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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333646/examining-predictors-of-breakfast-skipping-and-breakfast-program-use-among-secondary-school-students-in-the-compass-study
#1
Katelyn M Godin, Karen A Patte, Scott T Leatherdale
BACKGROUND: Many Canadian schools offer breakfast programs; however, students' engagement in these programs is low, while breakfast skipping is highly prevalent among youth. This study examined whether the availability of breakfast programs supports adolescents' regular breakfast eating, and identified characteristics of breakfast skippers who are not using these programs. METHODS: Data from 30,771 secondary school students from Ontario and Alberta, Canada, participating in Year 3 (2014-2015) of the COMPASS study were used for descriptive and logistic regression analyses...
February 2018: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331014/biochemical-characterization-of-recombinant-thermostable-cohnella-sp-a01-%C3%AE-glucanase
#2
Meysam Rezaie, Saeed Aminzadeh, Farid Heidari, Masoud Mashhadi Akbar Boojar, Ali Asghar Karkhane
Background: Typically, non-cellulytic glucanase, including fungi and yeast cell wall hydrolyzing enzymes, are release by some symbiotic fungi and plants during the mycoparasitic fungi attack on plants. These enzymes are known as the defense mechanisms of plants. This study intends to investigate the biochemical properties of β-1,6-glucanase (bg16M) from native thermophilic bacteria, Cohnella A01. Methods: bg16M gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3)...
January 13, 2018: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329304/a-novel-method-to-test-associations-between-a-weighted-combination-of-phenotypes-and-genetic-variants
#3
Huanhuan Zhu, Shuanglin Zhang, Qiuying Sha
Many complex diseases like diabetes, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, et cetera, are measured by multiple correlated phenotypes. However, most genome-wide association studies (GWAS) focus on one phenotype of interest or study multiple phenotypes separately for identifying genetic variants associated with complex diseases. Analyzing one phenotype or the related phenotypes separately may lose power due to ignoring the information obtained by combining phenotypes, such as the correlation between phenotypes. In order to increase statistical power to detect genetic variants associated with complex diseases, we develop a novel method to test a weighted combination of multiple phenotypes (WCmulP)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328356/factor-structure-of-the-eating-disorder-examination-questionnaire-in-a-clinical-sample-of-adult-women-with-anorexia-nervosa
#4
Kathryn E Phillips, Karen M Jennings, Matthew Gregas
An exploratory factor analysis on the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) is presented for a clinical sample of women with anorexia nervosa. THE EDE-Q was completed by 169 participants after admission to an inpatient unit for eating disorders. Results of the current study did not support the four-factor model presented by the EDE-Q. A new four-factor solution was obtained with two factors showing similarity to the Restraint and Eating Concern subscales of the original model. The Shape and Weight Concern items primarily loaded together on one factor, along with preoccupation with food and fear of losing control over eating, two Eating Concern items...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327114/anthropometric-characteristics-and-ovarian-cancer-risk-and-survival
#5
Albina N Minlikeeva, Kirsten B Moysich, Paul C Mayor, John L Etter, Rikki A Cannioto, Roberta B Ness, Kristen Starbuck, Robert P Edwards, Brahm H Segal, Sashikant Lele, Kunle Odunsi, Brenda Diergaarde, Francesmary Modugno
PURPOSE: Multiple studies have examined the role of anthropometric characteristics in ovarian cancer risk and survival; however, their results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between weight change, height and height change and risk and outcome of ovarian cancer using data from a large population-based case-control study. METHODS: Data from 699 ovarian cancer cases and 1,802 controls who participated in the HOPE study were included. We used unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, race, number of pregnancies, use of oral contraceptives, and family history of breast or ovarian cancer to examine the associations between self-reported height and weight and height change with ovarian cancer risk...
