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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217829/vitamin-d-and-autism-what-s-new
#1
REVIEW
John Jacob Cannell
An increasing amount of evidence points to the possibility that gestational and early childhood vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D < 40 ng/ml] cause some cases of autism. Vitamin D is metabolized into a seco-steroid hormone that regulates about 3% of the 26,000 genes in the coding human genome. It is also a neurosteroid that is active in brain development, having effects on cellular proliferation, differentiation, calcium signaling, neurotrophic and neuroprotective actions; it also appears to have an effect on neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity...
February 20, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187395/population-pharmacokinetic-modelling-of-valproic-acid-and-its-selected-metabolites-in-acute-vpa-poisoning
#2
Wojciech Jawień, Jolanta Wilimowska, Małgorzata Kłys, Wojciech Piekoszewski
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid (VPA) is a first-line antiepileptic drug. It is used in the treatment of many different types of partial and generalized epileptic seizures. Though the clinical pharmacokinetics of VPA has been well defined, information about pharmacokinetics after overdoses is rare. The aim of this study was to try to build a population pharmacokinetic model that would describe the time course of VPA and its selected metabolites when the drug is ingested in an overdose situation...
January 6, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160345/does-exposure-to-opioid-substitution-treatment-in-prison-reduce-the-risk-of-death-after-release-a-national-prospective-observational-study-in-england
#3
John Marsden, Garry Stillwell, Hayley Jones, Alisha Cooper, Brian Eastwood, Michael Farrell, Tim Lowden, Nino Maddalena, Chris Metcalfe, Jenny Shaw, Matthew Hickman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: People with opioid use disorder (OUD) in prison face an acute risk of death after release. We estimated whether prison-based opioid substitution treatment (OST) reduces this risk. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study using prison healthcare, national community drug misuse treatment and deaths registers. SETTING: Recruitment at 39 adult prisons in England (32 male; 7 female) accounting for 95% of OST treatment in England during study planning...
February 4, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152637/l-arginine-in-the-treatment-of-valproate-overdose-five-clinical-cases
#4
Verena Schrettl, Norbert Felgenhauer, Christian Rabe, Malkanthi Fernando, Florian Eyer
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid and its metabolites - particularly valproyl-CoA - are inhibitors of the enzyme N-acetylglutamate synthetase. The amino acid l-arginine can stimulate N-acetylglutamate synthetase activity and could be potentially used therapeutically to correct hyperammonemia caused by valproate therapy or overdose. Severely valproic-acid-poisoned patients are usually treated with l-carnitine or hemodialysis in order to decrease hyperammonemia. We herein report of five cases, in which l-arginine was administered...
February 3, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152635/self-poisoning-with-baclofen-in-alcohol-dependent-patients-national-reports-to-french-poison-control-centers-2008-2013
#5
Fanny Pelissier, Luc de Haro, Florence Cardona, Cyndie Picot, Emmanuel Puskarczyk, Jean-Marc Sapori, Christine Tournoud, Nicolas Franchitto
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders are frequently associated with self-intoxication in attempted suicide. In France since 2008, the off-label use of baclofen for treatment of alcohol dependence has greatly increased, leading to temporary regulation of use of the drug. At the request of the national authorities, the French Poison Control Centers carried out a retrospective survey to give an overview of baclofen exposure in this population. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out from January 2008 to December 2013, focusing on baclofen exposures in alcohol-dependent patients managed by the nine national French Poison Control Centers...
February 3, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140681/a-review-on-nanoparticle-based-technologies-for-biodetoxification
#6
Faqir Muhammad, Tuyen Duong Thanh Nguyen, Ahmad Raza, Bushra Akhtar, Santosh Aryal
Nanotechnology has gained significant penetration to different fields of medicine including drug delivery, disease interrogation, targeting and bio-imaging. In recent years, efforts have been put forth to assess the use of this technology in biodetoxification. In this review, we will discuss the current status of nanostructured biomaterials/nanoparticle (NP)-based technologies as a candidate biodetoxifying agent. Patient hospitalization due to illicit drug consumption, suicidal attempts and accidental toxin exposure are major challenges in the medical field...
