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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469861/five-step-phase-shifting-white-light-interferometry-for-the-measurement-of-fiber-optic-extrinsic-fabry-perot-interferometers
#1
Hongchun Gao, Yi Jiang, Liuchao Zhang, Lan Jiang
Five-step phase-shifting white-light interferometry is presented for interrogating the absolute cavity length of the fiber optic extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI). It combines ideas of phase-shifting interferometry and white-light interferometry (WLI) to extend the measurement range of fiber optic WLI. Five sub-interferograms intercepted from the white-light optical spectrum are used to recover the optical path difference (OPD) of the EFPI. This method is demonstrated to interrogate a wider range of OPD...
February 10, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467637/anterior-temporal-lobe-morphometry-predicts-categorization-ability
#2
Béatrice Garcin, Marika Urbanski, Michel Thiebaut de Schotten, Richard Levy, Emmanuelle Volle
Categorization is the mental operation by which the brain classifies objects and events. It is classically assessed using semantic and non-semantic matching or sorting tasks. These tasks show a high variability in performance across healthy controls and the cerebral bases supporting this variability remain unknown. In this study we performed a voxel-based morphometry study to explore the relationships between semantic and shape categorization tasks and brain morphometric differences in 50 controls. We found significant correlation between categorization performance and the volume of the gray matter in the right anterior middle and inferior temporal gyri...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467172/amylin-selectively-signals-onto-pomc-neurons-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus
#3
Thomas A Lutz, Bernd Coester, Lynda Whiting, Ambrose A Dunn-Meynell, Christina N Boyle, Sebastien G Bouret, Barry E Levin, Christelle Le Foll
Amylin phosphorylates ERK (p-ERK) in the area postrema (AP) to reduce eating and synergizes with leptin to phosphorylate STAT3 in the arcuate (ARC) and ventromedial (VMN) hypothalamic nuclei, to reduce food intake and body weight. The current studies assessed potential amylin and amylin-leptin ARC/VMN interactions on ERK signaling and their roles in postnatal hypothalamic pathway development. In amylin knockout (KO) mice, the density of agouti-related protein (AgRP) immunoreactive (IR) fibers in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) was increased, while the density of α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH) fibers was decreased...
February 21, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465740/a-technical-guide-for-fiber-tract-dissection-of-the-internal-capsule
#4
Marcos Devanir Costa, Vinícius Lopes Braga, Kaan Yagmurlu, Ricardo Silva Centeno, Sérgio Cavalheiro, Feres Chaddad
AIM: White fibers dissection is important in identifying detailed neuroanatomical relationships, with tractrography is possible to transport and apply this knowledge in a practical way to treat many diseases involving white matter. MATERIAL AND METHODS: It was used the Klingler method, subsequently disseminated by Ture with slight modifications. RESULTS: We review some historical aspects of white fibers and provide a guide for dissection of the internal capsule...
January 24, 2018: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464318/diffusion-mri-based-cortical-connectome-reconstruction-dependency-on-tractography-procedures-and-neuroanatomical-characteristics
#5
Michel R T Sinke, Willem M Otte, Daan Christiaens, Oliver Schmitt, Alexander Leemans, Annette van der Toorn, R Angela Sarabdjitsingh, Marian Joëls, Rick M Dijkhuizen
Diffusion MRI (dMRI)-based tractography offers unique abilities to map whole-brain structural connections in human and animal brains. However, dMRI-based tractography indirectly measures white matter tracts, with suboptimal accuracy and reliability. Recently, sophisticated methods including constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) and global tractography have been developed to improve tract reconstructions through modeling of more complex fiber orientations. Our study aimed to determine the accuracy of connectome reconstruction for three dMRI-based tractography approaches: diffusion tensor (DT)-based, CSD-based and global tractography...
