunocompetent-adult-after-intravesical-bcg-immunotherapy
#14
Richard May, Chinenye Emuwa, Amee Patrawalla, Andrew Berman
Infectious Disease Student/Resident CasesSESSION TYPE: Medical Student/Resident Case ReportPRESENTED ON: Tuesday, October 28, 2014 at 07:30 AM - 08:30 AMINTRODUCTION: Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is a live attenuated bacterium derived from Mycobacterium bovis. When given intravesicularly, BCG is an effective form of immunotherapy for early-stage bladder cancer. Intravesical BCG treatment is usually well tolerated. Infrequently, systemic absorption of BCG can result in disseminated infection. We describe a case of disseminated Mycobacterium bovis infection in an immunocompetent adult after intravesical BCG immunotherapy...
October 1, 2014: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25334184/extracerebral-toxoplasmosis-looking-beyond-the-central-nervous-system
#15
O'Dene Lewis, Babak Shokrani, Doshi Saumil, Marc Phillpotts
SESSION TITLE: Infectious Disease Student/Resident Case Report Posters IIISESSION TYPE: Medical Student/Resident Case ReportPRESENTED ON: Tuesday, October 28, 2014 at 01:30 PM - 02:30 PMINTRODUCTION: Toxoplasmosis is the most common parasitic opportunistic infection of the central nervous system (CNS) in AIDS patients who are not on appropriate prophylaxis. Extra-cerebral sites may be involved with or without CNS toxoplasmosis. Pulmonary involvement is uncommon but is second to the CNS as the major site of disease...
October 1, 2014: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25334146/acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-caused-by-pulmonary-tuberculosis-successfully-managed-with-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#16
Walter James, Lisa Brath, Orlando Debesa
SESSION TITLE: Infectious Disease Cases IISESSION TYPE: Affiliate Case Report SlidePRESENTED ON: Wednesday, October 29, 2014 at 11:00 AM - 12:15 PMINTRODUCTION: Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a disease with significant morbidity, mortality and cost. Pulmonary tuberculosis(TB) causing ARDS is rare. This case report describes a unique case of ARDS secondary to Pulmonary TB that was successfully managed with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). CASE PRESENTATION: A 31 year-old Liberian male was transferred with progressive respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation...
October 1, 2014: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25248484/use-of-acid-fast-bacilli-staining-to-determine-the-need-for-airborne-infection-isolation-precautions-a-comparison-of-respiratory-specimens
#17
Christina Silkaitis, Laura Bardowski, Cara Coomer, Kathryn Trakas, Mary Alice Lavin, Susheel Reddy, Maureen K Bolon, Teresa R Zembower
Institution of appropriate airborne infection isolation (AII) precautions for patients with suspected Mycobacterium tuberculosis is critical to prevent disease transmission. We compared the yield of acid-fast bacilli smears from different types of respiratory specimens and found that smear sensitivity was highest for specimens obtained by endotracheal aspirates (92%), followed by sputum (79%), and then by bronchoalveolar lavage (37%). As a result of this study, our institutional policy regarding discontinuation of AII precautions was amended...
November 2014: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25165698/rapid-diagnosis-of-childhood-pulmonary-tuberculosis-by-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-using-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid
#18
Qing-Qin Yin, Wei-Wei Jiao, Rui Han, An-Xia Jiao, Lin Sun, Jian-Ling Tian, Yu-Yan Ma, Xiao-Chun Rao, Chen Shen, Qin-Jing Li, A-Dong Shen
In order to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay on childhood pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), we evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of Xpert MTB/RIF assay using BALF in comparison with acid-fast bacilli (AFB) microscopy and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) culture for diagnosing childhood PTB using Chinese "composite clinical reference standard" (CCRS) as reference standard. Two hundred fifty-five children with suspected PTB were enrolled at Beijing Children's Hospital from September 2010 to July 2013...
2014: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25035447/mediastinal-widening-and-miliary-chest-radiograph-pattern-in-a-middle-aged-man-could-it-be-sarcoidosis
#19
Clementine Bostantzoglou, Konstantinos Samitas, Charalampos Gkogkou, Eleftherios Zervas, Mina Gaga
A diagnosis of sarcoidosis is based on suggestive radiographic pattern, presence of non-caseating granulomas and negative fungal and acid-fast bacilli (AFB) cultures. Sarcoidosis usually presents with hilar and/or mediastinal lymphadenopathy and distinct parenchymal radiographic patterns, such as fine nodular, reticulonodular or acinar opacities and rarely focal nodules or masses. A diffuse miliary pattern occurs in less than 1% of cases and can be identical to patterns seen in tuberculosis, fungal infections, histiocytosis and miliary metastases...
July 17, 2014: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24908812/-fatal-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-lung-disease-caused-by-mycobacterium-kyorinense-a-case-report-with-five-years-of-follow-up
#20
Yumi Sakakibara, Kumiko Kishimoto, Kaoru Kojima, Toshihide Fujie, Naohiko Inase
An 85-year-old man with dementia first visited our hospital 5 years ago, complaining of hemoptysis. He was hospitalized 2 years later owing to fever, cough, and dyspnea. A chest computed tomography scan showed infiltration with a cavity in the left upper lobe. He was diagnosed with nontuberculous mycobacterial lung infection on the basis of the presence of acid-fast bacilli in the sputum and repeated bronchoalveolar lavage specimens; however, we were unable to identify the isolate by DNA-DNA hybridization. Although his general condition had slightly improved after treatment initiation, intermittent chemotherapy owing to the adverse effects of the drugs and dementia led to rapid disease progression and death...
April 2014: Kekkaku: [Tuberculosis]
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