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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337456/-pediatrics-perthes-disease-current-knowledges-and-treatment
#1
Sophie Merckaert, Pierre-Yves Zambelli
Perthes's disease corresponds to an interruption of the vascularization of the epiphyseal nucleus of the femoral head followed by avascular necrosis. This necrosis weakens the bone and subchondral fractures associated with a deformation of the femoral head is seen. It is important not to miss an extrusion of the femoral head, which makes surgical treatment unavoidable. The loss of joint congruence causes functional limitations and represents an increased risk for early hip osteoarthritis. Non weight bearing limits the subchondral fractures, but requires an important adaptation from the patient and his entourage...
January 10, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329145/orthopaedic-management-of-leg-length-discrepancy-in-proteus-syndrome-a-case-series
#2
Molly M Crenshaw, Cara G Goerlich, Lauren E Ivey, Julie C Sapp, Kim M Keppler-Noreuil, Allison C Scott, Leslie G Biesecker, Laura L Tosi
INTRODUCTION: Proteus syndrome (PS) is a rare mosaic disorder comprising asymmetric bony and soft tissue overgrowth leading to significant morbidity. Placement of growth inhibition hardware with subsequent epiphyseal arrest improves leg-length and angular deformities in pediatric patients without PS. The purpose of this study was to review the surgical approach and present outcomes, complications, and recommendations in 8 patients with PS and leg-length discrepancy (LLD). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 8 patients with PS whose primary reason for surgery was LLD...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327460/nanocrystal-polymer-particles-extended-delivery-carriers-for-osteoarthritis-treatment
#3
Pierre Maudens, Christian Alexander Seemayer, Cédric Thauvin, Cem Gabay, Olivier Jordan, Eric Allémann
An efficient treatment for osteoarthritis (OA) can benefit from the local release of a high therapeutic dose over an extended period of time. Such a treatment will minimize systemic side effects and avoid the inconvenience of frequent injections. To this aim, nanocrystal-polymer particles (NPPs) are developed by combining the advantages of nanotechnology and microparticles. Nanocrystals are produced by wet milling kartogenin (KGN), which is known to promote chondrogenesis and to foster chondroprotection. A fluorescent biodegradable polymer is synthesized for intravital particle tracking...
January 12, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327129/quantification-of-osteoblastic-activity-in-epiphyseal-growth-plates-by-quantitative-bone-spect-ct
#4
Tomohiko Yamane, Ichiei Kuji, Akira Seto, Ichiro Matsunari
OBJECTIVE: Quantifying the function of the epiphyseal plate is worthwhile for the management of children with growth disorders. The aim of this retrospective study was to quantify the osteoblastic activity at the epiphyseal plate using the quantitative bone SPECT/CT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled patients under the age of 20 years who received Tc-99m hydroxymethylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy acquired by a quantitative SPECT/CT scanner. The images were reconstructed by ordered subset conjugate-gradient minimizer, and the uptake on the distal margin of the femur was quantified by peak standardized uptake value (SUVpeak)...
January 11, 2018: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298262/body-mass-index-affects-proximal-femoral-but-not-acetabular-morphology-in-adolescents-without-hip-pathology
#5
Eduardo N Novais, Sandra J Shefelbine, Karl-Philipp Kienle, Patricia E Miller, Garrett Bowen, Young-Jo Kim, Sarah D Bixby
BACKGROUND: Increased mechanical load secondary to a large body mass index (BMI) may influence bone remodeling. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether BMI is associated with the morphology of the proximal part of the femur and the acetabulum in a cohort of adolescents without a history of hip disorders. METHODS: We evaluated pelvic computed tomographic (CT) images in 128 adolescents with abdominal pain without a history of hip pathology. There were 44 male patients (34%) and the mean patient age (and standard deviation) was 15 ± 1...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287114/postnatal-lethality-and-chondrodysplasia-in-mice-lacking-both-chondroitin-sulfate-n-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-1-and-2
#6
Miki Shimbo, Riku Suzuki, Sayaka Fuseya, Takashi Sato, Katsue Kiyohara, Kozue Hagiwara, Risa Okada, Hiromasa Wakui, Yuki Tsunakawa, Hideto Watanabe, Koji Kimata, Hisashi Narimatsu, Takashi Kudo, Satoru Takahashi
Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain. In cartilage, CS plays important roles as the main component of the extracellular matrix (ECM), existing as side chains of the major cartilage proteoglycan, aggrecan. Six glycosyltransferases are known to coordinately synthesize the backbone structure of CS; however, their in vivo synthetic mechanism remains unknown. Previous studies have suggested that two glycosyltransferases, Csgalnact1 (t1) and Csgalnact2 (t2), are critical for initiation of CS synthesis in vitro...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276039/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-osteochondritis-dissecans-of-the-humeral-capitellum
#7
Masahiro Maruyama, Masatoshi Takahara, Hiroshi Satake
Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the humeral capitellum is a critical elbow injury in adolescent overhead throwing athletes. However, its etiology remains unknown. Medical examinations using ultrasonography found that the prevalence of capitellar OCD among adolescent baseball players was approximately from 1% to 3%. A plain anteroposterior radiograph with the elbow in 45° of flexion is essential for the diagnosis of an OCD lesion. The stability of OCD lesions is evaluated on plain radiographs, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274861/hybrid-total-hip-arthroplasty-for-multiple-epiphyseal-dysplasia
#8
J Vanlommel, L Vanlommel, B Molenaers, J P Simon
BACKGROUND: Multiple Ephiphyseal Dysplasia (MED) is a rare autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasia that causes deformation of the epiphysis of the involved joints. The hips are invariably affected and symptoms due to incapacitating early onset degenerative hip disease often begin between the second and fourth decade of life. Literature regarding the clinical and radiographical outcomes after total hip arthroplasty in this young population are very scarce. HYPOTHESIS: In patients with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia and early onset degenerative hip disease, hybrid total hip arthroplasty is a safe and reliable procedure...
