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poisoning overdose

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425670/electroencephalographic-patterns-of-lithium-poisoning-a-study-of-the-effect-concentration-relationships-in-the-rat
#1
Anne-Sophie Hanak, Isabelle Malissin, Joël Poupon, Patricia Risède, Lucie Chevillard, Bruno Mégarbane
OBJECTIVES: Lithium overdose may result in encephalopathy and electroencephalographic abnormalities. Three poisoning patterns have been identified based on the ingested dose, previous treatment duration and renal function. Whether the severity of lithium-induced encephalopathy depends on the poisoning pattern has not been established. We designed a rat study to investigate lithium-induced encephalopathy and correlate its severity to plasma, erythrocyte, cerebrospinal fluid and brain lithium concentrations previously determined in rat models mimicking human poisoning patterns...
April 20, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425352/overdose-in-young-children-treated-with-anti-reflux-medications-poisons-enquiry-evidence-of-excess-10-fold-dosing-errors-with-ranitidine
#2
C Crawford, M Anderson, G Cooper, G Jackson, J Thompson, A Vale, Shl Thomas, M Eddleston, D N Bateman
BACKGROUND: Accidental drug overdose is a common problem in young children. We examined the influence of formulation and dose in enquiries for different gastro-oesophageal reflux disease treatments in children under 5 years to the UK's National Poisons Information Service. METHODS: Overdose characteristics with ranitidine, omeprazole or domperidone were compared with those of metoclopramide and the H-1 antagonist chlorphenamine, for the period 1 July 2007 to 30 June 2015...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405999/near-fatal-poisoning-by-isoniazid-and-rifampicin
#3
Arun Agarwal, Samiksha Sharma, Ritu Bansal, Meghraj Meena, Mala Airun
Since six decades, Isoniazid and Rifampicin are used as first line drugs for treatment of tuberculosis. The minimum acute lethal or toxic dose of Rifampicin is not well established. However, non-fatal acute overdoses in adults have been reported with doses ranging from 9 to 12 gm and fatal acute overdoses with doses ranging from 14 to 60 gm. Isoniazid, if acutely ingested, even 1.5 to 2 gram may cause toxicity in adults. We report a case of Pott's spine on ATT, who took massive overdose of Rifampicin (>18 gm) and Isoniazid (>12 gm) and reported late (almost 36 hours) after ingestion...
December 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405068/hemodialysis-failure-secondary-to-hydroxocobalamin-exposure
#4
Kenneth Lim, Eliot Heher, David Steele, Andrew Z Fenves, John Kevin Tucker, Ravi Thadhani, Kenneth Christopher, Nina Tolkoff-Rubin
Hydroxocobalamin is a recently approved antidote for the treatment of cyanide poisoning. The case presented involves a young patient administered empiric hydroxocobalamin due to suspected cyanide overdose. Due to the development of acute kidney injury and severe metabolic derangement, emergent hemodialysis was initiated. Unfortunately, hemodialysis was confounded by a recurrent "blood leak" alarm. This unforeseen effect was secondary to interference from hydroxocobalamin. Hydroxocobalamin causes orange/red discoloration of bodily fluids and permeates the dialysate...
April 2017: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382261/olanzapine-overdose-presenting-with-acute-muscle-toxicity
#5
Niraj Keyal, Gentle Sunder Shrestha, Saurabh Pradhan, Ramesh Maharjan, Subhash Prasad Acharya, Moda Nath Marhatta
Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug that is being increasingly used as an intentional overdose. It usually presents with reduced and fluctuating level of consciousness and coma. It may rarely present with muscle toxicity by binding to HT2A receptor in skeletal muscle and increasing its permeability. We report a case of such poisoning which had no obvious symptoms but was brought to emergency due to overdose and was found to have acute muscle toxicity as evidenced by raised creatine phosphokinase (CPK) levels...
January 2017: International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372595/orphan-medicinal-products-in-europe-and-united-states-to-cover-needs-of-patients-with-rare-diseases-an-increased-common-effort-is-to-be-foreseen
#6
Viviana Giannuzzi, Rosa Conte, Annalisa Landi, Serena Antonella Ottomano, Donato Bonifazi, Paola Baiardi, Fedele Bonifazi, Adriana Ceci
BACKGROUND: In the European Union (EU) and United States (US), specific regulations have been released to provide incentives to develop and sell orphan medicinal products. We analysed the status of orphan drugs designated that not yet received a marketing authorisation or already marketed for patients affected by rare diseases in the EU and US up to December 2015. For each drug, the following data were extracted: designation date, active substance(s), orphan condition and indication, trade name, approved therapeutic indication, approved ages, genetic nature of disease and if affects children...
