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Resistance training AND lactic acid

Marty D Spranger, Abhinav C Krishnan, Phillip D Levy, Donal S O'Leary, Scott A Smith
Blood flow restriction (BFR) training (also known as Kaatsu training) is an increasingly common practice employed during resistance exercise by athletes attempting to enhance skeletal muscle mass and strength. During BFR training, blood flow to the exercising muscle is mechanically restricted by placing flexible pressurizing cuffs around the active limb proximal to the working muscle. This maneuver results in the accumulation of metabolites (e.g., protons and lactic acid) in the muscle interstitium that increase muscle force and promote muscle growth...
November 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Daniela A Rubin, Diobel M Castner, Hoang Pham, Jason Ng, Eric Adams, Daniel A Judelson
During childhood, varying exercise modalities are recommended to stimulate normal growth, development, and health. This project investigated hormonal and metabolic responses triggered by a resistance exercise protocol in lean children (age: 9.3 ± 1.4 y, body fat: 18.3 ± 4.9%), obese children (age: 9.6 ± 1.3 y, body fat: 40.3 ± 5.2%) and lean adults (age: 23.3 ± 2.4 y, body fat: 12.7 ± 2.9%). The protocol consisted of stepping onto a raised platform (height = 20% of stature) while wearing a weighted vest (resistance = 50% of lean body mass)...
November 2014: Pediatric Exercise Science
Jeannette A C Lankhaar, Wouter R de Vries, Jaap A C G Jansen, Pierre M J Zelissen, Frank J G Backx
PURPOSE: This systematic review describes the state of the art of the impact of hypothyroidism on exercise tolerance and physical performance capacity in untreated and treated patients with hypothyroidism. METHOD: A systematic computer-aided search was conducted using biomedical databases. Relevant studies in English, German, and Dutch, published from the earliest date of each database up to December 2012, were identified. RESULTS: Out of 116 studies, a total of 38 studies with 1,379 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria...
September 2014: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
D Opitz, E Lenzen, T Schiffer, R Hermann, M Hellmich, W Bloch, K Brixius, C Brinkmann
Patients suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) often exhibit chronic elevated lactate levels which can promote peripheral insulin resistance by disturbing skeletal muscle insulin-signaling. Monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) proteins transfer lactate molecules through cellular membranes. MCT-1 and MCT-4 are the main protein isoforms expressed in human skeletal muscle, with MCT-1 showing a higher affinity (lower Km) for lactate than MCT-4. T2DM patients have reduced membranous MCT-1 proteins. Consequently, the lactate transport between muscle cells and the circulation as well as within an intracellular lactate shuttle, involving mitochondria (where lactate can be further metabolized), can be negatively affected...
December 2014: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Jen-Yu Ho, Tai-Yu Huang, Yi-Chieh Chien, Ying-Chen Chen, Shui-Yu Liu
This study examined hormonal responses to low-intensity resistance exercise under mild simulated hypoxia. Ten resistance untrained men performed five sets of 15 repetitions of squat exercise at 30% of 1RM under normobaric hypoxia (FiO2 = 15%) and normoxia in a cross-over and counter-balanced design. Blood lactate (LAC), growth hormone (GH), total testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) were measured at pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise and 15 minutes post-exercise. LAC, GH and T significantly increased immediately after squat exercise in both trials (p < 0...
2014: Research in Sports Medicine
F Pareja-Blanco, D Rodríguez-Rosell, L Sánchez-Medina, E M Gorostiaga, J J González-Badillo
This study aimed to compare the effect on neuromuscular performance of 2 isoinertial resistance training programs that differed only in actual repetition velocity: maximal intended (MaxV) vs. half-maximal (HalfV) concentric velocity. 21 resistance-trained young men were randomly assigned to a MaxV (n=10) or HalfV (n=11) group and trained for 6 weeks using the full squat exercise. A complementary study (n=8) described the acute metabolic and mechanical response to the protocols used. MaxV training resulted in a likely more beneficial effect than HalfV on squat performance: maximum strength (ES: 0...
