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Dynamic treatment regimens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102485/-18-f-fet-pet-prior-to-recurrent-high-grade-glioma-re-irradiation-additional-prognostic-value-of-dynamic-time-to-peak-analysis-and-early-static-summation-images
#1
Daniel F Fleischmann, Marcus Unterrainer, Peter Bartenstein, Claus Belka, Nathalie L Albert, Maximilian Niyazi
Most high-grade gliomas (HGG) recur after initial multimodal therapy and re-irradiation (Re-RT) has been shown to be a valuable re-treatment option in selected patients. We evaluated the prognostic value of dynamic time-to-peak analysis and early static summation images in O-(2-(18)F-fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine ((18)F-FET) PET for patients treated with Re-RT ± concomitant bevacizumab. We retrospectively analyzed 72 patients suffering from recurrent HGG with (18)F-FET PET prior to Re-RT. PET analysis revealed the maximal tumor-to-background-ratio (TBRmax), the biological tumor volume, the number of PET-foci and pattern of time-activity-curves (TACs; increasing vs...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101809/sequential-exposure-of-bortezomib-and-vorinostat-is-synergistic-in-multiple-myeloma-cells
#2
Charvi Nanavati, Donald E Mager
PURPOSE: To examine the combination of bortezomib and vorinostat in multiple myeloma cells (U266) and xenografts, and to assess the nature of their potential interactions with semi-mechanistic pharmacodynamic models and biomarkers. METHODS: U266 proliferation was examined for a range of bortezomib and vorinostat exposure times and concentrations (alone and in combination). A non-competitive interaction model was used with interaction parameters that reflect the nature of drug interactions after simultaneous and sequential exposures...
January 18, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100241/personalized-life-expectancy-and-treatment-benefit-index-of-antiretroviral-therapy
#3
Yanni Xiao, Xiaodan Sun, Sanyi Tang, Yicang Zhou, Zhihang Peng, Jianhong Wu, Ning Wang
BACKGROUND: The progression of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) within host includes typical stages and the Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) is shown to be effective in slowing down this progression. There are great challenges in describing the entire HIV disease progression and evaluating comprehensive effects of ART on life expectancy for HIV infected individuals on ART. METHODS: We develop a novel summative treatment benefit index (TBI), based on an HIV viral dynamics model and linking the infection and viral production rates to the Weibull function...
January 18, 2017: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091752/management-of-secondary-hyperparathyroidism-practice-patterns-and-outcomes-of-cinacalcet-treatment-with-or-without-active-vitamin%C3%A2-d-in-austria-and-switzerland-the-observational-transit-study
#4
Wolfgang Pronai, Alexander R Rosenkranz, Andreas Bock, Renate Klauser-Braun, Christine Jäger, Gunther Pendl, Margit Hemetsberger, Karl Lhotta
Secondary hyperparathyroidism is a complex disorder requiring an individualized multicomponent treatment approach. This study was conducted to identify treatment combinations used in clinical practice in Austria and Switzerland and the potential to control this disorder. A total of 333 adult hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients were analyzed. All patients received conventional care prior to initiation of a cinacalcet-based regimen. During the study, treatment components, e.g. cinacalcet, active vitamin D analogues and phosphate binders, were adapted to individual patient requirements and treatment dynamics were documented...
January 13, 2017: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089562/sequential-multiple-assignment-randomized-trials-an-opportunity-for-improved-design-of-stroke-reperfusion-trials
#5
William J Meurer, Nicholas J Seewald, Kelley Kidwell
BACKGROUND: Modern clinical trials in stroke reperfusion fall into 2 categories: alternative systemic pharmacological regimens to alteplase and "rescue" endovascular approaches using targeted thrombectomy devices and/or medications delivered directly for persistently occluded vessels. Clinical trials in stroke have not evaluated how initial pharmacological thrombolytic management might influence subsequent rescue strategy. A sequential multiple assignment randomized trial (SMART) is a novel trial design that can test these dynamic treatment regimens and lead to treatment guidelines that more closely mimic practice...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077142/steroid-withdrawal-after-renal-transplantation-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#6
Maria C Haller, Michael Kammer, Alexander Kainz, Heather J Baer, Georg Heinze, Rainer Oberbauer
BACKGROUND: Immunosuppressive regimens in renal transplantation frequently contain corticosteroids, but many centers withdraw steroids as a consequence of unwanted side effects of steroids. The optimal timing to withdraw steroids after transplantation, however, remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine an optimal time point following kidney transplantation that is associated with reduced mortality without jeopardizing the allograft to allow safe discontinuation of steroids...