February 20, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462619/soluble-dietary-fiber-improves-energy-homeostasis-in-obese-mice-by-remodeling-the-gut-microbiota
#6
Haiyuan Wang, Tao Hong, Na Li, Bin Zang, Xingmao Wu
Intervention with dietary fibers is an important strategy to combat the global epidemic of obesity which is a consequence of energy imbalance. However, a possible role of the gut microbiota in effects of dietary fibers on energy homeostasis remains unclear. Here, we treated a high fat diet-induced obese (DIO) mouse model with soluble dietary fiber. Our results showed that soluble dietary fiber reduced body weight gain and the excessive accumulation of white fat tissue in DIO mice. Notably, soluble dietary fiber increased energy expenditure, but not change energy intake in DIO mice...
February 17, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461243/-ultrastructural-characteristics-of-rats-testicles-under-spermatic-cord-stenosis-and-after-blood-flow-restoration-by-different-methods
#7
T Stravskyy, A Hantimurov, O Halytska-Kharkhalis, N Herasymiuk, R Hovda
Hemodynamic disorders in the testicles cause chronic organ hypoxia with damage of its stroma and seminiferous tubules, which plays a leading role in the pathogenesis of the testicular form of male infertility development. The aim of the work was to establish the features of ultrastructural reorganization of the testicles tissue and its vascular bed under circulatory hypoxia conditions and after restoration of blood flow in the organ. The study was conducted on 84 white adult male rats. The control group consisted of 12 intact animals...
January 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460142/investigation-of-neurodegenerative-processes-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-using-white-matter-fiber-density
#8
Philipp Stämpfli, Stefan Sommer, David Czell, Sebastian Kozerke, Christoph Neuwirth, Markus Weber, Sabine Sartoretti-Schefer, Erich Seifritz, Andreas Gutzeit, Carolin Reischauer
In the current work two novel parameters, fiber density (FD) and mean diffusion signal (MDS) are investigated for evaluating neurodegenerative processes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The MDS provides a measure of the FD but is derived directly from the diffusion signal. Using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS), pathological changes across the entire white matter and changes in the parameters over time were evaluated. The results were related to those obtained using the fractional anisotropy (FA) value...
February 19, 2018: Clinical Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459252/multimodal-noninvasive-seizure-network-mapping-software-a-novel-tool-for-preoperative-epilepsy-evaluation
#9
Elliot G Neal, Stephanie Maciver, Fernando L Vale
BACKGROUND: Despite rigorous preoperative evaluation, epilepsy surgery achieves seizure freedom in only two-thirds of cases. Current preoperative evaluation does not include a detailed network analysis despite the association of network-level changes with epilepsy. OBJECTIVE: We sought to create a software algorithm to map individualized epilepsy networks by combining noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG) source localization and nonconcurrent resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI)...
February 17, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457605/negative-pressure-therapy-in-the-regeneration-of-the-sciatic-nerve-using-vacuum-assisted-closure-in-a-rabbit-model
#10
Jian-Ping Wu, Zhen-Huan Jiang, Xiao-Jun Feng, Jian-Nong Jiang, Mao-Hua Cheng
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of negative pressure therapy in the regeneration of the rabbit sciatic nerve using vacuum assisted closure (VAC). MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty male New Zealand white rabbits underwent surgical injury of the sciatic nerve, followed by negative pressure therapy using vacuum assisted closure (VAC), in three treatment groups: Group A: 0 kPa; Group B: -20 kPa; Group C: -40 kPa. At 12 weeks following surgery, the following factors were studied: motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV); the number of myelinated nerve fibers; the wet weight of the gastrocnemius muscle...
