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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921046/weight-management-in-primary-care
#1
REVIEW
Susanne Maurer
BACKGROUND: Obesity is one of the greatest public health challenges worldwide. It is not only a medical but also a philosophical, ecological, economic, sociocultural, and psychological problem as well as a severe consequence of our modern value definition to 'receive more and more'. Therefore, physicians are not able to treat obesity broadly and should not be used as tools to achieve certain weight goals. METHODS: This article presents an outline of conservative obesity therapy...
October 2016: Visceral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920368/use-of-the-concordance-index-for-predictors-of-censored-survival-data
#2
Adam R Brentnall, Jack Cuzick
The concordance index is often used to measure how well a biomarker predicts the time to an event. Estimators of the concordance index for predictors of right-censored data are reviewed, including those based on censored pairs, inverse probability weighting and a proportional-hazards model. Predictive and prognostic biomarkers often lose strength with time, and in this case the aforementioned statistics depend on the length of follow up. A semi-parametric estimator of the concordance index is developed that accommodates converging hazards through a single parameter in a Pareto model...
December 5, 2016: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920041/an-adaptive-response-to-uncertainty-can-lead-to-weight-gain-during-dieting-attempts
#3
A D Higginson, J M McNamara
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Peoples' attempts to lose weight by low calorie diets often result in weight gain because of over-compensatory overeating during lapses. Animals usually respond to a change in food availability by adjusting their foraging effort and altering how much energy reserves they store. But in many situations the long-term availability of food is uncertain, so animals may attempt to estimate it to decide the appropriate level of fat storage. METHODOLOGY: We report the results of a conceptual model of feeding in which the animal knows whether food is currently abundant or limited, but does not know the proportion of time, there will be an abundance in the long-term and has to learn it...
2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915080/a-nudge-in-a-healthier-direction-how-environmental-cues-help-restrained-eaters-pursue-their-weight-control-goal
#4
Aline E Stämpfli, Sabrina Stöckli, Thomas A Brunner
Losing weight is a goal for many people, but it is hard to pursue. However, dieting cues in the environment hold promise for improving individuals' eating behavior. For example, exposure to thin, human-like sculptures by the artist Alberto Giacometti has been found to promote healthy snack choices at a vending machine. Whether health- or weight-related processes drive such effects has not yet been determined. However, a detailed understanding of the content-related drivers of environmental cues' effects provides the first indications regarding a cue's possible use...
November 30, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906550/delayed-diagnosis-and-a-lack-of-information-associated-with-dissatisfaction-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#5
Melanie Gibson-Helm, Helena Teede, Andrea Dunaif, Anuja Dokras
CONTEXT: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex, chronic and under-recognized disorder. Diagnosis experience may have lasting effects on wellbeing and self-management. OBJECTIVE: To investigate PCOS diagnosis experiences, information provided and concerns about PCOS. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using an online questionnaire. SETTING: Recruitment via support group websites in 2015-2016. PARTICIPANTS: 1385 women with a reported diagnosis of PCOS, living in North America (53...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905411/the-rapid-formation-of-sputnik-planitia-early-in-pluto-s-history
#6
Douglas P Hamilton, S A Stern, J M Moore, L A Young
Pluto's Sputnik Planitia is a bright, roughly circular feature that resembles a polar ice cap. It is approximately 1,000 kilometres across and is centred on a latitude of 25 degrees north and a longitude of 175 degrees, almost directly opposite the side of Pluto that always faces Charon as a result of tidal locking. One explanation for its location includes the formation of a basin in a giant impact, with subsequent upwelling of a dense interior ocean. Once the basin was established, ice would naturally have accumulated there...
November 30, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905187/no-clinically-meaningful-weight-changes-in-a-young-cohort-following-total-joint-arthroplasty-at-3-year-follow-up
#7
Peter M Formby, Richard L Purcell, Michael Baird, Matthew Wagner, Ronald P Goodlett, Andrew W Mack
BACKGROUND: Total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is one of the most successful operations. There is little in the literature regarding weight change following TJA, particularly in a young cohort. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 181 primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) and 185 primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients was conducted. We reviewed preoperative and post-operative weights and post-operative body mass index at 3 and 6 months, 1 year, 2 and 3 years...
