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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728262/-evaluation-of-efficacy-of-immunosuppressive-therapy-plus-recombinant-human-thrombopoietin-for-children-with-severe-aplastic-anemia
#1
K Zhou, C X Liu, Y Li, J P Li, H H Fan, L Zhang, L P Jing, G X Peng, L Ye, Y Li, L Song, X Zhao, W R Yang, Z J Wu, F Chen, F K Zhang
Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and safety of immunosuppressive therapy (IST) combined with recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO) for severe aplastic anemia (SAA) in pediatric patients. Method: A retrospective case-control study was conducted and the clinical data of 45 pediatric patients with de novo SAA admitted to the Anemia Diagnosis and Treatment Center of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Blood Disease Hospital during the period from December 2009 to December 2014 were analyzed...
July 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723656/inhibitor-of-h3k27-demethylase-jmjd3-utx-gsk-j4-is-a-potential-therapeutic-option-for-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#2
Viacheslav M Morozov, Ying Li, Matthew M Clowers, Alexander M Ishov
Androgen receptor (AR) mediates initiation and progression of prostate cancer (PCa); AR-driven transcription is activated by binding of androgens to the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of AR. Androgen ablation therapy offers only a temporary relief of locally advanced and metastatic PCa, and the disease eventually recurs as a lethal castration-resistant PCa (CRPC) as there is no effective treatment for CRPC patients. Thus, it is critical to identify novel targeted and combinatorial regimens for clinical management of CRPC...
July 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722694/early-life-vincristine-exposure-evokes-mechanical-pain-hypersensitivity-in-the-developing-rat
#3
Katie A Schappacher, Lauren Styczynski, Mark L Baccei
Vincristine (VNC) is commonly used to treat pediatric cancers, including the most prevalent childhood malignancy, acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Although clinical evidence suggests that VNC causes peripheral neuropathy in children, the degree to which pediatric chemotherapeutic regimens influence pain sensitivity throughout life remains unclear, in part because of the lack of an established animal model of chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain during early life. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of VNC exposure between postnatal days (P) 11 and 21 on mechanical and thermal pain sensitivity in the developing rat...
May 30, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720897/a-predictive-mathematical-modeling-approach-for-the-study-of-doxorubicin-treatment-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#4
Matthew T McKenna, Jared A Weis, Stephanie L Barnes, Darren R Tyson, Michael I Miga, Vito Quaranta, Thomas E Yankeelov
Doxorubicin forms the basis of chemotherapy regimens for several malignancies, including triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Here, we present a coupled experimental/modeling approach to establish an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model to describe how the concentration and duration of doxorubicin therapy shape subsequent cell population dynamics. This work features a series of longitudinal fluorescence microscopy experiments that characterize (1) doxorubicin uptake dynamics in a panel of TNBC cell lines, and (2) cell population response to doxorubicin over 30 days...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714461/predicting-the-dynamics-of-bacterial-growth-inhibition-by-ribosome-targeting-antibiotics
#5
Philip Greulich, Jakub Dolezal, Matthew Scott, Martin R Evans, Rosalind J Allen
Understanding how antibiotics inhibit bacteria can help to reduce antibiotic use and hence avoid antimicrobial resistance - yet few theoretical models exist for bacterial growth inhibition by a clinically relevant antibiotic treatment regimen. In particular, in the clinic, antibiotic treatment is time-dependent. Here, we use a theoretical model, previously applied to steady-state bacterial growth, to predict the dynamical response of a bacterial cell to a time-dependent dose of ribosome-targeting antibiotic...
July 17, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703284/brentuximab-vedotin-in-cd30-cutaneous-lymphoma-how-do-we-treat-how-shall-we-treat-a-review-of-the-literature
#6
REVIEW
R Stranzenbach, E Dippel, M Schlaak, R Stadler
Brentuximab vedotin is an antibody-drug conjugate that brings the antimicrotubule agent monomethyl auristatin E into CD30-expressing cells. Some prior studies could demonstrate good efficacy in cutaneous lymphomas. The standard therapeutic scheme is 1.8mg/kg every 3 weeks. Background of this work is the fact that cutaneous lymphoma has a different pathophysiology, and a dynamic other than systemic lymphoma. The objectives of this review were to get an overview of the currently used therapeutic regimen, and to check whether dose reduction or modified time intervals could benefit in a similar activity with less toxicity...