December 21, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274860/primary-pyomyositis-in-children
#9
M M Elzohairy
BACKGROUND: Pyomyositis PM is defined as a primary pyogenic infection of the striated skeletal muscle; although it has many dystrophic musculoskeletal complications, it is always misdiagnosed by many orthopedic surgeons. HYPOTHESIS: PM is rare in temperate climates and usually considered to be a tropical disease, until recent times, after globalization, it is possible to occur in the subtropical climate as in our country. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the present series, the results of 15 children patients with primary pyomyositis have been reviewed...
December 21, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260575/increased-diffusion-and-decreased-perfusion-in-epiphyses-of-femoral-heads-detected-via-intravoxel-incoherent-motion-after-closed-reduction-in-children-with-developmental-dysplasia-of-the-hip
#10
Xiang Hong Meng, Xue Ning Zhang, Zhi Wang, Jian Ping Yang, Zhong Li Zhang, Shuang Xia
Background Patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) may have decreased blood supply to the femoral heads. Finding a non-invasive method to evaluate whether the femoral heads in patients with DDH are ischemic is paramount for orthopedic surgeons. Purpose To identify whether parameters reflecting perfusion and diffusion in intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) sequences can be used to assess ischemia in femoral heads in patients with DDH after closed reduction. Material and Methods Twenty-eight patients with DDH who had undergone closed reduction were enrolled...
January 1, 2017: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246482/percutaneous-fixation-of-valgus-displaced-fracture-of-the-proximal-humerus-using-a-single-screw
#11
S Gunst, G Walch, L Nové-Josserand
Valgus-impacted proximal humerus fracture is a classic but rare entity in shoulder traumatology. Surgical treatment is controversial, with increasing use of minimally invasive techniques. Our technique uses a minimally invasive approach under fluoroscopic control. Raising the humeral head to reduce the valgus enables spontaneous and well-positioned reduction of the tuberosities and screw fixation between the greater tuberosity and the humeral shaft. Indications comprise valgus-impacted fracture without comminution of the medial epiphyseal-metaphyseal hinge or greater tuberosity; the rotator cuff contributes to reduction and must be intact...