February 19, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456649/protective-effect-of-miconazole-on-rat-myelin-sheaths-following-premature-infant-cerebral-white-matter-injury
#11
Xuewen Su, Wenyan Tang, Zuo Luan, Yinxiang Yang, Zhaoyan Wang, Yu Zhang, Qian Wang, Lei Suo, Zhen Huang, Xiue Wang, Haifeng Yuan
The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of miconazole on myelin sheaths following cerebral white matter damage (WMD) in premature infant rats. Sprague Dawley rats (3-days-old) were randomly divided into four groups (n=30 each) as follows: Sham surgery group, WMD model group, 10 mg/kg/day treatment group and 40 mg/kg/day treatment group. A cerebral white matter lesion model was created by ligating the right common carotid artery for 80 min. Treatment groups were administered with 10 or 40 mg/kg miconazole at 4-8 days following birth (early treatment group) or 5-11 days following birth (late treatment group)...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453448/the-gastrointestinal-tract-microbiota-of-northern-white-cheeked-gibbons-nomascus-leucogenys-varies-with-age-and-captive-condition
#12
Ting Jia, Sufen Zhao, Katrina Knott, Xiaoguang Li, Yan Liu, Ying Li, Yuefei Chen, Minghai Yang, Yanping Lu, Junyi Wu, Chenglin Zhang
Nutrition and health of northern white-cheeked gibbons (Nomascus leucogenys) are considered to be primarily influenced by the diversity of their gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota. However, the precise composition, structure, and role of the gibbon GIT microbiota remain unclear. Microbial communities from the GITs of gibbons from Nanning (NN, n = 36) and Beijing (BJ, n = 20) Zoos were examined through 16S rRNA sequencing. Gibbon's GITs microbiomes contained bacteria from 30 phyla, dominated by human-associated microbial signatures: Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451817/the-impact-of-pulse-pressure-on-cerebrovascular-events-leading-to-age-related-cognitive-decline
#13
Nathalie Thorin-Trescases, Olivia de Montgolfier, Anthony Pinçon, Adeline Raignault, Laurie Caland, Pauline Labbé, Eric Thorin
Aging is a modern concept: human life expectancy has more than doubled in less than 150 years in Western countries. Longer lifespan, however, reveals age-related diseases, including cerebrovascular diseases. The vascular system is a prime target of aging: the "wear and tear" of large elastic arteries exposed to a life-long pulsatile pressure causes arterial stiffening by fragmentation of elastin fibers and replacement by stiffer collagen. This arterial stiffening increases in return the amplitude of the pulse pressure (PP), its wave penetrating deeper into the microcirculation of low resistance, high flow organs such as the brain...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449909/alterations-in-the-inferior-longitudinal-fasciculus-in-autism-and-associations-with-visual-processing-a-diffusion-weighted-mri-study
#14
Bart Boets, Lien Van Eylen, Kevin Sitek, Pieter Moors, Ilse Noens, Jean Steyaert, Stefan Sunaert, Johan Wagemans
Background: One of the most reported neural features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the alteration of multiple long-range white matter fiber tracts, as assessed by diffusion-weighted imaging and indexed by reduced fractional anisotropy (FA). Recent methodological advances, however, have shown that this same pattern of reduced FA may be an artifact resulting from excessive head motion and poorer data quality and that aberrant structural connectivity in children with ASD is confined to the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF)...
2018: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443803/newly-diagnosed-asymptomatic-retinal-astrocytic-hamartoma-in-an-older-adult
#15
A Kaan Gündüz, Carol L Shields, Gökçen Çöndü, Ragıp Gürsel
BACKGROUND: To report a coincidentally discovered retinal astrocytic hamartoma in an asymptomatic older woman with no history of tuberous sclerosis or neurofibromatosis. METHODS: A 63-year-old Turkish woman underwent routine ophthalmic examination. RESULTS: Visual acuity was 20/25 in each eye. On fundus examination, the right eye showed a flat yellow-white superficial retinal lesion in the inferotemporal macula and measuring 1 mm in diameter...