July 13, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701951/pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-modeling-of-tulathromycin-against-pasteurella-multocida-in-a-porcine-tissue-cage-model
#7
Qiaoyi Zhou, Guijun Zhang, Qin Wang, Wenguang Liu, Yan Huang, Pengling Yu, Yanqin Li, Huanzhong Ding, Binghu Fang
Tulathromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, is used for the treatment of respiratory disease in cattle and swine. The aim of our study was to investigate the in vitro and ex vivo activities of tulathromycin in serum, (non-inflamed) transudate, and (inflamed) exudate against Pasteurella multocida in piglets. The pharmacokinetics properties of tulathromycin were studied for serum, transudate, and exudate using a tissue cage model. In vitro antibiotic susceptibility of P. multocida and dynamic time-kill curve experiments over eight tulathromycin concentrations were determined...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679376/managing-expectations-cognitive-authority-and-experienced-control-in-complex-healthcare-processes
#8
Katherine J Hunt, Carl R May
BACKGROUND: Balancing the normative expectations of others (accountabilities) against the personal and distributed resources available to meet them (capacity) is a ubiquitous feature of social relations in many settings. This is an important problem in the management of long-term conditions, because of widespread problems of non-adherence to treatment regimens. Using long-term conditions as an example, we set out middle range theory of this balancing work. METHODS: A middle-range theory was constructed four stages...
July 5, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678551/nano-encapsulated-metformin-curcumin-in-plga-peg-inhibits-synergistically-growth-and-htert-gene-expression-in-human-breast-cancer-cells
#9
Raana Farajzadeh, Younes Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Mehdi Dadashpour, Shahrzad Javidfar, Javid Lotfi-Attari, Hadi Sadeghzadeh, Vahid Shafiei-Irannejad, Nosratollah Zarghami
The study was aimed at investigating the synergistic inhibitory effect of unique combinational regimen of nanocapsulated Metformin (Met) and Curcumin (Cur) against T47D breast cancer cells. For this purpose, Met and Cur were co-encapsulated in PEGylated PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) and evaluated for their therapeutic efficacy. The morphology and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analyses were carried out to optimize the nanoformulations. Drug release study was performed using dialysis method and then the cytotoxic and inhibitory effect of individual and combined drugs on expression level of hTERT in T47D breast cell line were evaluated using MTT assay and qPCR, respectively...
July 5, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657578/antioxidants-mediate-both-iron-homeostasis-and-oxidative-stress
#10
REVIEW
Mustapha Umar Imam, Shenshen Zhang, Jifei Ma, Hao Wang, Fudi Wang
Oxidative stress is a common denominator in the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases. Therefore, antioxidants are often used to protect cells and tissues and reverse oxidative damage. It is well known that iron metabolism underlies the dynamic interplay between oxidative stress and antioxidants in many pathophysiological processes. Both iron deficiency and iron overload can affect redox state, and these conditions can be restored to physiological conditions using iron supplementation and iron chelation, respectively...