October 2014: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Clément Vinauger, Eleanor K Lutz, Jeffrey A Riffell
Olfactory learning in blood-feeding insects, such as mosquitoes, could play an important role in host preference and disease transmission. However, standardised protocols allowing testing of their learning abilities are currently lacking, and how different olfactory stimuli are learned by these insects remains unknown. Using a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm, we trained individuals and groups of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to associate an odorant conditioned stimulus (CS) with a blood-reinforced thermal stimulus (unconditioned stimulus; US)...
July 1, 2014: Journal of Experimental Biology
Juan José González-Badillo, David Rodríguez-Rosell, Luis Sánchez-Medina, Esteban M Gorostiaga, Fernando Pareja-Blanco
The purpose of this study was to compare the effect on strength gains of two isoinertial resistance training (RT) programmes that only differed in actual concentric velocity: maximal (MaxV) vs. half-maximal (HalfV) velocity. Twenty participants were assigned to a MaxV (n = 9) or HalfV (n = 11) group and trained 3 times per week during 6 weeks using the bench press (BP). Repetition velocity was controlled using a linear velocity transducer. A complementary study (n = 10) aimed to analyse whether the acute metabolic (blood lactate and ammonia) and mechanical response (velocity loss) was different between the MaxV and HalfV protocols used...
2014: European Journal of Sport Science
J P Loenneke, R S Thiebaud, T Abe, M G Bemben
Blood flow restriction (BFR) alone or in combination with exercise has been shown to result in favorable effects on skeletal muscle form and function. The pressure applied should be high enough to occlude venous return from the muscle but low enough to maintain arterial inflow into the muscle. The optimal pressure for beneficial effects on skeletal muscle are currently unknown; however, preliminary data from our laboratory suggests that there may be a point where greater pressure may not augment the response (e...
May 2014: Medical Hypotheses
Teresa Valero
Organelle biogenesis is concomitant to organelle inheritance during cell division. It is necessary that organelles double their size and divide to give rise to two identical daughter cells. Mitochondrial biogenesis occurs by growth and division of pre-existing organelles and is temporally coordinated with cell cycle events [1]. However, mitochondrial biogenesis is not only produced in association with cell division. It can be produced in response to an oxidative stimulus, to an increase in the energy requirements of the cells, to exercise training, to electrical stimulation, to hormones, during development, in certain mitochondrial diseases, etc...
2014: Current Pharmaceutical Design
J Santos-Concejero, R Tucker, K H Myburgh, B Essen-Gustavsson, T A Kohn
This study aimed to compare the response of performance-matched black and white runners during maximal and sub-maximal running in normoxic and hypoxic conditions. 14 well-trained runners (8 black, 6 white) performed 2 incremental maximal exercise tests and 2 fatigue resistance tests at 21% O2 (normoxia) or 14% O2 (hypoxia). Respiratory parameters, heart rate (HR), lactate concentration ([La(-)]) as well as arterial saturation (SpO2) were measured. Enzyme activities and myosin heavy chain content (MHC) were also measured...
September 2014: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Ritva S Taipale, Moritz Schumann, Jussi Mikkola, Kai Nyman, Heikki Kyröläinen, Ari Nummela, Keijo Häkkinen
The study examined the acute neuromuscular and metabolic responses and recovery (24 and 48 h) to combined strength and endurance sessions (SEs). Recreationally endurance trained men (n = 12) and women (n = 10) performed: endurance running followed immediately by a strength loading (combined endurance and strength session (ES)) and the reverse order (SE). Maximal strength (MVC), countermovement jump height (CMJ), and creatine kinase activity were measured pre-, mid-, post-loading and at 24 and 48 h of recovery...
2014: Journal of Sports Sciences
Julia C Girman, Margaret T Jones, Tracey D Matthews, Richard J Wood
Limited research exists on rest-pause or cluster-set (CS) protocols. Acute effects of a traditional set (TS) and CS protocols of resistance exercise on serum growth hormone (GH), cortisol (C), blood lactate (BL), countermovement vertical jump (CMVJ) and standing long jump (SLJ) were compared. Eleven resistance-trained males (22.9 ± 2.6 year; 176.9 ± 10.6 cm; 78.5 ± 1.6 kg; 12.9 ± 3.1% BF) completed one repetition maximum tests for clean pull (CP), back squat (BS) and bench press (BP). Subjects were then randomly assigned to TS or CS protocols for sessions 2 and 3, and performed CP and BS lifts followed by two circuits of three sets of three exercises...
