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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217392/bariatric-bypasses-contribute-to-loss-of-bone-mineral-density-but-reduce-axial-back-pain-in-morbidly-obese-patients-considering-spine-surgery
#1
EDITORIAL
Nancy E Epstein
BACKGROUND: Many spine surgeons recommend stringent weight loss, including bariatric bypass procedures, prior to "elective" spine surgery (should not be for axial back pain alone) in morbidly obese patients (defined by a body mass index (BMI) of >40 mg/kg(2) or >35 mg/kg(2) with two or more major comorbidities) to reduce their greater risk for major perioperative complications. Although bypasses typically lead to marked weight reduction and even reduced axial back pain, they also promote unrecognized and often insufficiently treated vitamin D deficiency and loss of bone mineral density...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215850/predictors-of-adolescents-weight-misclassification-a-longitudinal-study
#2
Abdulaziz D Aloufi, Jake M Najman, Abdullah A Mamun
OBJECTIVE: To examine adolescents' and mothers' misclassification of the adolescents' body weight and associated early life predictors. METHODS: Data are from a sample of women and their children who were part of a longitudinal Australian birth cohort study. We analysed data of 3925 adolescents, 3721 mothers, and 2593 mother-offspring pairs. At the 14-year follow up, we derived adolescents' body weight category (underweight, normal or overweight) based on their measured height and weight and adolescents reported their similar subjective weight categories...
February 16, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215627/caregivers-effect-on-weight-management-in-adults-with-intellectual-and-developmental-disabilities
#3
L T Ptomey, C A Gibson, J Lee, D K Sullivan, R A Washburn, A M Gorczyca, J E Donnelly
INTRODUCTION: Caregivers of adults with IDD often play a large role in the ability of adults with IDD to lose weight. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine to examine the effects of the caregivers' perceived burdens and self-efficacy and their relationship to an individual (family member or paid staff) on weight changes across a weight management intervention for adults with IDD. METHODS: Overweight/obese adults with mild to moderate IDD, along with assigned caregivers who served as their study partner, were randomized to an 18-month weight management intervention...
February 12, 2017: Disability and Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215129/longitudinal-changes-in-anthropometrics-and-impact-on-self-reported-physical-function-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Lee-Anne S Chapple, Adam M Deane, Lauren T Williams, Richard Strickland, Chris Schultz, Kylie Lange, Daren K Heyland, Marianne J Chapman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients admitted to the ICU with a traumatic brain injury (TBI) are at risk of muscle wasting but this has not been quantified. Our aims were to describe longitudinal changes in anthropometrical data, compare the accuracy of non-invasive methodologies to the validated dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and assess the relationships between anthropometrical data and self-reported physical function. METHODS: In a prospective observational study, we recruited patients admitted to the ICU with a moderate-to-severe TBI over 12 months...
March 2017: Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214525/-is-there-an-optimal-diet-for-weight-management-and-metabolic-health
#5
George Thom, Mike Lean
Individuals can lose body weight and improve health status on a wide range of energy (calorie) restricted dietary interventions. In this paper, we have reviewed the effectiveness of the most commonly utilized diets, including low-fat, low-carbohydrate and Mediterranean approaches in addition to commercial slimming programmes, meal replacements and newly-popularized intermittent fasting diets. We also consider the role of artificial sweeteners in weight management. Low-fat diets tend to improve LDL-cholesterol most, whilst lower-carbohydrate diets may preferentially improve triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol, however differences between diets are marginal...
February 15, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213434/malaria-during-pregnancy
#6
Michal Fried, Patrick E Duffy
One hundred and twenty-five million women in malaria-endemic areas become pregnant each year (see Dellicour et al. PLoS Med7: e1000221 [2010]) and require protection from infection to avoid disease and death for themselves and their offspring. Chloroquine prophylaxis was once a safe approach to prevention but has been abandoned because of drug-resistant parasites, and intermittent presumptive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, which is currently used to protect pregnant women throughout Africa, is rapidly losing its benefits for the same reason...