June 28, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646013/doxorubicin-effect-on-myocardial-metabolism-as-a-pre-requisite-for-subsequent-development-of-cardiac-toxicity-a-translational-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-observation
#11
Matteo Bauckneht, Giulia Ferrarazzo, Francesco Fiz, Silvia Morbelli, Matteo Sarocchi, Fabio Pastorino, Alberto Ghidella, Elena Pomposelli, Maurizio Miglino, Pietro Ameri, Laura Emionite, Flavia Ticconi, Eleonora Arboscello, Ambra Buschiazzo, Elena Augusta Massimelli, Salvatore Fiordoro, Anna Borra, Vanessa Cossu, Annalisa Bozzano, Adalberto Ibatici, Mirco Ponzoni, Paolo Spallarossa, Andrea Gallamini, Paolo Bruzzi, Gianmario Sambuceti, Cecilia Marini
The present translational study aimed to verify whether serial (18)F-fluoro-deoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (FDG-PET/CT), predicts doxorubicin cardiotoxicity. Methods: Fifteen athymic mice were treated with intravenous administration of saline (n = 5), doxorubicin 5 mg/Kg (n = 5) or doxorubicin 7.5 mg/Kg (n = 5) and submitted to dynamic microPET scan to estimate left ventricular glucose consumption (LV-MRGlu) before and after chemotherapy. Thereafter, we retrospectively identified 69 patients successfully treated with Adriamycin, Bleomycin, Vinblastine, and Dacarbazine (ABVD) regimen for Hodgkin's Disease (HD) and submitted to four consecutive FDG-PET/CT scans...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627310/comparing-cluster-level-dynamic-treatment-regimens-using-sequential-multiple-assignment-randomized-trials-regression-estimation-and-sample-size-considerations
#12
Timothy NeCamp, Amy Kilbourne, Daniel Almirall
Cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens can be used to guide sequential treatment decision-making at the cluster level in order to improve outcomes at the individual or patient-level. In a cluster-level dynamic treatment regimen, the treatment is potentially adapted and re-adapted over time based on changes in the cluster that could be impacted by prior intervention, including aggregate measures of the individuals or patients that compose it. Cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trials can be used to answer multiple open questions preventing scientists from developing high-quality cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622767/praziquantel-decreases-fecundity-in-schistosoma-mansoni-adult-worms-that-survive-treatment-evidence-from-a-laboratory-life-history-trade-offs-selection-study
#13
Poppy H L Lamberton, Christina L Faust, Joanne P Webster
BACKGROUND: Mass drug administration of praziquantel is the World Health Organization's endorsed control strategy for schistosomiasis. A decade of annual treatments across sub-Saharan Africa has resulted in significant reductions of infection prevalence and intensity levels, although 'hotspots' remain. Repeated drug treatments place strong selective pressures on parasites, which may affect life-history traits that impact transmission dynamics. Understanding drug treatment responses and the evolution of such traits can help inform on how to minimise the risk of drug resistance developing, maximise sustainable control programme success, and improve diagnostic protocols...
June 16, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590268/ar-v7-liquid-biopsy-for-treatment-stratification-in-prostate-cancer-how-close-are-we
#14
Claire Fletcher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent clinical introduction of the novel antiandrogen, Enzalutamide (Enza), CYP17 inhibitor, Abiraterone (Abi), and the second-generation chemotherapeutic, Cabazitaxel, has increased survival of patients with advanced, metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). However, de novo and acquired resistance rates are high. A liquid biopsy that can rapidly, sensitively and robustly identify which patients will respond to treatment in a minimally invasive manner is urgently required to permit switch to a potentially more efficacious drug regimen, thus increasing survival whilst avoiding debilitating side effects associated with unnecessary treatment...
June 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562507/dealing-with-large-scale-supply-lines-when-introducing-new-regimens
#15
Christine Malati, Joshua Rosenfeld, Sherif Mowafy, Trevor Rittmiller, Joel Kuritsky, John Crowley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As programs plan the introduction of a new antiretroviral as part of a regimen for HIV treatment, supply chain considerations need to be taken into account. The key to success is balancing the introduction of a new regimen with the phasing out of an old regimen in a manner that does not result in either a shortage or an excess supply of either product while ensuring that patients continue receiving their medications. This necessitates that country programs, donors, and procurement entities possess an appreciation of the global antiretroviral market and understand the dynamics that the manufacturing of new antiretrovirals will have on the transition...