November 30, 2016: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903153/management-of-obesity
#8
Naji Alamuddin, Zayna Bakizada, Thomas A Wadden
This review examines weight loss and accompanying improvements in obesity-related comorbidities produced by intensive lifestyle intervention, pharmacotherapy, and bariatric surgery. Obese individuals lose approximately 6 to 8 kg (approximately 6% to 8% of initial weight) with 6 months of participation in a high-intensity lifestyle intervention (≥ 14 treatment visits) consisting of diet, physical activity, and behavior therapy. Such losses reduce progression to type 2 diabetes in at-risk people and decrease blood pressure and triglyceride levels...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902660/preventing-long-term-poor-outcomes-in-the-bariatric-patient-postoperatively
#9
Melissa Cooley
The obesity epidemic in America continues to rise. People are desperately trying to find ways to lose weight successfully and keep the weight off, and many people are turning to bariatric surgery as the only remaining option for morbid obesity. Bariatric surgery is considered to be a viable treatment option for morbid obesity. However, long-term data are revealing that many postsurgical bariatric patients are regaining the weight after 5 years. The purpose of lifelong follow-up appointments in the bariatric patient is to prevent weight regain and poor outcomes...
January 2017: Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing: DCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900559/upregulated-tnf-expression-1%C3%A2-year-after-bariatric-surgery-reflects-a-cachexia-like-state-in-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue
#10
Alexander Jürets, Bianca Karla Itariu, Magdalena Keindl, Gerhard Prager, Felix Langer, Viktor Grablowitz, Maximilian Zeyda, Thomas Michael Stulnig
BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue dysfunction contributes to obesity-associated chronic diseases. In the first year after bariatric surgery, obese patients significantly improve their metabolic status upon losing weight. We aimed to investigate whether changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue gene expression reflect a restoration of a healthy lean phenotype after bariatric surgery. METHODS: Thirty-one severely obese patients (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2)) were examined before and after surgery...
November 29, 2016: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898880/water-temperature-impacts-water-consumption-by-range-cattle-in-winter
#11
M K Petersen, J M Muscha, J T Mulliniks, A J Roberts
Water consumption and DMI have been found to be positively correlated, and both may interact with ingestion of cold water or grazed frozen forage due to transitory reductions in the temperature of ruminal contents. The hypothesis underpinning the study explores the potential that cows provided warm drinking water would have increased in situ NDF and OM disappearances and a more stable rumen temperature, drink more water, and lose less BW during the winter. This hypothesis was tested in 3 experiments. In Exp...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897745/replace-diet-drinks-with-water-to-lose-weight
#12
(no author information available yet)
Overweight and obese women with type 2 diabetes should replace diet beverages with water if they want to lose weight, a new study suggests.
November 16, 2016: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897246/rapid-control-of-pandemic-h1n1-influenza-by-targeting-nkt-cells
#13
Bianca L Artiaga, Guan Yang, Tarun E Hutchinson, Julia C Loeb, Jürgen A Richt, John A Lednicky, Shahram Salek-Ardakani, John P Driver
Swine influenza A viruses (IAV) are a major cause of respiratory disease in pigs and humans. Currently approved anti-influenza therapies directly target the virus, but these approaches are losing effectiveness as new viral strains quickly develop drug resistance. To over come this challenge, there is an urgent need for more effective antiviral drugs. Here we tested the anti-influenza efficacy of the invariant natural killer T (NKT) cell superagonist, α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), which stimulates a wide array of anti-viral immune responses...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891830/a-randomized-trial-examining-the-impact-of-communicating-genetic-and-lifestyle-risks-for-obesity
#14
Catharine Wang, Erynn S Gordon, Tricia Norkunas, Lisa Wawak, Ching-Ti Liu, Michael Winter, Rachel S Kasper, Michael F Christman, Robert C Green, Deborah J Bowen
OBJECTIVE: Genetic testing for obesity is available directly to consumers, yet little is understood about its behavioral impact and its added value to nongenetic risk communication efforts based on lifestyle factors. METHODS: A randomized trial examined the short-term impact of providing personalized obesity risk information, using a 2 × 2 factorial design. Participants were recruited from the Coriell Personalized Medicine Collaborative (CPMC) and randomized to receive (1) no risk information (control), (2) genetic risk, (3) lifestyle risk, or (4) combined genetic/lifestyle risks...