January 11, 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325664/results-of-the-clinician-apps-survey-how-clinicians-working-with-patients-with-diabetes-and-obesity-use-mobile-health-apps
#6
Justine Karduck, Karen Chapman-Novakofski
OBJECTIVE: To develop and administer a questionnaire to determine what factors may be associated with app use (including frequency of use, reasons to recommend to clients/patients, perceived effectiveness on health, health aspects used, features, and types of apps) by clinicians working in diabetes and weight management patient care settings. METHODS: The Clinician Apps Survey was developed and contained 3 question domains (smartphone apps use, behavior theory in counseling sessions, and demographics) to explore frequency, types, preferred features, benefits/barriers of using apps, counseling techniques used, and clinician demographics...
January 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320341/long-term-weight-maintenance-after-successful-weight-loss-motivational-factors-support-difficulties-and-success-factors
#7
Sirpa Soini, Pertti Mustajoki, Johan G Eriksson
OBJECTIVES: The main aims of this study were to assess motivational factors for weight loss, and support and difficulties during the weight loss and weight maintenance phase. METHODS: This study was based upon findings from the Finnish Weight Control Registry (FWCR), including 158 formerly obese persons, who lost at least 10% of their initial weight and maintained it for at least 2 years. Data have been collected through electronic forms. RESULTS: The 2 most commonly reported motivational factors for weight loss were health- and appearance-related factors...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317841/obesity-in-mexico-prevalence-comorbidities-associations-with-patient-outcomes-and-treatment-experiences
#8
Marco D DiBonaventura, Henrik Meincke, Agathe Le Lay, Janine Fournier, Erik Bakker, Allison Ehrenreich
Objective: The goal of this study is to investigate obesity and its concomitant effects including the prevalence of comorbidities, its association with patient-reported outcomes and costs, and weight loss strategies in a sample of Mexican adults. Methods: Mexican adults (N=2,511) were recruited from a combination of Internet panels and street intercepts using a random-stratified sampling framework, with strata defined by age and sex, so that they represent the population...
2018: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317208/zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein-promotes-browning-in-adipocytes
#9
Xin-Hua Xiao, Xiao-Yan Qi, Ya-Di Wang, Li Ran, Jing Yang, Huan-Li Zhang, Can-Xin Xu, Ge-Bo Wen, Jiang-Hua Liu
Recent studies have highlighted recruiting and activating brite adipocytes in WAT (so-called "browning") would be an attractive anti-obesity strategy. Zinc alpha2 glycoprotein (ZAG) is reported to ameliorate glycolipid metabolism and lose body weight in obese mice. However whether the body reducing effect mediated by browning programme remains unclear. Here, we show that overexpression of ZAG in 3T3-L1 adipocytes enhanced expression of brown fat-specific markers (UCP-1, PRDM16 and CIDEA), mitochondrial biogenesis genes (PGC-1α, NRF-1/2 and mtTFA) and the key lipid metabolism lipases (ATGL, HSL, CPT1-A and p-acyl-CoA carboxylase)...
January 6, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310572/support-needs-of-patients-with-obesity-in-primary-care-a-practice-list-survey
#10
Elizabeth H Evans, Kirby Sainsbury, Dominika Kwasnicka, Alex Bolster, Vera Araujo-Soares, Falko F Sniehotta
BACKGROUND: UK guidelines recommend that patients with obesity in primary care receive opportunistic weight loss advice from health care professionals, but there is a lack of research into the characteristics and existing weight management practices of these patients. The aim of this study was to characterise primary care patients with obesity in England, to inform the screening, support, and referral options appropriate to this group. METHODS: We surveyed 1309 patients registered at 15 GP practices in North East England, aged ≥18 years and with objectively recorded obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2)...
