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mri west nile encephalitis

Adam Puchalski, Antonio Liu
We present a case of serologically proved West Nile encephalitis. This patient had a normal MRI on admission. Given that the patient's clinical picture had worsened during her admission, a repeat MRI was performed, which demonstrated diffuse disease in the deep white matter of the brain. This is a case of West Nice encephalitis presenting as a disease of deep white matter that developed over a two-week span.
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
Jakapat Vanichanan, Lucrecia Salazar, Susan H Wootton, Elizabeth Aguilera, Melissa N Garcia, Kristy O Murray, Rodrigo Hasbun
In the United States, the most commonly diagnosed arboviral disease is West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Diagnosis is made by detecting WNV IgG or viral genomic sequences in serum or cerebrospinal fluid. To determine frequency of this testing in WNV-endemic areas, we examined the proportion of tests ordered for patients with meningitis and encephalitis at 9 hospitals in Houston, Texas, USA. We identified 751 patients (567 adults, 184 children), among whom 390 (52%) experienced illness onset during WNV season (June-October)...
September 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Jihye Hwang, Ho-Sung Ryu, Hyunjin Kim, Sang-Ahm Lee
West Nile encephalitis was first identified in 1937, but until now, it was never diagnosed in Korea. A 58-yr-old Korean man was admitted with headache and cognitive dysfunction. The patient had been on a business trip in Guinea. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed pleocytosis. The patient complained of both leg weakness,and arachnoiditis and myelitis were observed on lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A specific neutralizing antibody for West Nile virus was positive in serum. After a treatment with interferon-α 3mu, follow up CSF findings recovered completely after 3 months later...
March 2015: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Muhittin Ertilav, Aykut Ozkul, Ayşın Zeytinoğlu, Sait Sen, Savaş Sipahi, Hüseyin Töz, Omer Kitiş, Cenk Eraslan
West Nile virus (WNV) infection which is asymptomatic or mild in normal population, it may cause serious clinical conditions leading to death in eldery and immunosupressed patients. The virus is mainly transmitted by mosquito bites, however transfusion, transplantation, transplasental and nosocomial ways have also been reported to be responsible for viral transmission. It is known that WNV may cause life-threatining conditions such as central nervous system (CNS) infections especially in bone marrow and solid organ transplant recipients...
October 2014: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Sridhar V Basavaraju, Matthew J Kuehnert, Sherif R Zaki, James J Sejvar
The cause of encephalitis among solid organ transplant recipients may be multifactorial; the disease can result from infectious or noninfectious etiologies. During 2002-2013, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention investigated several encephalitis clusters among transplant recipients. Cases were caused by infections from transplant-transmitted pathogens: West Nile virus, rabies virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, and Balamuthia mandrillaris amebae. In many of the clusters, identification of the cause was complicated by delayed diagnosis due to the rarity of the disease, geographic distance separating transplant recipients, and lack of prompt recognition and reporting systems...
September 2014: Emerging Infectious Diseases
James C Guth, Stephen A Futterer, Tarek A Hijaz, Eric M Liotta, Neil F Rosenberg, Andrew M Naidech, Matthew B Maas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 8, 2014: Neurology
Chad J Cooper, Sarmad Said
West Nile virus (WNV) is an arthropod borne neurotropic single stranded RNA flavivirus with <1% developing presenting with neurological disease. Immunocompromised and elderly patients are more prone to developing WNV meningitis or encephalitis. Definitive diagnosis of WNV meningoencephalitis is a combination of clinical suspicion and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) serology. Forty-eight year old Caucasian female presented with a sudden onset of altered mental status after being found unresponsive. She was confused with intermittent bouts of alertness/lethargy and unintelligible responses to questioning...
April 22, 2014: Neurology International
Boby Varkey Maramattom, Geetha Philips, Nittur Sudheesh, Govindakarnavar Arunkumar
Three cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) with preceding fever are described. One patient had a quadriparesis with a florid meningoencephalitic picture and the other two had asymmetric flaccid paralysis with fasciculations at the onset of illness. Magnetic resonance imaging in two cases showed prominent hyperintensitities in the spinal cord and brainstem with prominent involvement of the grey horn (polio-myelitis). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) polymerase chain reaction was positive for West Nile virus (WNV) in the index patient...
January 2014: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Natasa Popovic, Branko Milosevic, Aleksandar Urosevic, Jasmina Poluga, Nada Popovic, Goran Stevanovic, Ivana Milosevic, Milos Korac, Nikola Mitrovic, Lidija Lavadinovic, Jelena Nikolic, Olga Dulovic
Neurologic manifestations are prominent characteristic of West Nile virus (WNV) infection. The aim of this article was to describe neurological manifestations in patients with WNV neuroinvasive disease and their functional outcome at discharge in the first human outbreak of WNV infection in Serbia. The study enrolled patients treated in the Clinic for Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Clinical Center Serbia in Belgrade, with serological evidence of acute WNV infection who presented with meningitis, encephalitis and/or acute flaccid paralyses (AFP)...
June 2014: Journal of Neurology
Lori Racsa, Rita Gander, Wendy Chung, Paul Southern, Jade Le, Stacy Beal, Francesca Lee, Dominick Cavuoti, Joan Reisch, Adnan Alatoom
In 2012, Texas has reported the highest number of West Nile virus (WNV) cases in the United States to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In this report, we conducted a retrospective chart review of 57 patients with WNV disease and analyzed the clinical features of these patients. Our results revealed that 25 (44%) patients were diagnosed with West Nile fever and 32 (56%) with West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND). The median age for patients with WNND was 54.5 years, and those with encephalitis were more likely to be >60 years old...
