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White fibers

Bruna Dos Santos Ramalho, Fernanda Martins de Almeida, Conrado Mendonça Sales, Silmara de Lima, Ana Maria Blanco Martinez
In spite of advances in surgical care and rehabilitation, the consequences of spinal cord injury (SCI) are still challenging. Several experimental therapeutic strategies have been studied in the SCI field, and recent advances have led to the development of therapies that may act on the inhibitory microenvironment. Assorted lineages of stem cells are considered a good treatment for SCI. This study investigated the effect of systemic transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in a compressive SCI model...
June 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Sandip S Panesar, Fang-Cheng Yeh, Timothée Jacquesson, William Hula, Juan C Fernandez-Miranda
The human inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) is a ventral, temporo-occipital association tract. Though described in early neuroanatomical works, its existence was later questioned. Application of in vivo tractography to the neuroanatomical study of the ILF has generally confirmed its existence, however, consensus is lacking regarding its subdivision, laterality and connectivity. Further, there is a paucity of detailed neuroanatomic data pertaining to the exact anatomy of the ILF. Generalized Q-Sampling imaging (GQI) is a non-tensor tractographic modality permitting high resolution imaging of white-matter structures...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Saori Kikuchihara, Shouta Sugio, Kenji F Tanaka, Takaki Watanabe, Masanobu Kano, Yoshihiko Yamazaki, Masahiko Watanabe, Kazuhiro Ikenaka
Mlc1 is a causative gene for megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC), and is expressed in astrocytes. Mlc1-overexpressing mice represent an animal model of early-onset leukoencephalopathy, which manifests as astrocytic swelling followed by myelin membrane splitting in the white matter. It has previously reported that Mlc1 is highly expressed in Bergmann glia, while the cerebellar phenotypes of Mlc1-overexpressing mouse have not been characterized. Here, we examined the cerebellum of Mlc1-overexpressing mouse and found that the distribution of BG was normally compacted along the PC layer until postnatal day 10 (P10), while most BG were dispersed throughout the molecular layer by P28...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Fan Zhang, Ye Wu, Isaiah Norton, Laura Rigolo, Yogesh Rathi, Nikos Makris, Lauren J O'Donnell
This work presents an anatomically curated white matter atlas to enable consistent white matter tract parcellation across different populations. Leveraging a well-established computational pipeline for fiber clustering, we create a tract-based white matter atlas including information from 100 subjects. A novel anatomical annotation method is proposed that leverages population-based brain anatomical information and expert neuroanatomical knowledge to annotate and categorize the fiber clusters. A total of 256 white matter structures are annotated in the proposed atlas, which provides one of the most comprehensive tract-based white matter atlases covering the entire brain to date...
June 16, 2018: NeuroImage
Denise M Piscopo, Aldis P Weible, Mary K Rothbart, Michael I Posner, Cristopher M Niell
Recent reports have begun to elucidate mechanisms by which learning and experience produce white matter changes in the brain. We previously reported changes in white matter surrounding the anterior cingulate cortex in humans after 2-4 weeks of meditation training. We further found that low-frequency optogenetic stimulation of the anterior cingulate in mice increased time spent in the light in a light/dark box paradigm, suggesting decreased anxiety similar to what is observed following meditation training. Here, we investigated the impact of this stimulation at the cellular level...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jens Brøndum Frøkjær, Andra Sorina Boldea, Dag Arne Lihaug Hoff, Anne Lund Krarup, Jan Gunnar Hatlebakk, Georg Dimcevski, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes
Background and aims In functional chest pain (FCP) of presumed esophageal origin central nervous system hyperexcitability is generally believed to play an important role in pain pathogenesis. However, this theory has recently been challenged. Using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging, the aim was to characterize any microstructural reorganization of the pain neuromatrix in FCP patients. Methods 13 FCP patients and 20 matched healthy controls were studied in a 3T MR scanner. Inclusion criteria were relevant chest pain, normal coronary angiogram and normal upper gastrointestinal evaluation...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Michael A Powell, Javier O Garcia, Fang-Cheng Yeh, Jean M Vettel, Timothy Verstynen
The unique architecture of the human connectome is defined initially by genetics and subsequently sculpted over time with experience. Thus, similarities in predisposition and experience that lead to similarities in social, biological, and cognitive attributes should also be reflected in the local architecture of white matter fascicles. Here we employ a method known as local connectome fingerprinting that uses diffusion MRI to measure the fiber-wise characteristics of macroscopic white matter pathways throughout the brain...