December 12, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230266/-shoulder-tumor-of-startling-appearance
#12
Ilhame Naciri, Baderddine Hassam
Chondrosarcoma is a malignant tumor of bone of mesenchymal origin which usually occurs in people after age 40 at the level of the pelvis and the shoulder. We report the case of a 65-year old female patient, with no particular past medical history, with impaired general condition, hospitalized for exploration of a large tumor of the right shoulder, evolving over 3 years. Clinical examination showed giant, humpbacked, hard, adherent tumor measuring 44 × 32 cm along its longer axis, with inflammatory signs associated with signs of vasculo-nervous compression...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230102/specific-deletion-of-%C3%AE-catenin-in-col2-expressing-cells-leads-to-defects-in-epiphyseal-bone
#13
Tingyu Wang, Jun Li, Guang-Qian Zhou, Peter Ma, Yue Zhao, Baoli Wang, Di Chen
The role of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling in postnatal bone growth has not been fully defined. In the present studies, we generated β-catenin conditional knockout (KO) mice and deleted β-catenin in Col2-expressing chondrocytes and mesenchymal progenitor cells. Findings from analyzing the β-cateninCol2CreER KO mice revealed severe bone destruction and bone loss phenotype in epiphyseal bone, probably due to the increase in osteoclast formation and the accumulation of adipocytes in this area. In addition, we also found bone destruction and bone loss phenotype in vertebral bone in β-cateninCol2CreER KO mice...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213295/trabecular-architecture-in-the-forelimb-epiphyses-of-extant-xenarthrans-mammalia
#14
Eli Amson, Patrick Arnold, Anneke H van Heteren, Aurore Canoville, John A Nyakatura
Background: Bone structure has a crucial role in the functional adaptations that allow vertebrates to conduct their diverse lifestyles. Much has been documented regarding the diaphyseal structure of long bones of tetrapods. However, the architecture of trabecular bone, which is for instance found within the epiphyses of long bones, and which has been shown experimentally to be extremely plastic, has received little attention in the context of lifestyle adaptations (virtually only in primates)...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209799/-chondroblastoma
#15
REVIEW
G Jundt, D Baumhoer
Chondroblastomas are very rare benign primary bone tumors occurring preferentially in the epiphyses or apophyses of long bones in children and adolescents. In most cases the typical histological and imaging findings lead to a correct diagnosis that may be substantiated by demonstrating the highly specific point mutation in the H3F3B gene (p.K36M), either by sequencing or immunohistochemistry. Recurrences occur in 5-15% of cases, postsurgical metastatic deposits to the lungs are very rare (<1%). Histologically "malignant" chondroblastomas have been reported as single case reports...
December 5, 2017: Der Pathologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193820/osteology-and-radiological-anatomy-of-the-thoracic-limbs-of-temminck-s-ground-pangolin-smutsia-temminckii
#16
Christine Steyn, John T Soley, Martina R Crole
Temminck's ground pangolin is the only pangolin present in South Africa. It is a myrmecophagous mammal with a bipedal gait. The thoracic limbs are used to break open ant nests, dig for food, and expand previously occupied burrows. This study describes the osteology and radiological anatomy of the thoracic limbs of this threatened species. Thoracic limbs from four Temminck's ground pangolins, which succumbed from electrocution or natural causes, were digitally radiographed in situ. The individual bones were then cleaned, described and digitally radiographed...
November 28, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189535/torsional-growth-modulation-of-long-bones-by-oblique-plating-in-a-rabbit-model
#17
David E Lazarus, Christine L Farnsworth, Megan E Jeffords, Nikolas Marino, Jericho Hallare, Eric W Edmonds
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that oblique tension band plating can affect torsional growth in long bones. This study sought to determine if the torsional growth could be modulated based on the angles of the tension band plating and whether or not oblique plating affected overall longitudinal growth. METHODS: New Zealand White rabbits (10.5 wk old) had one screw placed on the metaphyseal side and one on the epiphyseal side of both medial and lateral sides of the right knee distal femoral physis...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189533/experimental-induction-of-physeal-injuries-by-fracture-drill-and-ablation-techniques-analyses-of-immunohistochemical-findings
#18
Helen E Gruber, Nomaan Ashraf, Michael D Cox, Jane A Ingram, Megan Templin, John Michael Wattenbarger
BACKGROUND: Although physeal fractures and physeal bars can result in significant clinical consequences to growth and development of the injured physis, little orthopaedic research has focused upon this topic. Our objective was to extend a previously developed rat model to examine the immunohistochemical features following surgical application of techniques disrupting the physis. METHODS: Physes were surgically disrupted using fracture (control), epiphyseal scrape (ES), or epiphyseal drill (ED)...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189529/trends-in-management-and-complications-of-anterior-cruciate-ligament-injuries-in-pediatric-patients-a-survey-of-the-prism-society
#19
Charles A Popkin, Margaret L Wright, Andrew T Pennock, Laura A Vogel, Ajay Padaki, Lauren H Redler, Christopher S Ahmad
BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries have been recognized and treated with increasing frequency in children and adolescents. ACL reconstruction (ACLR) in skeletally immature patients has unique considerations and there is a large practice variation in the management of these injuries. The purpose of this study was to survey the members of the Pediatric Research in Sports Medicine (PRiSM) Society regarding their experience with the management and complications of pediatric ACL injuries...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182121/primary-epiphyseal-and-metaepiphyseal-tubercular-osteomyelitis-in-children-a-series-of-8-case
#20
A Agarwal, N Gupta, M Mishra, N Agrawal, D Kumar
Clinical series of primary epiphyseal and metaepiphyseal tubercular osteomyelitis are few. The purpose of our study was to retrospectively review the presentation, healing response and functional results of 8 such cases in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The patients were evaluated for pain, deformity, range of motion, limb length discrepancy (if any) and recurrence. Serial radiographs of the region were studied to see remineralization, obliteration of radiological lesions, status of physis and remodeling of the growth plate...
December 2016: Acta Orthopaedica Belgica
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