February 13, 2018: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438755/the-combined-effect-of-formulation-and-ph-on-properties-of-polyethylene-oxide-composite-fiber-containing-egg-albumen-protein
#16
J E Martín-Alfonso, A A Cuadri, A Greiner
The aim of this work was to elucidate the influence of egg white albumen (EA) protein loaded on the electrospinning of PEO solutions under different concentrations and pHs conditions. Properties of the electrospun fiber mats, such as morphology, thermal properties, and wettability were analyzed. In addition, rheological behavior of the polymer solutions was measured to explain the electrospinnability for fiber formation. The rheological results showed that the addition of EA protein affects the molecular entanglement required to electrospin PEO, being able to incorporate up to 75 wt% EA protein...
February 10, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428702/micromechanics-of-brain-white-matter-tissue-a-fiber-reinforced-hyperelastic-model-using-embedded-element-technique
#17
Seyed Abdolmajid Yousefsani, Amir Shamloo, Farzam Farahmand
A transverse-plane hyperelastic micromechanical model of brain white matter tissue was developed using the embedded element technique (EET). The model consisted of a histology-informed probabilistic distribution of axonal fibers embedded within an extracellular matrix, both described using the generalized Ogden hyperelastic material model. A correcting method, based on the strain energy density function, was formulated to resolve the stiffness redundancy problem of the EET in large deformation regime. The model was then used to predict the homogenized tissue behavior and the associated localized responses of the axonal fibers under quasi-static, transverse, large deformations...
February 3, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427721/the-effects-singular-or-combined-administration-of-fermentable-fiber-and-probiotic-on-mucosal-immune-parameters-digestive-enzyme-activity-gut-microbiota-and-growth-performance-of-caspian-white-fish-rutilus-frisii-kutum-fingerlings
#18
Ali Taheri Mirghaed, Peyman Yarahmadi, Seyed Hossein Hosseinifar, Davood Tahmasebi, Nahid Gheisvandi, Alireza Ghaedi
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of single or combined administration of dietary fermentable fiber (Vitacel®) and probiotic PrimaLac® on mucosal immune parameters, digestive enzyme activity, gut microbiota and growth performance of Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) fingerlings. Fish were transferred to laboratory, acclimatized for two weeks and then fish (0.56 ± 0.026 g) were allocated into 12 tanks (30 fish per tank). Triplicate groups were fed a basal diet (Control) or basal diet supplemented with fermentable fiber [Vitacel®] (FF), probiotic [PrimaLac®] (P) and combined fermentable fiber and probiotic (FF + P)...
February 7, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424175/-experimental-study-on-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-promoting-tendon-bone-healing-after-reconstruction-of-anterior-cruciate-ligament-in-rabbits
#19
Chun-Bao Li, Chao Xue, Wei Qi, Ning Wang, Jing Xue, Xiao-Yong Wu, Juan-Li Zhu, Yang Liu, Yu-Jie Liu
OBJECTIVE: To explore highly agglutinative staphylococcin (HAS) pomoting on tendon-bone healing after reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament(ACL) in rabbits. METHODS: Animal model of ACL reconstruction in 24 mature New Zealand white rabbits(3 months, 2.56 kg on average, either gender) were established using autologous digital long extensor tendon and randomly classified into 2 groups(HAS and control group), 12 rabbits for each group. HAS group was separately injected 0...
June 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410205/spatial-coherence-of-oriented-white-matter-microstructure-applications-to-white-matter-regions-associated-with-genetic-similarity
#20
Haraldur T Hallgrímsson, Matthew Cieslak, Luca Foschini, Scott Grafton, Ambuj K Singh
We present a method to discover differences between populations with respect to the spatial coherence of their oriented white matter microstructure in arbitrarily shaped white matter regions. This method is applied to diffusion MRI scans of a subset of the Human Connectome Project dataset: 57 pairs of monozygotic and 52 pairs of dizygotic twins. After controlling for morphological similarity between twins, we identify 3.7% of all white matter as being associated with genetic similarity (35.1 k voxels, p<10-4, false discovery rate 1...
February 1, 2018: NeuroImage
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