2018: Network neuroscience
Jack R Foucher, Olivier Mainberger, Julien Lamy, Mathieu D Santin, Alexandre Vignaud, Mathilde M Roser, Paulo L de Sousa
INTRODUCTION: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows slight spatial variations in brain white matter (WM). We used quantitative multi-parametric MRI to evaluate in what respect these inhomogeneities could correspond to WM subtypes with specific characteristics and spatial distribution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six controls (12 women, 38 ±9 Y) took part in a 60-min session on a 3T scanner measuring 7 parameters: R1 and R2, diffusion tensor imaging which allowed to measure Axial and Radial Diffusivity (AD, RD), magnetization transfer imaging which enabled to compute the Macromolecular Proton Fraction (MPF), and a susceptibility-weighted sequence which permitted to quantify R2* and magnetic susceptibility (χm)...
2018: PloS One
Christophe Habas, Mario Manto
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a noninvasive neuroimaging tool assessing the organization of white-matter tracts and brain microstructure in vivo. The technique takes into account the three-dimensional (3D) direction of diffusion of water in space, the brownian movements of water being constrained by the brain microstructure. The main direction of diffusion in the brain is extracted to obtain the principal direction of axonal projection within a given voxel. Overall, the diffusion tensor is a mathematic analysis of the magnitude/directionality (anisotropy) of the movement of water molecules in 3D space...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Ruichong Ma, Cheryl A Coulter, Laurent J Livermore, Natalie L Voets, Omar Al Awar, Puneet Plaha
BACKGROUND: Surgical access to the temporal lobe is complex with many eloquent white fiber tracts, requiring careful pre-operative surgical planning. Many microsurgical approaches to the temporal lobes are described, each with their own disadvantages. The adoption of the endoscope in neurosurgery has increased the options available when treating these difficult access tumors. OBJECTIVES: We present our experience of a novel, minimally-invasive, endoscopic approach to resect temporal lobe tumors...
June 11, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Lorenzo Carnevale, Valentina D'Angelosante, Alessandro Landolfi, Giovanni Grillea, Giulio Selvetella, Marianna Storto, Giuseppe Lembo, Daniela Carnevale
Aims: Hypertension is one of the main risk factor for dementia. The subtle damage provoked by chronic high blood pressure in the brain is usually evidenced by conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in terms of white matter (WM) hyperintensities or cerebral atrophy. However, it is clear that by the time brain damage is visible, it may be too late hampering neurodegeneration. Aim of this study was to characterize a signature of early brain damage induced by hypertension, before the neurodegenerative injury manifests...
June 12, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Qiuyun Fan, Aapo Nummenmaa, Barbara Wichtmann, Thomas Witzel, Choukri Mekkaoui, Walter Schneider, Lawrence L Wald, Susie Y Huang
We provide a comprehensive diffusion MRI dataset acquired with a novel biomimetic phantom mimicking human white matter. The fiber substrates in the diffusion phantom were constructed from hollow textile axons ("taxons") with an inner diameter of 11.8±1.2 µm and outer diameter of 33.5±2.3 µm. Data were acquired on the 3 T CONNECTOM MRI scanner with multiple diffusion times and multiple q-values per diffusion time, which is a dedicated acquisition for validation of microstructural imaging methods, such as compartment size and volume fraction mapping...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Ye Wu, Fan Zhang, Nikos Makris, Yuping Ning, Isaiah Norton, Shenglin She, Hongjun Peng, Yogesh Rathi, Yuanjing Feng, Huawang Wu, Lauren J O'Donnell
This work presents an automatically annotated fiber cluster (AAFC) method to enable identification of anatomically meaningful white matter structures from the whole brain tractography. The proposed method consists of 1) a study-specific whole brain white matter parcellation using a well-established data-driven groupwise fiber clustering pipeline to segment tractography into multiple fiber clusters, and 2) a novel cluster annotation method to automatically assign an anatomical tract annotation to each fiber cluster by employing cortical parcellation information across multiple subjects...