February 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193599/an-online-intervention-comparing-a-very-low-carbohydrate-ketogenic-diet-and-lifestyle-recommendations-versus-a-plate-method-diet-in-overweight-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Laura R Saslow, Ashley E Mason, Sarah Kim, Veronica Goldman, Robert Ploutz-Snyder, Hovig Bayandorian, Jennifer Daubenmier, Frederick M Hecht, Judith T Moskowitz
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is a prevalent, chronic disease for which diet is an integral aspect of treatment. In our previous trial, we found that recommendations to follow a very low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet and to change lifestyle factors (physical activity, sleep, positive affect, mindfulness) helped overweight people with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes improve glycemic control and lose weight. This was an in-person intervention, which could be a barrier for people without the time, flexibility, transportation, social support, and/or financial resources to attend...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192127/long-term-treatment-with-nandrolone-decanoate-impairs-mesenteric-vascular-relaxation-in-both-sedentary-and-exercised-female-rats
#8
Izabela F Caliman, Cristian S Bernabe, Antônio F de Melo, Girlândia A Brasil, Andrews M do Nascimento, Ewelyne M de Lima, Suely G Figueiredo, Tadeu U de Andrade, Nazaré S Bissoli
Nandrolone Decanoate (ND) is an Anabolic Androgenic Steroid (AAS) that under abusive regimen can lead to multiple physiological adverse effects. Studies of AAS-mediated cardiovascular (CV) alterations were mostly taken from male subjects, even though women are also susceptible to the effects of AAS and gender-specific differences in susceptibility to vascular diseases exist. Here we investigate ND-induced vascular reactivity alterations in both sedentary and exercised female rats and whether these alterations depend on endothelium-derived factors...
February 10, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192109/intensive-lifestyle-intervention-for-obesity-principles-practices-and-results
#9
Victoria L Webb, Thomas A Wadden
Using the Guidelines for the Management of Overweight and Obesity in Adults as a framework, this article reviews intensive lifestyle interventions for weight loss. The Guidelines recommend a minimum of 6 months of high-intensity, comprehensive lifestyle intervention, consisting of a reduced-calorie diet, increased physical activity, and behavior therapy. Persons with obesity typically lose about 8 kg (approximately 8% of initial weight) with this approach, accompanied by improvements in health and quality of life...
February 9, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181578/anti-leukemia-effects-of-the-novel-synthetic-1-benzylindole-derivative-21-900-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#10
Wei-Chun HuangFu, Min-Wu Chao, Chun-Chun Cheng, Yu-Chieh Wei, Yi-Wen Wu, Jing-Ping Liou, George Hsiao, Yu-Ching Lee, Chia-Ron Yang
Cancers are the major cause of death worldwide. Chemotherapy using cytotoxic drugs and targeted therapy is required when surgery is difficult, ineffective, or impossible. We previously synthesized the novel synthetic 1-benzylindole derivative 21-900 and found that it inhibits histone deacetylase (HDAC) activities and tubulin assembly. Here we tested its effects on the human leukaemia cell lines HL-60 and MOLT-4 in vitro and in vivo. We found that its potent cytotoxic effects were mediated through cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, which increased the population of sub-G1 cells, leading to apoptosis...
February 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181462/cross-sectional-study-of-the-differences-between-measured-perceived-and-desired-body-size-and-their-relations-with-self-perceived-health-in-young-adults-the-troms%C3%A3-study-fit-futures-2
#11
Anne-Sofie Sand, Anne-Sofie Furberg, Olaug S Lian, Christopher S Nielsen, Gunn Pettersen, Anne Winther, Nina Emaus
AIMS: The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between measured body size (body mass index (BMI)), perceived body size, weight change wishes and self-perceived health in young adults. METHODS: The participants were recruited from a school-based population study in Norway, the Tromsø Study: Fit Futures 2, carried out in 2012-2013. A total of 629 young women and men (aged 18-23 years) reported on the main variables. The data were collected through weight and height measurements and questionnaires...