February 2014: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Farouq I Thabet, Sarah E Servinsky, Fareeha Naz, Teresa E Kovas, Timur O Raghib
West Nile virus infection is asymptomatic in most cases. West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease includes encephalitis, meningitis, and/or acute flaccid paralysis. In children, acute flaccid paralysis as the solo presentation of West Nile virus disease is rare. It develops abruptly and progresses rapidly early in the disease course. We report on a 10-year-old child who presented with a slowly progressive left leg flaccid paralysis over 4 weeks. He tested positive for West Nile virus in both blood and cerebrospinal fluid...
May 2013: Pediatric Neurology
Murat Ocal, Halil Onder, Ethem M Arsava, Sehnaz Alp, Aykut Ozkul, Koray Ergünay
West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne Flavivirus (family Flaviviridae), maintained in an enzootic cycle between birds as amplifying hosts and mosquito vectors. While WNV exposure in humans frequently remain subclinical, a febrile illness called West Nile fever occurs in about 20% and neuroinvasive disease in less than 1% of the affected individuals. For the last two decades, WNV has caused outbreaks of severe neuroinvasive disease in humans and horses in Europe, the Mediterranean Basin and emerged in the American continent...
January 2013: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
John E Greenlee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Encephalitis and postinfectious encephalitis represent two important conditions for the neurologist, both in terms of their presentations as neurologic emergencies and their potential to cause death or serious neurologic impairment. This article reviews the major infectious and noninfectious causes of encephalitis and discusses postinfectious encephalitis as an indirect effect of systemic illness. RECENT FINDINGS: Encephalitis caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 and West Nile virus are of major importance...
December 2012: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Sanjeev Kumar Handique
Viral infections of the central nervous system in the tropical countries of Asia and the Indian subcontinent are different from those of the Western and developed world. Many of the endemic and epidemic encephalitides that are prevalent in these regions, such as Japanese encephalitis, have characteristic findings on imaging, especially on magnetic resonance imaging, allowing a rapid diagnosis and differentiation from clinically similar syndromes. Other emerging viral infections in the region in recent years have posed new challenges...
November 2011: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
Shraddha Mainali, Mansoor Afshani, James B Wood, Michael C Levin
INTRODUCTION: Estimates indicate that West Nile virus infects approximately one and a half million people in the United States of America. Up to 1% may develop West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease, in which infected patients develop any combination of meningitis, encephalitis, or acute paralysis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 56-year-old African-American man presented to our hospital with headache, restlessness, fever, myalgias, decreased appetite, and progressive confusion...
2011: Journal of Medical Case Reports
M Capuzzo, D Cadorin, P Perna, S Vitali, M Libanore, L Cavazzini, R Alvisi
The authors describe two of three cases of West Nile virus (WNV) meningoencephalitis admitted to ICU in Ferrara (south of Po River) underlying the main common features. They focus on the difficulties in diagnosis, with key-points including seasonality (late summer in Italy), unspecific flu-like symptoms at the beginning, as hyperpyrexia, myalgia and asthenia, followed by neurological impairment, and use of steroids in the patient clinical history. Special attention is deserved to the poor outcome at both short and long term...
December 2011: Minerva Anestesiologica
J C García-Moncó
Acute encephalitis can be due to many causes, although most are viral, and is a medical emergency. A significant percentage remains without a definitive diagnosis due to the large number of etiologic agents. The single most frequent cause of sporadic encephalitis around the world is herpes simplex virus type 1, although in certain locations diverse local agents should be considered such as West Nile virus or tick-borne encephalitis, among others. Patients with encephalitis require intense care measures with special emphasis on respiratory problems secondary to a depressed level of consciousness, seizures, and intracranial hypertension due to cerebral edema...
October 2010: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
W Hachfi, I Bougmiza, F Bellazreg, O Bahri, N Kaabia, F Bahri, A Letaief
UNLABELLED: The West Nile virus (WNV) re-emerged in Tunisia in 2003, causing an outbreak of meningoencephalitis. OBJECTIVE: The authors studied the epidemiological, clinical, biological, and imaging features of WNV-associated neurological disease observed in central eastern Tunisia. DESIGN: A retrospective descriptive study was made on patients with West Nile meningitis and/or encephalitis observed in the Sousse area, from August 15 to November 15, 2003...
August 2010: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
Claire E Whitehead, Daniela Bedenice
Llamas and alpacas are affected by a wide range of neurologic diseases, including listeriosis, polioencephalomalacia, encephalitis caused by West Nile virus and equine herpesvirus, and meningeal worm. Cervical luxations and subluxations appear to be more common in camelids than in other species. Camelids that have otitis or discospondylitis may not present with clinical signs until the underlying pathology is severe. Meningitis and brain abscesses are an important complication of failure of passive transfer of immunity in crias...
July 2009: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
Usha Kant Misra, Chong Tin Tan, Jayantee Kalita
Viral encephalitis presents with seizures not only in the acute stage but also increases the risk of late unprovoked seizures and epilepsy. Acute symptomatic and late unprovoked seizures in different viral encephalitides are reviewed here. Among the sporadic viral encephalitides, Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is perhaps most frequently associated with epilepsy, which may often be severe. Seizures may be the presenting feature in 50% patients with HSE because of involvement of the highly epileptogenic frontotemporal cortex...
August 2008: Epilepsia
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