July 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542523/impact-of-maintenance-immunosuppressive-therapy-on-the-fecal-microbiome-of-renal-transplant-recipients-comparison-between-an-everolimus-and-a-standard-tacrolimus-based-regimen
#16
Gianluigi Zaza, Alessandra Dalla Gassa, Giovanna Felis, Simona Granata, Sandra Torriani, Antonio Lupo
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome is the full set of microbes living in the gastrointestinal tract and is emerging as an important dynamic/fluid system that, if altered by environmental, dietetic or pharmacological factors, could considerably influence drug response. However, the immunosuppressive drug-induced modifications of this system are still poorly defined. METHODS: We employed an innovative bioinformatics approach to assess differences in the whole-gut microbial metagenomic profile of 20 renal transplant recipients undergoing maintenance treatment with two different immunosuppressive protocols...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541542/reducing-stock-outs-of-essential-tuberculosis-medicines-a-system-dynamics-modelling-approach-to-supply-chain-management
#17
L Bam, Z M McLaren, E Coetzee, K H von Leipzig
The under-performance of supply chains presents a significant hindrance to disease control in developing countries. Stock-outs of essential medicines lead to treatment interruption which can force changes in patient drug regimens, drive drug resistance and increase mortality. This study is one of few to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of supply chain policies in reducing shortages and costs. This study develops a systems dynamics simulation model of the downstream supply chain for amikacin, a second-line tuberculosis drug using 10 years of South African data...
May 24, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527735/advances-in-combination-therapy-of-lung-cancer-rationales-delivery-technologies-and-dosage-regimens
#18
REVIEW
Lan Wu, Donglei Leng, Dongmei Cun, Camilla Foged, Mingshi Yang
Lung cancer is a complex disease caused by a multitude of genetic and environmental factors. The progression of lung cancer involves dynamic changes in the genome and a complex network of interactions between cancer cells with multiple, distinct cell types that form tumors. Combination therapy using different pharmaceuticals has been proven highly effective due to the ability to affect multiple cellular pathways involved in the disease progression. However, the currently used drug combination designs are primarily based on empirical clinical studies, and little attention has been given to dosage regimens, i...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526536/trastuzumab-emtansine-versus-capecitabine-plus-lapatinib-in-patients-with-previously-treated-her2-positive-advanced-breast-cancer-emilia-a-descriptive-analysis-of-final-overall-survival-results-from-a-randomised-open-label-phase-3-trial
#19
Véronique Diéras, David Miles, Sunil Verma, Mark Pegram, Manfred Welslau, José Baselga, Ian E Krop, Kim Blackwell, Silke Hoersch, Jin Xu, Marjorie Green, Luca Gianni
BACKGROUND: The antibody-drug conjugate trastuzumab emtansine is indicated for the treatment of patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer previously treated with trastuzumab and a taxane. Approval of this drug was based on progression-free survival and interim overall survival data from the phase 3 EMILIA study. In this report, we present a descriptive analysis of the final overall survival data from that trial. METHODS: EMILIA was a randomised, international, open-label, phase 3 study of men and women aged 18 years or older with HER2-positive unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer previously treated with trastuzumab and a taxane...
June 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505268/pharmacodynamics-of-dose-escalated-front-loading-polymyxin-b-regimens-against-polymyxin-resistant-mcr-1-harbouring-escherichia-coli
#20
Nicholas M Smith, Zackery P Bulman, Arthur O Sieron, Jürgen B Bulitta, Patricia N Holden, Roger L Nation, Jian Li, Gerard D Wright, Brian T Tsuji
Objectives: Gram-negative bacteria harbouring the mcr-1 plasmid are resistant to the 'last-line' polymyxins and have been reported worldwide. Our objective was to define the impact of increasing the initial polymyxin B dose intensity against an mcr-1 -harbouring strain to delineate the impact of plasmid-mediated polymyxin resistance on the dynamics of bacterial killing and resistance. Methods: A hollow fibre infection model (HFIM) was used to simulate polymyxin B regimens against an mcr-1 -harbouring Escherichia coli (MIC 8 mg/L) over 10 days...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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