January 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177150/commentary-the-skeleton-is-a-storehouse-of-mineral-that-is-plundered-during-lactation-and-fully-replenished-afterwards
#12
Christopher S Kovacs
During lactation, mammals resorb mineral from the maternal skeleton to provide calcium to milk. Rodents lose 25-35% of skeletal ash weight, ash calcium content, and bone mineral content by DXA, and have compromised material properties of bone, as assessed by crushing vertebrae and 3-pt bend tests of femora or tibiae. The strength, stiffness, and toughness of vertebrae, femora, and tibiae are reduced by as much as 60%. The effects of lactation are not uniform throughout the skeleton, but instead resorption is much more marked in the trabecular-rich spine than in the appendicular skeleton or whole body...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168767/lifestyle-change-reduces-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-and-glucagon-like-peptide-1-levels-in-obese-first-degree-relatives-of-people-with-diabetes
#13
A Bowes, J Begley, D Kerr
BACKGROUND: Preventing type 2 diabetes in a real-world setting remains challenging. The present study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a lifestyle-based programme for individuals at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes as assessed by achieved weight loss, cardiovascular risk factors and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). METHODS: Sixty-six obese individuals with history of diabetes in first-degree relatives participated in an 8-month lifestyle programme consisting of 12 × 1...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168753/using-data-mining-to-predict-success-in-a-weight-loss-trial
#14
M Batterham, L Tapsell, K Charlton, J O'Shea, R Thorne
BACKGROUND: Traditional methods for predicting weight loss success use regression approaches, which make the assumption that the relationships between the independent and dependent (or logit of the dependent) variable are linear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between common demographic and early weight loss variables to predict weight loss success at 12 months without making this assumption. METHODS: Data mining methods (decision trees, generalised additive models and multivariate adaptive regression splines), in addition to logistic regression, were employed to predict: (i) weight loss success (defined as ≥5%) at the end of a 12-month dietary intervention using demographic variables [body mass index (BMI), sex and age]; percentage weight loss at 1 month; and (iii) the difference between actual and predicted weight loss using an energy balance model...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160559/serum-and-tissue-leptin-in-lung-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#15
Xiang Tong, Yao Ma, Qilong Zhou, Jie He, Bo Peng, Sitong Liu, Zhipeng Yan, Xin Yang, Hong Fan
Many studies have found that leptin is involved in tumorigenesis and the progression of lung cancer. However, these studies were inconsistent. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the role of leptin in the patients with lung cancer. A systematic literature search in the several databases and on commercial Internet search engines was carried out to identify studies published up to July 8, 2016. The standardized mean difference (SMD) and odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to investigate the effect sizes...
February 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160321/how-family-interactions-about-lifestyle-changes-affect-adolescents-possibilities-for-maintaining-weight-loss-after-a-weight-loss-intervention-a-longitudinal-qualitative-interview-study
#16
Marianne Eg, Kirsten Frederiksen, Marianne Vamosi, Vibeke Lorentzen
AIM: This study aims to examine how family interactions related to lifestyle changes influence adolescents' potential for maintaining weight loss after participating in a weight-loss treatment programme. BACKGROUND: Obesity among adolescents is a large and complex health problem worldwide. Family support is crucial if adolescents are to benefit from weight-loss intervention. DESIGN: Qualitative research interviews with families who participated in a weight-loss programme...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160309/dietary-management-of-presumptive-protein-losing-enteropathy-in-yorkshire-terriers
#17
A J Rudinsky, J P Howard, M A Bishop, R G Sherding, V J Parker, C Gilor
OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical outcome of dietary management of Yorkshire terriers with protein-losing enteropathy without immunosuppressive/anti-inflammatory medications. METHODS: Records were searched for Yorkshire terriers with hypoalbuminaemia and a clinical diagnosis of protein-losing enteropathy that were managed with diet and without immunosuppressive/anti-inflammatory medications. Serum albumin changes were compared using a one-way repeated measures ANOVA...
February 2017: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160229/executive-function-in-weight-loss-and-weight-loss-maintenance-a-conceptual-review-and-novel-neuropsychological-model-of-weight-control
#18
REVIEW
Katelyn M Gettens, Amy A Gorin
Weight loss maintenance is a complex, multifaceted process that presents a significant challenge for most individuals who lose weight. A growing body of literature indicates a strong relationship between cognitive dysfunction and excessive body weight, and suggests that a subset of high-order cognitive processes known as executive functions (EF) likely play an important role in weight management. Recent reviews cover neuropsychological correlates of weight status yet fail to address the role of executive function in the central dilemma of successful weight loss maintenance...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152263/trajectories-of-weight-change-and-predictors-over-18-month-weight-loss-treatment
#19
Yaguang Zheng, Susan M Sereika, Cynthia A Danford, Christopher C Imes, Rachel Woodson Goode, Juliet Mancino, Lora E Burke
BACKGROUND: Obesity research has typically focused on weight change patterns using the whole sample in randomized clinical trials (RCTs), ignoring subsets of individuals with varying weight change trajectories (e.g., continuing to lose, or maintaining weight). The purpose was to explore possible trajectories of weight change and their associated predictors. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from two RCTs using standard behavioral treatment for weight loss...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151831/the-nourishing-role-exploratory-qualitative-research-revealing-unmet-support-needs-in-family-carers-of-patients-with-advanced-cancer-and-eating-problems
#20
Jane B Hopkinson
BACKGROUND: Family carers of patients with advanced cancer living at home have an important role in providing the patient's food and drink. Little attention has been paid to the support needs, particularly of the nutrition needs, of family carers. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report support needs of family carers of patients with advanced cancer and eating problems. METHODS: The research is an inductive secondary analysis of baseline interview data from an exploratory trial conducted in the south of England...
February 2, 2017: Cancer Nursing
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