January 31, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139533/amitraz-an-underrecognized-poison-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Sahajal Dhooria, Ritesh Agarwal
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Amitraz is a member of formamidine family of pesticides. Poisoning from amitraz is underrecognized even in areas where it is widely available. It is frequently misdiagnosed as organophosphate poisoning. This systematic review provides information on the epidemiology, toxicokinetics, mechanisms of toxicity, clinical features, diagnosis and management of amitraz poisoning. METHODS: Medline and Embase databases were searched systematically (since inception to January 2014) for case reports, case series and original articles using the following search terms: 'amitraz', 'poisoning', 'toxicity', 'intoxication' and 'overdose'...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135844/morbidity-and-mortality-associated-with-medications-used-in-the-treatment-of-depression-an-analysis-of-cases-reported-to-u-s-poison-control-centers-2000-2014
#8
J Craig Nelson, Daniel A Spyker
OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to determine the relative morbidity and mortality associated with drugs used to treat depression and to examine specific clinical effects associated with serious outcomes. METHOD: The National Poison Data System, which receives exposure reports from regional poison centers serving the United States, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia, was queried for single drug exposures in individuals 12 years and older during the period 2000-2014...
January 31, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134407/-metformin-associated-lactic-acidosis-and-acute-kidney-injury
#9
Paolo Greco, Giuseppe Regolisti, Riccardo Antoniotti, Caterina Maccari, Elisabetta Parenti, Silvia Corrado, Enrico Fiaccadori
Metformin is recommended as the treatment of choice in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus because of its efficacy, general tolerability and low cost. Recent guidelines have extended the use of metformin to patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) up to stage III. However, in the recent literature, cases of MALA (metformin-associated lactic acidosis) are increasingly reported. MALA is the most dangerous side effect of the drug, with an incidence rate of 2-9 cases per 100000 person-years of exposure. We report on two patients with accidental metformin overdose, severe lactic acidosis and acute kidney injury...
November 2016: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123338/single-pass-albumin-dialysis-in-a-child-aged-six-months-with-phenobarbital-poisoning
#10
Hasan Serdar Kıhtır, Hamdi Murat Yıldırım, Osman Yeşilbaş, Burcu Bursal Duramaz, Esra Şevketoğlu
A girl aged six months was hospitalized because of resistant seizures and was discharged with phenobarbital and carbamazepine therapy. She was admitted to a state hospital with symptoms of inability to waken and difficulty in breathing. It was learned that phenobarbital had been used incorrectly and the patient was sent to our pediatric intensive care unit because of severe phenobarbital overdose. The decision was taken for hemodialysis. Single-pass albumin dialysis was planned because phenobarbital can bind to high levels of plasma protein...
December 2016: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107093/adult-clonidine-overdose-prolonged-bradycardia-and-central-nervous-system-depression-but-not-severe-toxicity
#11
Geoffrey K Isbister, Simon P Heppell, Colin B Page, Nicole M Ryan
CONTEXT: There are limited reports of adult clonidine overdose. We aimed to describe the clinical effects and treatment of clonidine overdose in adults. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of a prospective cohort of poisoned patients who took clonidine overdoses (>200 μg). Demographic information, clinical effects, treatment, complications (central nervous system and cardiovascular effects) and length of stay (LOS) were extracted from a clinical database or medical records...
March 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096230/haemodialysis-in-acute-paracetamol-poisoning
#12
L Serjeant, J Evans, F Sampaziotis, W G Petchey
A woman aged 23 years presented late with clinical and biochemical features of a life-threatening paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose. Despite instigating N-acetylcysteine treatment, due to evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction together with an exceedingly high paracetamol level, the decision was made to dialyse the patient acutely to remove the parent drug. This was highly effective, and with on-going supportive care, the patient made a full recovery without the need for transplantation. This case highlights the role of extracorporeal therapy as a treatment option in selected cases of paracetamol overdose, consistent with the international guidelines...
January 17, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076550/suicide-in-university-students-in-bogot%C3%A3-colombia-2004-2014
#13
Saúl Alonso Franco, Martha Lucia Gutiérrez, Julián Sarmiento, Decsy Cuspoca, Javier Tatis, Alejandro Castillejo, Miguel Barrios, Magnolia Del Pilar Ballesteros-Cabrera, Sara Zamora, Carlos Iván Rodríguez
We report the results of a retrospective, descriptive, qualitative study of suicide among university students in Bogotá, Colombia. The objective of this study was to document the magnitude, principal characteristics, and impact of this phenomenon in the selected population. A semi-structured survey was employed to collect information from 66 individuals linked to the universities. A total of 45 cases of suicide were documented in the study period (2004 - 2014). Of these, 69% occurred in males and 31% in females...
January 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074520/assessing-the-accuracy-of-opioid-overdose-and-poisoning-codes-in-diagnostic-information-from-electronic-health-records-claims-data-and-death-records
#14
Carla A Green, Nancy A Perrin, Shannon L Janoff, Cynthia I Campbell, Howard D Chilcoat, Paul M Coplan
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to assess positive predictive value (PPV), relative to medical chart review, of International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9/10 diagnostic codes for identifying opioid overdoses and poisonings. METHODS: Data were obtained from Kaiser Permanente Northwest and Northern California. Diagnostic data from electronic health records, submitted claims, and state death records from Oregon, Washington, and California were linked. Individual opioid-related poisoning codes (e...