January 12, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066805/evaluation-of-soft-tissue-sarcoma-response-to-preoperative-chemoradiotherapy-using-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#7
Wei Huang, Brooke R Beckett, Alina Tudorica, Janelle M Meyer, Aneela Afzal, Yiyi Chen, Atiya Mansoor, James B Hayden, Yee-Cheen Doung, Arthur Y Hung, Megan L Holtorf, Torrie J Aston, Christopher W Ryan
This study aims to assess the utility of quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters in comparison with imaging tumor size for early prediction and evaluation of soft tissue sarcoma response to preoperative chemoradiotherapy. In total, 20 patients with intermediate- to high-grade soft tissue sarcomas received either a phase I trial regimen of sorafenib + chemoradiotherapy (n = 8) or chemoradiotherapy only (n = 12), and underwent DCE-MRI at baseline, after 2 weeks of treatment with sorafenib or after the first chemotherapy cycle, and after therapy completion...
December 2016: Tomography: a Journal for Imaging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063990/efficient-tuning-of-sirna-dose-response-by-combining-mixed-polymer-nanocarriers-with-simple-kinetic-modeling
#8
Chad T Greco, Victoria G Muir, Thomas H Epps Iii, Millicent O Sullivan
: Two of the most prominent challenges that limit the clinical success of siRNA therapies are a lack of control over cargo release from the delivery vehicle and an incomplete understanding of the link between gene silencing dynamics and siRNA dosing. Herein, we address these challenges through the formulation of siRNA polyplexes containing light-responsive polymer mixtures, whose varied compositions and triggered release behavior provide enhanced gene silencing and controlled dose responses that can be predicted by simple kinetic models...
January 4, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045934/priority-setting-for-novel-drug-regimens-to-treat-tuberculosis-an-epidemiologic-model
#9
Emily A Kendall, Sourya Shrestha, Ted Cohen, Eric Nuermberger, Kelly E Dooley, Lice Gonzalez-Angulo, Gavin J Churchyard, Payam Nahid, Michael L Rich, Cathy Bansbach, Thomas Forissier, Christian Lienhardt, David W Dowdy
BACKGROUND: Novel drug regimens are needed for tuberculosis (TB) treatment. New regimens aim to improve on characteristics such as duration, efficacy, and safety profile, but no single regimen is likely to be ideal in all respects. By linking these regimen characteristics to a novel regimen's ability to reduce TB incidence and mortality, we sought to prioritize regimen characteristics from a population-level perspective. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed a dynamic transmission model of multi-strain TB epidemics in hypothetical populations reflective of the epidemiological situations in India (primary analysis), South Africa, the Philippines, and Brazil...
January 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043418/the-effectiveness-of-patient-tailored-treatment-for-acute-organophosphate-poisoning
#10
Chih-Chuan Lin, Dong-Zong Hung, Hsien-Yi Chen, Kuang-Hung Hsu
BACKGROUND: To determine a new pralidoxime (PAM) treatment guideline based on the severity of acute organophosphate intoxication patients, APACHE II score, and dynamic changes in serum butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity. METHODS: This is a randomization trial. All patients received supportive care measurements and atropinization. Each enrolled patient was treated with 2 gm PAM intravenously as the loading dose. The control group was treated according to the WHO's recommended PAM regimen, and the experimental group was treated according to their APACHE II scores and dynamic changes in BuChE activity...
December 2016: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043170/impact-of-disease-drug-and-patient-adherence-on-the-effectiveness-of-antiviral-therapy-in-pediatric-hiv
#11
Chiara Piana, Meindert Danhof, Oscar Della Pasqua
Maintaining effective antiretroviral treatment for life is a major problem, in both resource-limited and resource-rich countries. Despite the progress observed in paediatric antiretroviral therapy, approximately 12% of children still experience treatment failure due to drug resistance, inadequate dosing and poor adherence. We explore the current status of antiretroviral therapy in children with focus on the interaction between disease, drug pharmacokinetics and patient behavior, all of which are strongly interconnected and determine treatment outcome...
January 3, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026734/-callus-distraction-in-the-treatment-of-post-traumatic-defects-of-the-femur-and-tibia
#12
R Veselý, V Procházka
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Evaluation of the results in patients treated for post-traumatic defects by the method of callus distraction of the femur and tibia using a monolateral external fixator. MATERIAL AND METHODS The group comprised 42 patients, 38 men and 4 woman, who underwent callus distraction using a monolateral external fixator in the Trauma Hospital Brno in the period from 2003 to 2010. The average age of the patients on the day gradual callus distraction was commenced was 32 (18-64) years. Post-traumatic bone defects were treated in 31 patients and deformities resulting from resection of post-traumatic infection loci in 11 patients...
2016: Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017407/fluid-and-electrolyte-therapy-in-diabetic-ketoacidosis
#13
REVIEW
Elizabeth Thomovsky
Diabetic ketoacidosis is a dynamic disease that requires regular reassessment of an affected patient. Typical treatment regimens include crystalloid fluid therapy, insulin, and supplementation of dextrose, phosphorus, and potassium. This article presents an approach to and considerations for treatment of a diabetic ketoacidotic dog or cat.
