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Cardiovascular risks

Ozlem Ethemoglu, Halil Ay, Ismail Koyuncu, Ataman Gönel
PURPOSE: This study aims to investigate the serum adiponectin, interleukin (IL)-6 and oxidative stress in epilepsy patients who are refractory or non-refractory to treatments. METHOD: The study comprised 31 refractory epilepsy, 29 well-controlled epilepsy patients and control group including 29 healthy individuals. The serum adiponectin, IL-6, total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status levels (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSİ) were determined. RESULTS: The mean serum adiponectin and TAS levels were significantly lower in the refractory epilepsy patients than in the healty controls, and mean IL-6, TOS and OSİ levels were significantly higher...
June 15, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Fatemeh Forouzanfar, Alexandra E Butler, Maciej Banach, George E Barreto, Amirhossein Sahbekar
Heat shock proteins (HSP or stress proteins) are intracellular molecules that participate in physiological cell metabolism and growth, although they are known to be involved in many stress conditions. Statins inhibit the action of the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA), which is important in the synthesis of cholesterol and essential isoprenoid intermediates, thereby lowering circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
June 20, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Qian Wang, Lu Liu, Ling Gao, Qiu Li
AIM: To show long-term cardiovascular safety of the GLP-1 receptor agonists for diabetes patients with cardiovascular risk. METHODS: For cardiovascular outcomes, the association between treatment and outcomes was estimated using the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. I2 test was adopted to assess the magnitude of heterogeneity between studies, with values more than 25%, 50%, and 75% defined as low, moderate, or high heterogeneity. RESULTS: We combined data from four cardiovascular outcomes trials and prospectively blinded endpoint adjudication...
June 20, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Lana Fani, Frank J Wolters, M Kamran Ikram, Marco J Bruno, Albert Hofman, Peter J Koudstaal, Sarwa Darwish Murad, M Arfan Ikram
INTRODUCTION: Helicobacter pylori infection might increase risk of dementia, but available evidence is inconsistent, and longitudinal studies are sparse. We investigated the association between H. pylori serology and dementia risk in a population-based cohort. METHODS: Between 1997 and 2002, we measured H. pylori serum IgG titers in 4215 nondemented participants of the Rotterdam Study with a mean age of 69 years. We determined the association between H. pylori at baseline and dementia incidence until 2015, per natural log (U/mL) increase in titer, and for seropositive/seronegative, using Cox models adjusting for cohort, sex, age, education, and cardiovascular risk factors...
June 20, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Arwa Younis, Ella Shaviv, Eyal Nof, Ariel Israel, Anat Berkovitch, Ilan Goldenberg, Michael Glikson, Robert Klempfner, Roy Beinart
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with diminished cardiac function, and exercise tolerance. HYPOTHESIS: We sought to investigate the role of cardiac rehabilitation program (CR) in patients with AF. METHODS: The study included 2165 consecutive patients that participated in our CR program between the years 2009 - 2015. All were evaluated by a standard exercise stress test (EST) at baseline, and upon completion of at least 3 months of training...
June 23, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
Babikir Kheiri, Mohammed Osman, Ahmed Abdalla, Tarek Haykal, Mahmoud Barbarawi, Yazan Zayed, Michael Hicks, Sahar Ahmed, Ghassan Bachuwa, Mustafa Hassan, Deepak L Bhatt
Dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel are recommended as adjuncts to fibrinolytic-treated patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, the role of switching to ticagrelor within 24 h of fibrinolytics compared with clopidogrel continuation in this setting is uncertain. Hence, we conducted a comprehensive search of electronic databases for all randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that evaluated the safety and efficacy of ticagrelor versus clopidogrel after fibrinolytic therapy in patients with STEMI...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
Liang-Tseng Kuo, Chi-Lung Chen, Pei-An Yu, Wei-Hsiu Hsu, Ching-Chi Chi, Jae-Chul Yoo
PURPOSE: To investigate whether epinephrine in irrigation fluid improves visual clarity in arthroscopic shoulder surgery. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the surgical outcomes of patients who did and did not receive epinephrine during arthroscopic shoulder surgery. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, and Embase for relevant RCTs. We used the Cochrane Collaboration's tool to assess the risk of bias and adopted random-effects model meta-analysis to combine data...