June 8, 2018: NeuroImage
Yonghua Bi, Hongmei Chen, Yahua Li, Zepeng Yu, Xinwei Han, Jianzhuang Ren
The self-healing phenomenon can be found in the elastase-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) model, and an enlarging AAA model was successfully induced by coarctation. Unfortunately, aortic coarctation in these enlarging models is generally not found in human AAA disease. This study aimed to create an experiment model of enlarging AAA in rabbits to better mimic human aortic aneurysm disease. Eighty-four male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three equal groups: two aneurysm groups (A and B) and a SHAM group...
2018: PloS One
Katie Quaeck-Davies, Victoria A Bendall, Kirsteen M MacKenzie, Stuart Hetherington, Jason Newton, Clive N Trueman
Incrementally grown, metabolically inert tissues such as fish otoliths provide biochemical records that can used to infer behavior and physiology throughout the lifetime of the individual. Organic tissues are particularly useful as the stable isotope composition of the organic component can provide information about diet, trophic level and location. Unfortunately, inert, incrementally grown organic tissues are relatively uncommon. The vertebrate eye lens, however, is formed via sequential deposition of protein-filled fiber cells, which are subsequently metabolically inert...
2018: PeerJ
Yusi Miao, Joseph C Jing, Vineet Desai, Sari B Mahon, Matthew Brenner, Livia A Veress, Carl W White, Zhongping Chen
Development of effective rescue countermeasures for toxic inhalational industrial chemicals, such as methyl isocyanate (MIC), has been an emerging interest. Nonetheless, current methods for studying toxin-induced airway injuries are limited by cost, labor time, or accuracy, and only provide indirect or localized information. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) endoscopic probes have previously been used to visualize the 3-D airway structure. However, gathering such information in small animal models, such as rat airways after toxic gas exposure, remains a challenge due to the required probe size necessary for accessing the small, narrow, and partially obstructed tracheas...
June 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Juan C Fernandez-Miranda
The medial temporal lobe can be divided in anterior, middle, and posterior segments. The anterior segment is formed by the uncus and hippocampal head, and it has extra and intraventricular structures. There are 2 main approaches to the uncohippocampal region, the anteromedial temporal lobectomy (Spencer's technique) and the transsylvian selective amygdalohippocampectomy (Yasargil's technique).In this video, we present the case of a 29-yr-old man with new onset of generalized seizures and a contrast-enhancing lesion in the left anterior segment of the medial temporal lobe compatible with high-grade glioma...
June 7, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Mahdi Alizadeh, Joshua Fisher, Sona Saksena, Yusra Sultan, Chris J Conklin, Devon M Middleton, Laura Krisa, Jürgen Finsterbusch, Adam E Flanders, Scott H Faro, M J Mulcahey, Feroze B Mohamed
Background and objective: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) are two techniques that can measure white matter integrity of the spinal cord. Recently, DTI indices have been shown to change with age. The purpose of this study is (a) to evaluate the maturational states of the entire pediatric spinal cord using DTI and DTT indices including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), mean length of white matter fiber tracts and tract density and (b) to analyze the DTI and DTT parameters along the entire spinal cord as a function of spinal cord levels and age...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Alejandro Monroy-Sosa, Jonathan Jennings, Srikant Chakravarthi, Melanie B Fukui, Juanita Celix, Nathaniel Kojis, Mark Lindsay, Sarika Walia, Richard Rovin, Amin Kassam
BACKGROUND: A number of vertical prolongations of the superior longitudinal fasciculus, which we refer to as the vertical rami (Vr), arise at the level of the supramarginal gyrus, directed vertically toward the parietal lobe. OBJECTIVE: To provide the first published complete description of the white matter tracts (WMT) of the Vr, their relationship to the intraparietal and parieto-occipital sulci (IPS-POS complex), and their importance in neurosurgical approaches to the parietal lobe...
June 5, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Finn Lennartsson, Maria Nilsson, Olof Flodmark, Lena Jacobson, Jonas Larsson
Injuries to the immature optic radiation (OR) are associated with thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer and corresponding visual field (VF) defects. The aim of the current study was to seek evidence for causal retrograde trans-synaptic degeneration by exploring the correspondence between the localization and extension of the injury to the OR and the structure of the macular ganglion cell complex, and the relation to VF function. Seven adults (age range 18-35) with visual dysfunction secondary to white-matter damage of immaturity and six healthy adults (age range 22-33) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
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