December 22, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005035/-acute-respiratory-viral-infections-topical-issues-of-diagnosis-prevention-and-treatment-in-therapeutic-practice
#14
D I Trukhan, A L Mazurov, L A Rechapova
AIM: to assess the efficacy and safety of the medication Grippferon with loratadine for the prevention of acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI) and influenza during the epidemics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study included 103 patients (67 men and 36 women) aged 18 to 52 years (mean age 35.3±3.2 years). During the first visit (september 2015), we collected patient history data on the average rate of ARVI and influenza for the past three years, the disease duration and its symptoms, presence of concomitant allergic pathologies (such as vasomotor rhinitis, hay fever and urticaria) and food allergies...
2016: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000203/comparison-of-continuous-epidural-block-and-continuous-paravertebral-block-in-postoperative-analgaesia-after-video-assisted-thoracoscopic-surgery-lobectomy-a-randomised-non-inferiority-trial
#15
Sylweriusz Kosiński, Edward Fryźlewicz, Michał Wiłkojć, Adam Ćmiel, Marcin Zieliński
BACKGROUND: Video-assisted (VATS) lung lobectomy can be associated with stronger postoperative pain than is commonly believed. It is generally accepted to introduce multimodal analgaesic strategies based on regional blockade, opioids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. However, there is still no consensus regarding the optimal regional technique. The aim of this study was to compare the analgaesic efficacy of continuous thoracic epidural block (TEA) and percutaneous continuous paravertebral block (PVB) in patients undergoing video-assisted lung lobectomy...
2016: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994483/clinical-effects-of-prior-trastuzumab-on-combination-eribulin-mesylate-plus-trastuzumab-as-first-line-treatment-for-human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-2-positive-locally-recurrent-or-metastatic-breast-cancer-results-from-a-phase-ii-single-arm-multicenter
#16
Shannon Puhalla, Sharon Wilks, Adam M Brufsky, Joyce O'Shaughnessy, Lee S Schwartzberg, Erhan Berrak, James Song, Linda Vahdat
Eribulin mesylate, a novel nontaxane microtubule dynamics inhibitor in the halichondrin class of antineoplastic drugs, is indicated for the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer who previously received ≥2 chemotherapy regimens in the metastatic setting. Primary data from a Phase II trial for the first-line combination of eribulin plus trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive patients showed a 71% objective response rate and tolerability consistent with the known profile of these agents...
2016: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989591/expected-effects-of-adopting-a-9-month-regimen-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-a-population-modelling-analysis
#17
Emily A Kendall, Anthony T Fojo, David W Dowdy
BACKGROUND: In May, 2016, WHO endorsed a 9 month regimen for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis that is cheaper and potentially more effective than the conventional, longer (20-24 month) therapy. We aimed to investigate the population-level implications of scaling up this new regimen. METHODS: In this population modelling analysis, we developed a dynamic transmission model to simulate the introduction of this short-course regimen as an instantaneous switch in 2016...
December 16, 2016: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939552/intramammary-infusion-of-escherichia-coli-lipopolysaccharide-negatively-affects-feed-intake-chewing-and-clinical-variables-but-some-effects-are-stronger-in-cows-experiencing-subacute-rumen-acidosis
#18
S Aditya, E Humer, P Pourazad, R Khiaosa-Ard, J Huber, Q Zebeli
Feeding high-grain diets increases the risk of subacute rumen acidosis (SARA) and adversely affects rumen health. This condition might impair the responsiveness of cows when they are exposed to external infectious stimuli such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The main objective of this study was to evaluate various responses to intramammary LPS infusion in healthy dairy cows and those experimentally subjected to SARA. Eighteen early-lactating Simmental cows were subjected to SARA (n = 12) or control (CON; n = 6) feeding conditions...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930382/ym155-induces-apoptosis-in-p53-deficient-t-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-cells-independent-of-survivin-inhibition
#19
Leilane Sales, Graziella R de Sousa, Guilherme Á Ferreira-Silva, Angel M Castro-Gamero, Marisa Ionta, Jaqueline C de Oliveira
T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive hematological cancer that arises from the malignant transformation of T-cell progenitors. Despite the significant progress in current treatment, challenges remain the lifelong morbidity after current chemotherapy regimens and postrelapse survival. In addition, patients with T-ALL have inferior outcomes compared with those with B-cell precursor; consequently, novel therapeutic approaches are still necessary to improve the outcome in this cohort. YM155 is an imidazolium derivative originally discovered as a suppressant of survivin expression...
December 7, 2016: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929726/treatment-of-amblyopia-using-personalized-dosing-strategies-statistical-modelling-and-clinical-implementation
#20
Michael P Wallace, Catherine E Stewart, Merrick J Moseley, David A Stephens, Alistair R Fielder
PURPOSE: To generate a statistical model for personalizing a patient's occlusion therapy regimen. METHODS: Statistical modelling was undertaken on a combined data set of the Monitored Occlusion Treatment of Amblyopia Study (MOTAS) and the Randomized Occlusion Treatment of Amblyopia Study (ROTAS). This exercise permits the calculation of future patients' total effective dose (TED)-that predicted to achieve their best attainable visual acuity. Daily patching regimens (hours/day) can be calculated from the TED...
December 2016: Strabismus
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