June 22, 2018: International Orthopaedics
Rieko Okada, Yoshinari Yasuda, Kazuyo Tsushita, Kenji Wakai, Nobuyuki Hamajima, Seiichi Matsuo
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to determine the association of dipstick-determined trace proteinuria with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in each age, gender, and eGFR category among a large general population. METHODS: A total of 270,190 people (102,223 men and 167,967 women) aged 40-74 years were included. Subjects were categorized as having negative, trace, and positive proteinuria by the dipstick method. RESULTS: The prevalence of MetS increased with increasing levels of proteinuria in any estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) category (odds ratios for MetS relative to negative proteinuria: 1...
June 22, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
Eirini Papadopoulou, Elena Angeloudi, Spiridon Karras, Pantelis Sarafidis
The presence of hypertension in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) substantially increases cardiovascular risk. Blood pressure (BP) decrease in these individuals is associated with large reductions in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but the optimal BP levels in DM still remain a matter of important controversy. For almost 20 years, guidelines recommended an office BP target of <130/80 mmHg in diabetic individuals, following evidence from trials randomizing patients to diastolic BP levels. When the action-to-control-cardiovascular-risk-in-diabetes-blood-pressure (ACCORD-BP) study showed that systolic BP (SBP) <120 mmHg was associated with similar risk to SBP < 140 mmHg in type 2 DM, all guidelines stepped back to recommend a SBP < 140 mmHg, despite the obvious limitations of ACCORD-BP, including the surprisingly low event rate and the actual average BP of 133...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Human Hypertension
Tetsuro Tsujimoto, Hiroshi Kajio
To assess whether beta-blocker use is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), this study analyzed the Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure with an Aldosterone Antagonist (TOPCAT) trial data using Cox proportional hazard models. Adjusted HRs for composite cardiovascular events in all patients and in patients without previous MI were significantly higher for those on beta-blockers than for those not on beta-blockers (Hazard ratio [HR] for all patients 1...
June 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yehuda Handelsman, Norman E Lepor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Salma Ladhani, Brianna Empringham, Kuan-Wen Wang, Carol Portwine, Laura Banfield, Russell J de Souza, Lehana Thabane, M Constantine Samaan
INTRODUCTION: Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is the most common paediatric cancer. Survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (SALL) are at risk of obesity and related cardiometabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, stroke and cardiovascular events. Therefore, it is important to address obesity in this population as this may help mitigate future cardiometabolic comorbidities. In this systematic review, we aim to assess current treatment strategies including lifestyle interventions, pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery to manage overweight and obesity in SALL...
June 22, 2018: BMJ Open
Thomas M Withers, Louise Croft, Victoria L Goosey-Tolfrey, David W Dunstan, Christof A Leicht, Daniel P Bailey
INTRODUCTION: Sedentary behaviour is a distinct risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and could partly explain the increased prevalence of CVD in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Interrupting prolonged sitting periods with regular short bouts of walking acutely suppresses postprandial glucose and lipids in able-bodied individuals. However, the acute CVD risk marker response to breaking up prolonged sedentary time in people with SCI has not been investigated. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A randomised two-condition laboratory crossover trial will compare: (1) breaking up prolonged sedentary time with 2 min moderate-intensity arm-crank activity every 20 min, with (2) uninterrupted prolonged sedentary time (control) in people with SCI...
