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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622677/heparan-sulfate-antagonism-alters-bone-morphogenetic-protein-signaling-and-receptor-dynamics-suggesting-a-mechanism-in-hereditary-multiple-exostoses
#1
Christina Mundy, Evan Yang, Hajime Takano, Paul C Billings, Maurizio Pacifici
Hereditary Multiple Exostoses (HME) is a pediatric disorder caused by heparan sulfate (HS) deficiency and is characterized by growth plate-associated osteochondromas. Previously, we found that osteochondroma formation in mouse models is preceded by ectopic bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in the perichondrium, but the mechanistic relationships between BMP signaling and HS deficiency remain unclear. Therefore, we used an HS antagonist (Surfen) to investigate the effects of this HS interference on BMP signaling, ligand availability, cell surface BMP receptor (BMPR) dynamics and BMPR interactions in Ad-293 and C3H/10T1/2 cells...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537998/tissue-engineering-auricular-cartilage-using-late-passage-human-auricular-chondrocytes
#2
Jaime L Bernstein, Benjamin P Cohen, Alexandra Lin, Alice Harper, Lawrence J Bonassar, Jason A Spector
PURPOSE: The significant shortcomings associated with current autologous reconstructive options for auricular deformities have inspired great interest in a tissue engineering solution. A major obstacle in the engineering of human auricular cartilage is the availability of sufficient autologous human chondrocytes. A clinically obtainable amount of auricular cartilage tissue (ie, 1 g) only yields approximately 10 million cells, where 25 times this amount is needed for the fabrication of a full-scale pediatric ear...
April 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533328/can-fat-plug-myringoplasty-be-a-good-alternative-to-formal-myringoplasty-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Doh Young Lee, Young Ho Kim
OBJECTIVE: This study reviewed available literature to evaluate the success rate of fat myringoplasty compared with methods using other graft materials and suggests proper indications for this procedure. DATA SOURCES: Studies reporting the success rate of fat myringoplasty were systematically reviewed by searching the MEDLINE, PubMed, and Embase databases for studies published from database inception to 2017. STUDY SELECTION: The following terms were used for the literature search: ("Fat" OR "Adipose") and ("Myringoplasty" OR "Tympanoplasty")...
April 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464321/origin-and-development-of-septoclasts-in-endochondral-ossification-of-mice
#4
Yasuhiko Bando, Hide Sakashita, Fuyoko Taira, Genki Miyake, Yudai Ogasawara, Koji Sakiyama, Yuji Owada, Osamu Amano
Septoclasts are mononuclear spindle-shaped phagocytes with their long processes in uncalcified cartilage matrices and locate adjacent to the capillary endothelium at the chondro-osseous junction of the growth plate. We have previously revealed a selective expression of epidermal-type fatty acid-binding protein (E-FABP/FABP5) in septoclasts. Although, pericytes are known to distribute along capillaries and directly surround their endothelial cells in a situation similar to septoclasts, no clear evidence is available on the relationship between septoclasts and pericytes...
February 20, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456940/mrmc-neo-surgical-ventilating-port-and-neo-attic-malleo-incudal-complex-in-endoscopic-management-of-limited-attico-antral-cholesteatoma
#5
C B Nandyal, Mithun Sutrave, Vinayak Kurle, Pallavi A Harsoor
To study functional outcome of the endoscopic management of limited attico-antral cholesteatoma in terms of visualization of sac, cholesteatoma disease clearance, ABG closure improvement, preservation of residual anatomy and recurrence of disease. It is a prospective study done during Feb 2016 to March 2017 done on 20 pts with limited attico-antral cholesteatoma with CT confirmation. Endoscopic management of limited attico-antral cholesteatoma with complete removal of sac, infected discharge and granulations along with creation of MRMC Neo surgical ventilating port (joining Anterior & posterior isthmuses) done in cases where residual attic anatomy was present to establish physiological attic ventilation and drainage...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397250/endoscopic-cartilage-versus-temporalis-fascia-grafting-for-anterior-quadrant-tympanic-perforations-a-prospective-study-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#6
Sanjeev Mohanty, Vinoth Manimaran, Preethi Umamaheswaran, Shivapriya Jeyabalakrishnan, Sreenivas Chelladurai
OBJECTIVE: Management of anterior perforations of tympanic membrane is a surgical challenge. The objective of this study is to analyse and compare the results of composite cartilage perichondrium island (CCPI) graft and temporalis fascia graft by endoscopic technique in anterior quadrant perforations. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care centre from 2012-16. A total of 187 ear drums(n) in 168 patients with perforations involving anterior quadrant were included in the study...