April 3, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345440/the-economic-burden-of-opioid-abuse-updated-findings
#7
Noam Y Kirson, Lauren M Scarpati, Caroline J Enloe, Aliya P Dincer, Howard G Birnbaum, Tracy J Mayne
BACKGROUND: Opioid pain relievers can be highly effective in providing relief for patients suffering from pain. At the same time, prescription opioid abuse, dependence, overdose, and poisoning (hereinafter "abuse") have become a national public health concern. Opioid abuse is also costly: previous estimates of the annual excess costs of opioid abuse to payers range from approximately $10,000 to $20,000 per patient. OBJECTIVES: To (a) provide a comprehensive, current estimate of the economic burden of opioid abuse to commercial payers and (b) explore the drivers of these excess costs of abuse...
April 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336491/neurobehavioral-effects-of-lithium-in-the-rat-investigation-of-the-effect-concentration-relationships-and-the-contribution-of-the-poisoning-pattern
#8
Anne-Sophie Hanak, Lucie Chevillard, Rodolphe Lebeau, Patricia Risède, Jean-Louis Laplanche, Nadia Benturquia, Bruno Mégarbane
Severity of lithium poisoning depends on the ingested dose, previous treatment duration and renal function. No animal study has investigated neurobehavioral differences in relation to the lithium poisoning pattern observed in humans, while differences in lithium pharmacokinetics have been reported in lithium-pretreated rats mimicking chronic poisonings with enhanced brain accumulation in rats with renal failure. Our objectives were: 1)-to investigate lithium-related effects in overdose on locomotor activity, anxiety-like behavior, spatial recognition memory and anhedonia in the rat; 2)-to model the relationships between lithium-induced effects on locomotion and plasma, erythrocyte, cerebrospinal fluid and brain concentrations previously obtained according to the poisoning pattern...
March 20, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336158/-acetaminophen-knowledge-use-and-overdose-risk-in-urban-patients-consulting-their-general-practitioner-a-prospective-descriptive-and-transversal-study
#9
Lauriane Cipolat, Ouriel Loeb, Clotilde Latarche, Elise Pape, Pierre Gillet, Nadine Petitpain
INTRODUCTION: Acetaminophen is the most involved active substance in both unintentional and intentional drug poisoning. However, its availability outside community pharmacies is being debated in France. METHODS: We made, via a self-administered questionnaire, a prospective assessment of knowledge, use and acetaminophen overdose risk in patients consulting their general practitioner, in the Metz Métropole urban area, between May 2015 and February 2016. We estimated the prevalence of potential unintentional overdosage by capture-recapture method...
February 20, 2017: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334840/review-of-caffeine-related-fatalities-along-with-postmortem-blood-concentrations-in-51-poisoning-deaths
#10
Alan Wayne Jones
Publications reporting concentrations of caffeine in postmortem blood were reviewed if the cause of death was attributed to overdosing (poisoning) with drugs. Age and gender of the deceased, the manner of death (accident, suicide or undetermined) and types of co-ingested drugs were evaluated in relation to the concentrations of caffeine in blood (N = 51). The mean age (±SD) of the victims was 39 ± 17.8 years (range 18-84 years) and most were female (N = 31 or 61%). The difference in mean age of males (42 ± 17...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320983/levetiracetam-and-topiramate-poisoning-two-overdoses-on-those-drugs-with-no-lasting-effects
#11
Moaziz Sarfaraz, Rana Hasan Syeda
Levetiracetam and topiramate are newer anticonvulsants, which is why international data on overdoses of these drugs are lacking. Only a few mild adverse reactions have been noted. These anticonvulsants have been the drug of choice for neurologists. Despite their wide usage, there is a dearth of literature on symptoms and signs of their toxicity. Presented here is the case of a 21-year-old female who overdosed twice on levetiracetam and topiramate. The woman was admitted and discharged after the first overdose...
March 19, 2017: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267693/predictors-of-in-hospital-postoperative-opioid-overdose-after-major-elective-operations-a-nationally-representative-cohort-study
#12
Christy E Cauley, Geoffrey Anderson, Alex B Haynes, Mariano Menendez, Brian T Bateman, Karim Ladha
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe national trends and outcomes of in-hospital postoperative opioid overdose (OD) and identify predictors of postoperative OD. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: In 2000, the Joint Commission recommended making pain the 5th vital sign, increasing the focus on postoperative pain control. However, the benefits of pain management must be weighed against the potentially lethal risk of opioid OD. METHODS: This is a retrospective multi-institutional cohort study of patients undergoing 1 of 6 major elective inpatient operation from 2002 to 2011 using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, an approximately 20% representative sample of all United States hospital admissions...
April 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253466/self-poisoning-by-older-australians-a-cohort-study
#13
Peter I Pillans, Colin B Page, Sivarajah Ilango, Anna Kashchuk, Geoffrey K Isbister
OBJECTIVE: To examine the epidemiology and severity of self-poisoning by older people in Australia; to compare these data with those for overdoses in younger adults. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: A cohort study of people presenting to a tertiary toxicology centre after self-poisoning over 26 years (1987-2012). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hospital length of stay (LOS); types of drug ingested; intensive care unit (ICU) admissions; in-hospital deaths...