2014: European Journal of Sport Science
S Rezaee, S Kahrizi, M Hedayati
AIM: This study investigated the influence of resistance (R) following endurance (E) exercise or ER on acute hormonal responses, such as growth hormone (GH), total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), IGF-1, and cortisol. METHODS: Ten healthy young men with an average age of 23.9 years (±0.7 y), a height of 175 cm (±3.3 cm), a weight of 74.4 kg (±4.3 kg), and a body mass index of 25.5 kg/m2 (±0.65 kg/m2) participated in this study. All of the participants took part in four protocols (R, E, ER, and control) in separate sessions with at least 1-week intervals...
April 2014: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Mark D Ross, Antony L Wekesa, John P Phelan, Michael Harrison
INTRODUCTION: Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are involved in vascular growth and repair. They increase in the circulation after a single bout of aerobic exercise, potentially related to muscle ischemia. Muscular endurance resistance exercise (MERE) bouts also have the potential to induce muscle ischemia if appropriately structured. PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to determine the influence of a single bout of MERE on circulating EPC and related angiogenic factors...
January 2014: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Yuya Watanabe, Haruhiko Madarame, Riki Ogasawara, Koichi Nakazato, Naokata Ishii
We previously reported that low-intensity [50% of one repetition maximum (1RM)] resistance training with slow movement and tonic force generation (LST) causes muscle hypertrophy and strength gain in older participants. The aim of this study was to determine whether resistance training with slow movement and much more reduced intensity (30%1RM) increases muscle size and strength in older adults. Eighteen participants (60-77 years) were randomly assigned to two groups. One group performed very low-intensity (30% 1RM) knee extension exercise with continuous muscle contraction (LST: 3-s eccentric, 3-s concentric, and 1-s isometric actions with no rest between each repetition) twice a week for 12 weeks...
November 2014: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Derek D Ferley, Roy W Osborn, Matthew D Vukovich
Despite a paucity of evidence, uphill running has been touted as a sport-specific resistance-to-movement training tactic capable of enhancing metabolic, muscular, and neuromuscular processes in distance runners in ways similar to previously established resistance-to-movement training methods, such as heavy and/or explosive strength training and plyometric training. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation included documenting the effects of incline and level-grade interval treadmill training on indices of running economy (RE) (i...
May 2014: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Bo-Han Wu, Jung-Chang Lin
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of caffeine consume on substrate metabolism and acute hormonal responses to a single bout of resistance exercise (RE). Ten resistance-trained men participated in this study. All subjects performed one repetition maximum (1RM) test and then performed two protocols: caffeine (CAF, 6 mg·kg(-1)) and control (CON) in counter balanced order. Subjects performed RE (8 exercises, 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 75% of 1RM) after caffeine or placebo ingestion one hour prior to RE...
2010: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Michael J Duncan, Anthony Weldon, Michael J Price
This study examined the acute effects of NaHCO3 ingestion on repetitions to failure and rating of perceived exertion in the back squat and bench press in trained men. Eight resistance-trained men took part in this double-blind, randomized crossover experimental study whereby they ingested NaHCO3 (0.3 g·kg(-1) body mass) or placebo (sodium chloride NaCl: 0.045 g·kg(-1) body mass) solution 60 minutes before completing a bout of resistance exercise (3 sets of bench press and back squat exercise to failure at an intensity of 80% 1 repetition maximum)...
May 2014: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Jan Bourgois, Adelheid Steyaert, Jan Boone
PURPOSE: In this case study, a world-class rower was followed over a period of 15 y in which he evolved from junior to professional athlete. METHODS: An incremental exercise test and a 2000-m ergometer test were performed each year in the peak period of the season starting at the age of 16 y. In addition, the training logs of 1 y each as a junior and a senior rower were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: Maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), maximal power output (P(max)), and power output at 4 mmol/L blood lactate concentration increased until the age of 27 and then stabilized at 30 y at 6...
July 2014: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
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