January 31, 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334575/measurement-of-warping-angle-in-human-rib-graft-experimental-study
#7
Safvet Ors
To determine the warping angle of the costal cartilage in vivo. A nasal framework reconstruction with a rib graft was performed in a total of 130 patients. After the cartilage specimens were prepared, the remaining grafts were used for the experimental study. The angle of warping in all grafts was measured at 0, 30, and 60 minutes, after 24 hours and after one week. In this study, 8 subgroups of graft thicknesses from central and peripheral groups, which were determined according to the perichondral distance of the grafts, were evaluated, and the warping angles of a total of 48 osteochondral and chondral grafts were individually measured...
January 10, 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322554/transcription-factor-foxc1-is-involved-in-anterior-part-of-cranial-base-formation
#8
Nandar Mya, Toshiko Furutera, Shigeru Okuhara, Tsutomu Kume, Masaki Takechi, Sachiko Iseki
The cranial base is a structure mainly formed through endochondral ossification and integrated into the craniofacial complex, which acts as an underlying platform for the developing brain. Foxc1 is an indispensable regulator during intramembranous and endochondral ossification. In this study, we found that the spontaneous loss of Foxc1 function in a mouse (congenital hydrocephalous), Foxc1ch/ch , demonstrated the anterior cranial base defects, including unossified presphenoid and lack of middle part of the basisphenoid bone...
January 11, 2018: Congenital Anomalies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290312/comparison-of-transcanal-endoscopic-tympanoplasty-with-sterile-acellular-dermal-allograft-to-conventional-endaural-microscopic-tympanoplasty-with-tragal-perichondrium
#9
Jia Min, Se-Hyung Kim
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare the outcome of endoscopic tympanoplasty with sterile acellular dermal allograft (ADA) and conventional endaural microscopic tympanoplasty with tragal perichondrium. METHODS: This was a retrospective comparative study of 53 patients (25 males and 28 females) with tympanic membrane perforation who underwent type I tympanoplasty in the department of otorhinolaryngology at a tertiary medical center from March 2011 to April 2017...
March 2018: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283914/cochlear-implantation-after-partial-or-subtotal-cochleoectomy-for-intracochlear-schwannoma-removal-a-technical-report
#10
Stefan K Plontke, Sabrina Kösling, Torsten Rahne
OBJECTIVE: To describe the technique for surgical tumor removal, cochlear implant (CI) electrode placement and reconstruction of the surgical defect in patients with intracochlear schwannomas. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case review. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Ten patients (five men, five women, mean age 48 ± 12 yr) with profound or severe to profound hearing loss due to intralabyrinthine schwannomas with intracochlear location...
March 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277722/the-pathogenic-roles-of-heparan-sulfate-deficiency-in-hereditary-multiple-exostoses
#11
REVIEW
Maurizio Pacifici
Heparan sulfate (HS) is an essential component of cell surface and matrix proteoglycans (HS-PGs) that include syndecans and perlecan. Because of their unique structural features, the HS chains are able to specifically interact with signaling proteins -including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs)- via their HS-binding domain, regulating protein availability, distribution and action on target cells. Hereditary Multiple Exostoses (HME) is a rare pediatric disorder linked to germline heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in EXT1 or EXT2 that encode Golgi-resident glycosyltransferases responsible for HS synthesis, resulting in a systemic HS deficiency...
December 24, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153188/autologous-rib-microtia-construction-nagata-technique
#12
REVIEW
Akira Yamada
Nagata technique becomes most popular method of autologous rib microtia construction. To achieve successful outcome, 3 keys must be perfect: skin envelope, 3D cartilage framework, and proper location of the construct. The first step of the surgery is to identify "auricular rectangle." Relationship between the auricular rectangle and the vestige will determine if the vestige is usable for surgery. Rib cartilage must be harvested without perichondrium to prevent chest deformity. Lobule split technique is the hallmark of the Nagata technique, which allows skin envelope expansion, and allows deeper conchal cavity...
February 2018: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113765/ossification-and-development-of-vertebrae-in-the-balkan-crested-newt-triturus-ivanbureschi-salamandridae-caudata
#13
Maja D Slijepčević, Mirela Ukropina, Branko Filipović, Ana Ivanović
Vertebral morphology, development, and evolution have been investigated for many decades, especially in the recent evo-devo era. Nevertheless, comparative data on development and ossification modes within the major tetrapod groups are scarce and frequently suffer from the use of a simplistic approach, resulting in simplistic generalizations about the formation of tetrapod vertebrae. Here, we describe the development and ossification of trunk vertebrae in Triturus ivanbureschi (Salamandridae, Caudata) and compare the results with published data on other related taxa...