March 6, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242100/toxicodynetics-in-nordiazepam-and-oxazepam-overdoses
#14
L Sacre, S M Ali, A Villa, R Jouffroy, J-H Raphalen, R Garnier, F J Baud
OBJECTIVES: Toxicodynetics aims at defining the time-course of major clinical events in drug overdose. We report the toxicodynetics in mono-intoxications with oxazepam and nordiazepam. METHODS: Cases of oxazepam or nordiazepam overdoses collected at the Paris poison control centre from 1999 to 2014 on the basis of self-report. A particular attention was paid to eliminate the concomitant alcohol or psychotropic co-ingestions. The toxicodynetic parameters were assessed as previously described...
February 24, 2017: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242045/epidemiology-of-overdose-episodes-from-the-period-prior-to-hospitalization-for-drug-poisoning-until-discharge-in-japan-an-exploratory-descriptive-study-using-a-nationwide-claims-database
#15
Yasuyuki Okumura, Nobuo Sakata, Kunihiko Takahashi, Daisuke Nishi, Hisateru Tachimori
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the nationwide epidemiology of the annual rate, causative substance, and clinical course of overdose-related admission. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of overdose episodes from the period prior to hospitalization for drug poisoning until discharge to home. METHODS: We assessed all cases of admission due to overdose (21,663 episodes) in Japan from October 2012 through September 2013 using the National Database of Health Insurance Claims and Specific Health Checkups of Japan...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225374/characterizing-the-toxicity-and-dose-effect-profile-of-tramadol-ingestions-in-children
#16
Gina L Stassinos, Lawrence Gonzales, Wendy Klein-Schwartz
OBJECTIVES: Tramadol can cause life-threatening toxicity in overdose; however, data on its toxicity in children are lacking. This study investigates toxicity associated with tramadol ingestions in children. The hypothesis is that children will experience dose-related central nervous system and respiratory depression and seizures. METHODS: A retrospective evaluation of cases from the National Poison Center Data System between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2013, was performed...
February 21, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217829/vitamin-d-and-autism-what-s-new
#17
REVIEW
John Jacob Cannell
An increasing amount of evidence points to the possibility that gestational and early childhood vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D < 40 ng/ml] cause some cases of autism. Vitamin D is metabolized into a seco-steroid hormone that regulates about 3% of the 26,000 genes in the coding human genome. It is also a neurosteroid that is active in brain development, having effects on cellular proliferation, differentiation, calcium signaling, neurotrophic and neuroprotective actions; it also appears to have an effect on neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity...
February 20, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187395/population-pharmacokinetic-modelling-of-valproic-acid-and-its-selected-metabolites-in-acute-vpa-poisoning
#18
Wojciech Jawień, Jolanta Wilimowska, Małgorzata Kłys, Wojciech Piekoszewski
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid (VPA) is a first-line antiepileptic drug. It is used in the treatment of many different types of partial and generalized epileptic seizures. Though the clinical pharmacokinetics of VPA has been well defined, information about pharmacokinetics after overdoses is rare. The aim of this study was to try to build a population pharmacokinetic model that would describe the time course of VPA and its selected metabolites when the drug is ingested in an overdose situation...
April 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160345/does-exposure-to-opioid-substitution-treatment-in-prison-reduce-the-risk-of-death-after-release-a-national-prospective-observational-study-in-england
#19
John Marsden, Garry Stillwell, Hayley Jones, Alisha Cooper, Brian Eastwood, Michael Farrell, Tim Lowden, Nino Maddalena, Chris Metcalfe, Jenny Shaw, Matthew Hickman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: People with opioid use disorder (OUD) in prison face an acute risk of death after release. We estimated whether prison-based opioid substitution treatment (OST) reduces this risk. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study using prison healthcare, national community drug misuse treatment and deaths registers. SETTING: Recruitment at 39 adult prisons in England (32 male; 7 female) accounting for 95% of OST treatment in England during study planning...
February 4, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152637/l-arginine-in-the-treatment-of-valproate-overdose-five-clinical-cases
#20
Verena Schrettl, Norbert Felgenhauer, Christian Rabe, Malkanthi Fernando, Florian Eyer
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid and its metabolites - particularly valproyl-CoA - are inhibitors of the enzyme N-acetylglutamate synthetase. The amino acid l-arginine can stimulate N-acetylglutamate synthetase activity and could be potentially used therapeutically to correct hyperammonemia caused by valproate therapy or overdose. Severely valproic-acid-poisoned patients are usually treated with l-carnitine or hemodialysis in order to decrease hyperammonemia. We herein report of five cases, in which l-arginine was administered...
April 2017: Clinical Toxicology
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