January 10, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064509/acute-salicylate-poisoning-risk-factors-for-severe-outcome
#15
Rachel M Shively, Robert S Hoffman, Alex F Manini
CONTEXT: Salicylate poisoning remains a significant public health threat with more than 20,000 exposures reported annually in the United States. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to establish early predictors of severe in-hospital outcomes in Emergency Department patients presenting with acute salicylate poisoning. METHODS: This was a secondary data analysis of adult salicylate overdoses from a prospective cohort study of acute drug overdoses at two urban university teaching hospitals from 2009 to 2013...
March 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035699/lack-of-respiratory-depression-in-paracetamol-codeine-combination-overdoses
#16
Simon P E Heppell, Geoffrey K Isbister
BACKGROUND: Codeine containing analgesics are commonly taken in overdose, but the frequency of respiratory depression is unknown. We investigated whether paracetamol-codeine combination overdoses caused respiratory depression more than paracetamol alone. METHODS: We reviewed deliberate self-poisoning admissions with paracetamol (>2 g) and paracetamol-codeine combinations presenting to a tertiary toxicology unit (1987-2013). Demographic information, clinical effects, treatment (naloxone, length of stay[LOS], mechanical ventilation) were extracted from a prospective database...
December 30, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992785/identification-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-25b-nbome-and-4-cmc-in-biological-material-using-hplc-q-tof-ms-and-their-quantification-in-blood-using-uplc-ms-ms-in-case-of-severe-intoxications
#17
Marek Wiergowski, Justyna Aszyk, Michał Kaliszan, Kamila Wilczewska, Jacek Sein Anand, Agata Kot-Wasik, Zbigniew Jankowski
This paper describes cases of poisoning caused by new psychoactive substances such as: 25B-NBOMe (2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine) and 4-CMC (1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)-1-propanone). The analytical procedure includes rapid and selective method for the extraction and determination of 4-CMC and 25B-NBOMe in blood samples using UPLC-MS/MS technique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report, that involves a fully validated method for quantification of new-designer drug - 4-CMC in postmortem blood samples...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986618/recurrent-episodes-of-life-threatening-vasodilatory-shock-following-unintentional-intoxication-with-amlodipine
#18
Chris J Kapelios, George Karamanakos, Stavros Liatis, Magda Sarafadi, Marios Polizois, Ioannis Papoutsis, Alexander D Kokkinos
Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) have a narrow therapeutic index, and their intake in excess is associated with a critical clinical presentation of sustained hypotension and non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, which are difficult to treat. Unfortunately, available means of treatment fail to resuscitate a significant number of patients poisoned by CCBs, rendering them the main cardiovascular drugs involved in deaths due to overdose. Importantly, in all cases reported until now in the literature, CCB intoxication was known at the time of the patients' presentation and the medical challenge regarded solely the therapeutic approach...
December 13, 2016: Hellenic Journal of Cardiology: HJC, Hellēnikē Kardiologikē Epitheōrēsē
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984346/an-examination-of-claims-based-predictors-of-overdose-from-a-large-medicaid-program
#19
Gerald Cochran, Adam J Gordon, Wei-Hsuan Lo-Ciganic, Walid F Gellad, Winfred Frazier, Carroline Lobo, Chung-Chou H Chang, Ping Zheng, Julie M Donohue
BACKGROUND: Health systems may play an important role in identification of patients at-risk of opioid medication overdose. However, standard measures for identifying overdose risk in administrative data do not exist. OBJECTIVE: Examine the association between opioid medication overdose and 2 validated measures of nonmedical use of prescription opioids within claims data. RESEARCH DESIGN: A longitudinal retrospective cohort study that estimated associations between overdose and nonmedical use...
March 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932048/fatal-intravenous-injection-of-potassium-is-postmortem-biochemistry-useful-for-the-diagnosis
#20
Cristian Palmiere, Maria Pia Scarpelli, Vincent Varlet, Pia Baumann, Katarzyna Michaud, Marc Augsburger
Fatal cases of potassium overdoses have traditionally been considered indemonstrable due postmortem biochemical investigation limits (mainly potassium determination in postmortem serum and vitreous humor). Nevertheless, some authors have expressed a divergent opinion over the years based on the results of their own investigations. In this study, we investigated left vitreous, right vitreous, postmortem serum from peripheral blood, postmortem serum from cardiac blood, urine, pericardial and cerebrospinal fluid potassium concentrations in 21 forensic autopsy cases...
November 27, 2016: Forensic Science International
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