June 22, 2018: BMJ Open
Lawrence H Young, Catherine M Viscoli, Gregory G Schwartz, Silvio E Inzucchi, Jeptha P Curtis, Mark J Gorman, Karen L Furie, Robin Conwit, Erica Spatz, Anne Lovejoy, J Dawn Abbott, Daniel L Jacoby, Daniel M Kolansky, Frederick S Ling, Steven E Pfau, Walter N Kernan
Background -The Insulin Resistance Intervention after Stroke (IRIS) trial demonstrated that pioglitazone reduced risk for both cardiovascular events and diabetes in insulin resistant patients. However, concern remains that pioglitazone may increase risk for heart failure (HF) in susceptible individuals. Methods -In IRIS, patients with insulin resistance but without diabetes were randomized to pioglitazone or placebo (1:1) within 180 days of an ischemic stroke or TIA and followed for up to 5 years. To identify patients at higher HF risk with pioglitazone we performed a secondary analysis of IRIS participants without HF history at entry...
June 22, 2018: Circulation
Andrea Avila, Jomme Claes, Kaatje Goetschalckx, Roselien Buys, May Azzawi, Luc Vanhees, Véronique Cornelissen
BACKGROUND: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is an essential part of contemporary coronary heart disease management. However, patients exiting a center-based CR program have difficulty retaining its benefits. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the added benefit of a home-based CR program with telemonitoring guidance on physical fitness in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) completing a phase II ambulatory CR program and to compare the effectiveness of this program in a prolonged center-based CR intervention by means of a randomized controlled trial...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Oscar H Del Brutto, Robertino M Mera, Aldo F Costa, Ernesto Peñaherrera, Rubén Peñaherrera, Mauricio Zambrano
BACKGROUND: Knowledge on the association between arterial stiffness and intracranial atherosclerosis is limited. Here, we aimed to assess whether the aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV)-used as a surrogate of arterial stiffness-might independently predict severity of carotid siphon calcifications (CSCs), used as a marker of atherosclerosis. METHODS: Of 437 Atahualpa residents aged 60 years or older, 300 (69%) underwent head computed tomography (CT) (for CSC assessment), brain magnetic resonance imaging (for identification of neuroimaging signatures of cerebral small vessel disease [SVD]), and aortic PWV determinations (for arterial stiffness estimation)...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Adam Hartley, Dorian Haskard, Ramzi Khamis
We provide an up-to-date overview of current topics surrounding oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and its related antibodies in the quest to better identify the individuals at risk of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerotic plaques with unfavorable characteristics. We discuss the potential of oxLDL and anti-oxLDL antibodies as serum biomarkers of cardiovascular disease and emerging studies examining the targeting of arterial oxLDL for imaging and therapeutic delivery.
June 4, 2018: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
Christian Faul
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) has appeared as a hormone that is massively elevated in patients with chronic kidney disease. Whether FGF23 is a risk factor that associates with cardiac pathologies and cardiovascular mortality, as suggested by a variety of clinical studies, or additionally acts as a causative factor that induces cardiac injury, as more recently indicated by cell culture and animal studies, is under debate and the center of many ongoing experimental studies.
July 2018: Kidney International
Deepa R Camenga, Hilary A Tindle
This article reviews the current evidence on electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) safety and efficacy for smoking cessation, with a focus on smokers with cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, or serious mental illness. In the United States, adult smokers use e-cigarettes primarily to quit or reduce cigarette smoking. An understanding of the potential risks and benefits of e-cigarette use may help clinicians counsel smokers about the potential impact of e-cigarettes on health.
July 2018: Medical Clinics of North America
I-Ching Kuo, Hugo You-Hsien Lin, Sheng-Wen Niu, Jia-Jung Lee, Yi-Wen Chiu, Chi-Chih Hung, Shang-Jyh Hwang, Hung-Chun Chen
A common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD), anemia can influence glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. In diabetic patients, anemia occurs earlier and with higher severity over the course of CKD stages. To elucidate the effect of hemoglobin (Hb) on the predictive value of HbA1c, we enrolled 1558 diabetic patients with stages 3-4 CKD, categorized according to baseline Hb and HbA1c quartiles. Linear regression revealed that higher HbA1c correlated significantly with higher Hb in the Hb < 10 g/dL group (β = 0...
2018: PloS One
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