January 8, 2018: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305401/changes-in-gut-microbiota-related-metabolites-and-long-term-successful-weight-loss-in-response-to-weight-loss-diets-the-pounds-lost-trial
#11
Yoriko Heianza, Dianjianyi Sun, Steven R Smith, George A Bray, Frank M Sacks, Lu Qi
OBJECTIVE: Adiposity and the gut microbiota are both related to the risk of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to comprehensively examine how changes induced by a weight-loss diet intervention in gut microbiota-related metabolites, such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and its precursors (choline and l-carnitine), were associated with improvements in adiposity and regional fat deposition. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study included 510 overweight and obese individuals who were randomly assigned one of four diets varying in macronutrient intake...
January 5, 2018: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303847/obesity-in-the-workplace-impact-outcomes-and-recommendations
#12
Charles M Yarborough, Stacy Brethauer, Wayne N Burton, Raymond J Fabius, Pamela Hymel, Shanu Kothari, Robert F Kushner, John Magaña Morton, Kathryn Mueller, Nicolaas P Pronk, Mitchell S Roslin, David B Sarwer, Brian Svazas, Jeffrey S Harris, Garrett I Ash, Jamie T Stark, Marianne Dreger, Julie Ording
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a comprehensive literature review to develop recommendations for managing obesity among workers to improve health outcomes and to explore the impact of obesity on health costs to determine whether a case can be made for surgical interventions and insurance coverage. METHODS: We searched PubMed from 2011 to 2016, and CINAHL, Scopus, and Cochrane Registry of Clinical Trials for interventions addressing obesity in the workplace. RESULTS: A total of 1419 articles were screened, resulting in 275 articles being included...
January 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288276/hifu-a-noninvasive-and-effective-treatment-for-chyluria-15%C3%A2-years-of-experience
#13
Juhua Xiao, Ting Sun, Shouhua Zhang, Ming Ma, Xiaorong Yang, Jinshui Zhou, Jianfang Zhu, Fang Wang
BACKGROUND: The current treatment therapies for chyluria are often invasive and recurrent. Here, we investigated a novel noninvasive treatment of chyluria with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and evaluated its clinical efficacy. METHODS: 155 patients with chyluria were treated with HIFU ablation and followed up over a period of 15 years from May 2000 to December 2015. Routine examinations including urine color observation, color Doppler ultrasound examination, blood serum test of Cr, BUN, and albumin, and detection of urinary chyle were performed before and after the treatment, 1 week, 1 and 6 months post-treatment, and followed up via telephone and other forms...
December 29, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287756/qualifying-for-bariatric-surgery-is-preoperative-weight-loss-a-reliable-predictor-of-postoperative-weight-loss
#14
Raman D Krimpuri, James M Yokley, Eileen L Seeholzer, Ewald L Horwath, Charles L Thomas, Sergio J Bardaro
BACKGROUND: Over the last 20 years, bariatric surgery has emerged as a highly effective weight loss intervention that can also improve co-morbid medical conditions. However, some payors have required preoperative supervised diets and weight loss. OBJECTIVE: To determine if preoperative weight loss is the best predictor of postoperative weight loss. SETTING: Academic county hospital, United States. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 218 patients...
January 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273466/the-impact-of-replacing-sugar-by-artificially-sweetened-beverages-on-brain-and-behavioral-responses-to-food-viewing-an-exploratory-study
#15
Camille Crézé, Marie-Laure Notter-Bielser, Jean-François Knebel, Vanessa Campos, Luc Tappy, Micah Murray, Ulrike Toepel
Several studies indicate that the outcome of nutritional and lifestyle interventions can be linked to brain 'signatures' in terms of neural reactivity to food cues. However, 'dieting' is often considered in a rather broad sense, and no study so far investigated modulations in brain responses to food cues occurring over an intervention specifically aiming to reduce sugar intake. We studied neural activity and liking in response to visual food cues in 14 intensive consumers of sugar-sweetened beverages before and after a 3-month replacement period by artificially-sweetened equivalents...