December 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891267/marginal-zone-lymphoma-complicated-by-protein-losing-enteropathy
#15
Nadine Stanek, Peter Bauerfeind, Guido Herzog, Henriette Heinrich, Matthias Sauter, Daniela Lenggenhager, Cäcilia Reiner, Markus G Manz, Jeroen S Goede, Benjamin Misselwitz
Protein losing enteropathy (PLE) refers to excessive intestinal protein loss, resulting in hypoalbuminemia. Underlying pathologies include conditions leading to either reduced intestinal barrier or lymphatic congestion. We describe the case of a patient with long-lasting diffuse abdominal problems and PLE. Repetitive endoscopies were normal with only minimal lymphangiectasia in biopsies. Further evaluations revealed an indolent marginal zone lymphoma with minor bone marrow infiltration. Monotherapy with rituximab decreased bone marrow infiltration of the lymphoma but did not relieve PLE...
2016: Case Reports in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891176/a-series-of-patients-with-purging-type-anorexia-nervosa-who-do-tube-vomiting
#16
Takeshi Horie, Saki Harashima, Ryo Yoneda, Maiko Hiraide, Shuji Inada, Makoto Otani, Kazuhiro Yoshiuchi
BACKGROUND: It is important for clinicians to assess their patients' purging behavior. Various methods of purging, such as self-induced vomiting are well-known. Because patients do not always report their purging behavior, knowing the clinical signs that indicate the behavior is useful. However, we have experienced patients who did not have the reported physical signs of self-induced vomiting because they used hoses instead of their fingers to purge their stomach contents, which they call "tube vomiting"...
2016: BioPsychoSocial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888697/whole-body-organization-during-a-symmetric-bimanual-pick-up-task-in-overweight-and-obese-children
#17
Ya-Ching Hung, Melissa Mangiafreno, Simone V Gill
Information on the effects of obesity on the biomechanics of whole body movement control in children is limited. The purpose of the current study is to test the hypothesis that during a simple pick up task, overweight and obese children will organize their whole body movements differently than those in normal weight children. Twelve children who were overweight or obese (5-13 years old) and twelve age matched normal weight children participated in the study. Children picked up an empty box to waist height at a self-selected pace while kinematic and kinetic data were recorded and analyzed using a VICON system and two AMTI force plates...
November 19, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888593/a-comparative-study-on-dietary-style-and-physical-activity-of-women-with-and-without-gestational-diabetes
#18
Fatereh Momeni Javid, Masoumeh Simbar, Mahrokh Dolatian, Hamid Alavi Majd, Zohre Mahmoodi
Gestational diabetes increases the risks for mother and fetus during pregnancy. As a principle of caring for diabetes, recommending patients to lose weight through more physical activities and a restrictive diet has a long history. The present study was carried out aiming at determining and comparing dietary style and physical activity in women with gestational diabetes and healthy pregnant women. This descriptive-comparative study was carried out simultaneously on 200 pregnant women (with gestational diabetes and healthy)...
October 2016: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888468/reinforcement-sensitivity-and-restrained-eating-the-moderating-role-of-executive-control
#19
Nienke C Jonker, Elise C Bennik, Peter J de Jong
PURPOSE: As the prevalence of overweight and obesity are still increasing, it is important to help individuals who encounter difficulty with losing weight. The current study was set out to further investigate characteristics of individuals who are highly motivated to restrict their food intake to lose weight, but fail to do so (i.e., restrained eaters). The motivation to lose weight might stem from high punishment sensitivity, whereas the failure to succeed in restricting food intake might be the result of high reward sensitivity...
November 25, 2016: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883879/challenging-expected-patterns-of-weight-loss-in-full-term-breastfeeding-neonates-born-by-cesarean
#20
Diane Thulier
OBJECTIVE: To determine the mean weight loss (MWL) of newborns and to examine the effect of weight loss > 7% on exclusive breastfeeding rates. DESIGN: A secondary analysis from a retrospective case-control study of maternal hydration and neonatal weight. SETTING: A Level III maternity hospital in the Northeast region of the United States. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 286 women and their term breastfeeding newborns born by cesarean...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
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