October 4, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098272/adjuvant-external-beam-radiotherapy-in-locally-advanced-differentiated-thyroid-cancer
#14
Samantha Tam, Moran Amit, Mongkol Boonsripitayanon, Maria E Cabanillas, Naifa L Busaidy, G Brandon Gunn, Stephen Y Lai, Neil D Gross, Erich M Sturgis, Mark E Zafereo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090195/histological-physical-studies-after-xenograft-of-porcine-ear-cartilage
#15
Yong Ah Ryu, Meiying Jin, Nakheon Kang
BACKGROUND: Because of the relatively similar size of organs to human and the physiological and structural similarities, the use of porcine as xenograft donors is progressing very actively. In this study, we analyzed the characteristics of porcine ear cartilage and evaluated its suitability as graft material in reconstructive and cosmetic surgery. METHODS: The auricular cartilage was harvested from two pigs, and subjected to histological examination by immunohistochemical staining...
September 2017: Archives of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068920/five-steps-to-internal-mammary-vessel-preparation-in-less-than-15-minutes
#16
Nicholas T Haddock, Sumeet S Teotia
BACKGROUND: Modern breast reconstruction often involves microvascular reconstruction. The most common recipient vessels are the internal mammary artery and vein. Recently, there has been great focus on efficiency, but much of this emphasis has been directed to faster flap harvest or recovery protocols for expeditious discharge. An equally important aspect is internal mammary vessel preparation. METHODS: Breast reconstruction was performed in 415 patients (715 breasts) using autologous tissue (850 flaps) from 2012 to 2016...
November 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017464/respective-contribution-of-the-cephalic-neural-crest-and-mesoderm-to-six1-expressing-head-territories-in-the-avian-embryo
#17
Barbara F Fonseca, Gérard Couly, Elisabeth Dupin
BACKGROUND: Vertebrate head development depends on a series of interactions between many cell populations of distinct embryological origins. Cranial mesenchymal tissues have a dual embryonic source: - the neural crest (NC), which generates most of craniofacial skeleton, dermis, pericytes, fat cells, and tenocytes; and - the mesoderm, which yields muscles, blood vessel endothelia and some posterior cranial bones. The molecular players that orchestrate co-development of cephalic NC and mesodermal cells to properly construct the head of vertebrates remain poorly understood...
October 10, 2017: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988443/effects-of-supramaximal-balloon-dilatation-pressures-on-adult-cricoid-and-tracheal-cartilage-a-cadaveric-study
#18
Venkata S P B Durvasula, Sara C Shalin, Ozlem E Tulunay-Ugur, James Y Suen, Gresham T Richter
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Cricoid fracture is a serious concern for balloon dilatation in airway stenosis. Furthermore, there are no studies examining tracheal rupture in balloon dilatation of stenotic segments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of supramaximal pressures of balloons on the cricoid and tracheal rings. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cadaveric study. METHODS: Seven cadaveric laryngotracheal complexes of normal adults with intact cricothyroid membranes were acquired...
October 8, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923317/calcified-cartilage-or-bone-collagens-in-the-tessellated-endoskeletons-of-cartilaginous-fish-sharks-and-rays
#19
Ronald Seidel, Michael Blumer, Elisabeth-Judith Pechriggl, Kady Lyons, Brian K Hall, Peter Fratzl, James C Weaver, Mason N Dean
The primary skeletal tissue in elasmobranchs -sharks, rays and relatives- is cartilage, forming both embryonic and adult endoskeletons. Only the skeletal surface calcifies, exhibiting mineralized tiles (tesserae) sandwiched between a cartilage core and overlying fibrous perichondrium. These two tissues are based on different collagens (Coll II and I, respectively), fueling a long-standing debate as to whether tesserae are more like calcified cartilage or bone (Coll 1-based) in their matrix composition. We demonstrate that stingray (Urobatis halleri) tesserae are bipartite, having an upper Coll I-based 'cap' that merges into a lower Coll II-based 'body' zone, although tesserae are surrounded by cartilage...
October 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892946/indian-perspectives-on-graft-materials-used-for-repair-of-tympanic-membrane
#20
REVIEW
Manu Malhotra, Saurabh Varshney, Rashmi Malhotra, Poonam Joshi
INTRODUCTION: Repair of Tympanic Membrane (TM) is one of the most common surgeries performed by the otologists. Literature reveals that Indian surgeons have contributed substantially in the research on techniques and graft materials used for the repair of tympanic membrane, though no review has been written so far highlighting their contributions. AIM: To summarize and analyse the contributions of Indian authors who have used different graft materials for repair of TM and their studies listed in Medline search...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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