December 19, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261744/energy-homeostasis-in-leptin-deficient-lepob-ob-mice
#16
Alicja A Skowronski, Yann Ravussin, Rudolph L Leibel, Charles A LeDuc
Maintenance of reduced body weight is associated both with reduced energy expenditure per unit metabolic mass and increased hunger in mice and humans. Lowered circulating leptin concentration, due to decreased fat mass, provides a primary signal for this response. However, leptin deficient (Lepob/ob) mice (and leptin receptor deficient Zucker rats) reduce energy expenditure following weight reduction by a necessarily non-leptin dependent mechanisms. To identify these mechanisms, Lepob/ob mice were fed ad libitum (AL group; n = 21) or restricted to 3 kilocalories of chow per day (CR group, n = 21)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258418/ectopically-expressing-mdpip1-3-an-aquaporin-gene-increased-fruit-size-and-enhanced-drought-tolerance-of-transgenic-tomatoes
#17
Lin Wang, Qing-Tian Li, Qiong Lei, Chao Feng, Xiaodong Zheng, Fangfang Zhou, Lingzi Li, Xuan Liu, Zhi Wang, Jin Kong
BACKGROUND: Water deficit severely reduces apple growth and production, is detrimental to fruit quality and size. This problem is exacerbated as global warming is implicated in producing more severe drought stress. Thus water-efficiency has becomes the major target for apple breeding. A desired apple tree can absorb and transport water efficiently, which not only confers improved drought tolerance, but also guarantees fruit size for higher income returns. Aquaporins, as water channels, control water transportation across membranes and can regulate water flow by changing their amount and activity...
December 19, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247962/vulnerability-to-exercise-addiction-socio-demographic-behavioral-and-psychological-characteristics-of-runners-at-risk-for-eating-disorders
#18
Laura Di Lodovico, Caroline Dubertret, Aurely Ameller
BACKGROUND: Excessive exercise is frequently associated with eating disorders and may degenerate into exercise addiction. We still don't know whether runners at risk for eating disorders are at risk for exercise addiction. Our aim is to assess: 1) risk for exercise addiction in runners at risk for eating disorders and 2) socio-demographic, behavioral and psychological characteristics distinguishing runners at-risk from not-at-risk for eating disorders. METHODS: We assessed risk for eating disorders and exercise addiction using the SCOFF questionnaire and the Exercise Addiction Inventory personality traits with the Big-Five Inventory Test, socio-demographic data, eating and training habits in a sample of 154 healthy runners...
November 28, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244836/energy-compensation-after-sprint-and-high-intensity-interval-training
#19
Matthew M Schubert, Elyse Palumbo, Rebekah F Seay, Katie K Spain, Holly E Clarke
BACKGROUND: Many individuals lose less weight than expected in response to exercise interventions when considering the increased energy expenditure of exercise (ExEE). This is due to energy compensation in response to ExEE, which may include increases in energy intake (EI) and decreases in non-exercise physical activity (NEPA). We examined the degree of energy compensation in healthy young men and women in response to interval training. METHODS: Data were examined from a prior study in which 24 participants (mean age, BMI, & VO2max = 28 yrs, 27...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233719/a-randomized-study-of-dietary-composition-during-weight-loss-maintenance-rationale-study-design-intervention-and-assessment
#20
Cara B Ebbeling, Gloria L Klein, Patricia K Luoto, Julia M W Wong, Lisa Bielak, Ralph G Eddy, Sarah K Steltz, Courtenay Devlin, Megan Sandman, Bridget Hron, Kim Shimy, Steven B Heymsfield, Robert R Wolfe, William W Wong, Henry A Feldman, David S Ludwig
BACKGROUND: While many people with overweight or obesity can lose weight temporarily, most have difficulty maintaining weight loss over the long term. Studies of dietary composition typically focus on weight loss, rather than weight-loss maintenance, and rely on nutrition education and dietary counseling, rather than controlled feeding protocols. Variation in initial weight loss and insufficient differentiation among treatments confound interpretation of results and compromise conclusions regarding the weight-independent effects of dietary composition...
December 9, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
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