keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

White fibers

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822750/promise-and-pitfalls-of-g-ratio-estimation-with-mri
#1
REVIEW
Jennifer S W Campbell, Ilana R Leppert, Sridar Narayanan, Mathieu Boudreau, Tanguy Duval, Julien Cohen-Adad, G Bruce Pike, Nikola Stikov
The fiber g-ratio is the ratio of the inner to the outer diameter of the myelin sheath of a myelinated axon. It has a limited dynamic range in healthy white matter, as it is optimized for speed of signal conduction, cellular energetics, and spatial constraints. In vivo imaging of the g-ratio in health and disease would greatly increase our knowledge of the nervous system and our ability to diagnose, monitor, and treat disease. MRI based g-ratio imaging was first conceived in 2011, and expanded to be feasible in full brain white matter with preliminary results in 2013...
August 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821981/modifiable-factors-and-esophageal-cancer-a-systematic-review-of-published-meta-analyses
#2
REVIEW
Clara Castro, Bárbara Peleteiro, Nuno Lunet
There are marked differences in the etiology of the major histological types of esophageal cancer (EC)-squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC) and adenocarcinomas (EAC). This study aimed to summarize the current scientific knowledge on modifiable risk factors for EC, by histological type, through a systematic review of meta-analyses referenced in PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge. We identified 100 meta-analyses on risk factors for ESCC (n = 54), EAC (n = 43), or EC (n = 51). ESCC risk significantly increased with alcohol and maté drinking, smoking, red and processed meat consumption and human papillomavirus infection, while it was negatively associated with body mass index and consumption of fruit, vegetables, white meat, folate, and some carotenoids...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820864/diffusion-kurtosis-imaging-and-pathology-in-spinal-cord-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rabbits-a-case-control-study
#3
Daowei Li, Xiaoming Wang
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) in spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion (SCI/R) injury and to explore its association with pathology. MATERIAL AND METHODS Japanese male long-eared rabbits were chosen and divided into 7 groups (8 rabbits in each group): control group (C group), sham-operation control group (S group), and 5 experimental groups (E-2 h group, E-24 h group, E-48 h group, E-7 d group, and E-14 d group). Tarlov scoring and immunohistochemical staining were used to assess hindlimb motor function and observe the expression of glial fiber acidic protein (GFAP), respectively...
August 18, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819863/effects-of-testosterone-treatment-on-hypothalamic-neuroplasticity-in-female-to-male-transgender-individuals
#4
Georg S Kranz, Andreas Hahn, Ulrike Kaufmann, Martin Tik, Sebastian Ganger, René Seiger, Allan Hummer, Christian Windischberger, Siegfried Kasper, Rupert Lanzenberger
Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is used to measure gray matter tissue density and white matter fiber organization/directionality. Recent studies show that DWI also allows for assessing neuroplastic adaptations in the human hypothalamus. To this end, we investigated a potential influence of testosterone replacement therapy on hypothalamic microstructure in female-to-male (FtM) transgender individuals. 25 FtMs were measured at baseline, 4 weeks, and 4 months past treatment start and compared to 25 female and male controls...
August 17, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817577/detailing-neuroanatomical-development-in-late-childhood-and-early-adolescence-using-noddi
#5
Alyssa Mah, Bryce Geeraert, Catherine Lebel
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have provided much evidence of white and subcortical gray matter changes during late childhood and early adolescence that suggest increasing myelination, axon density, and/or fiber coherence. Neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) can be used to further characterize development in white and subcortical grey matter regions in the brain by improving specificity of the MRI signal compared to conventional DTI. We used measures from NODDI and DTI to examine white and subcortical gray matter development in a group of 27 healthy participants aged 8-13 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817078/measurement-of-the-verdet-constant-of-polarization-maintaining-air-core-photonic-bandgap-fiber
#6
Ningfang Song, Xiaoyang Wang, Xiaobin Xu, Wei Cai, Chunxiao Wu
We propose a method based on the white-light interference technique for measuring the Verdet constant of a polarization-maintaining air-core photonic bandgap fiber (PM-PBF). The experimental results show that the Verdet constant of the PM-PBF is ~3.3 mrad/T/m for the broadband light with a spectral width of ~38 nm and a mean wavelength of ~1550 nm, which is ~124 times less than that of a conventional stress-induced birefringent fibers called PANDA fibers (~0.41 rad/T/m for the same broad-spectrum light). The results indicate that the nonreciprocal error induced by the Faraday effect in a fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) made of the PM-PBF is theoretically ~25 times less than that of a conventional FOG made of the PANDA fiber when other conditions, such as the fiber twist, fiber coil area, and so on, are the same...
August 17, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814297/genotyping-and-comparative-pathology-of-spirocerca-in-black-backed-jackals-canis-mesomelas-in-south-africa
#7
M M Bumby, M C Williams, J C A Steyl, R Harrison-White, H Lutermann, G T Fosgate, P J de Waal, J Mitha, S J Clift
BACKGROUND: The pathology of spirocercosis, a disease caused by the infestation of carnivores with the nematode Spirocerca lupi, has been extensively described in domestic dogs and coyotes. However, it has not been described in wild carnivores in South Africa. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether black-backed jackals are a host for Spirocerca species and to provide a detailed description of the associated pathology. Jackals were also stratified according to age and the Spirocerca species recovered were characterized using molecular techniques...
August 16, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808062/ablating-tbc1d1-impairs-contraction-induced-sarcolemmal-glucose-transporter-type-4-redistribution-but-not-insulin-mediated-responses-in-rats
#8
Jamie Whitfield, Sabina Paglialunga, Brennan K Smith, Paula M Miotto, Genevieve Simnett, Holly L Robson, Swati S Jain, Eric A F Herbst, Eric M Desjardins, David J Dyck, Lawrence L Spriet, Gregory R Steinberg, Graham P Holloway
TBC1 domain family member 1 (TBC1D1), a Rab GTPase-activating protein and paralogue of Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160), has been implicated in both insulin- and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/IMP cyclohydrolase (AICAR)-mediated glucose transporter type (GLUT4) translocation. However, the role of TBC1D1 in contracting muscle remains ambiguous. We therefore explored the metabolic consequence of ablating TBC1D1 in both resting and contracting skeletal muscles, utilizing a rat TBC1D1-KO model...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804448/erythropoietin-protects-against-lipopolysaccharide-induced-microgliosis-and-abnormal-granule-cell-development-in-the-ovine-fetal-cerebellum
#9
Annie R A McDougall, Nadia Hale, Sandra Rees, Richard Harding, Robert De Matteo, Stuart B Hooper, Mary Tolcos
Erythropoietin (EPO) ameliorates inflammation-induced injury in cerebral white matter (WM). However, effects of inflammation on the cerebellum and neuroprotective effects of EPO are unknown. Our aims were to determine: (i) whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intrauterine inflammation causes injury to, and/or impairs development of the cerebellum; and (ii) whether recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) mitigates these changes. At 107 ± 1 days gestational age (DGA; ~0.7 of term), fetal sheep received LPS (~0.9 μg/kg; i...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798672/learning-morse-code-alters-microstructural-properties-in-the-inferior-longitudinal-fasciculus-a-dti-study
#10
Lara Schlaffke, Alexander Leemans, Lauren M Schweizer, Sebastian Ocklenburg, Tobias Schmidt-Wilcke
Learning relies on neuroplasticity, which has mainly been studied in gray matter (GM). However, there is mounting evidence indicating a critical role of white matter changes involved in learning processes. One of the most important learning processes in human development is language acquisition. However, due to the length of this learning process, it has been notoriously difficult to investigate the underlying neuroplastic changes. Here, we report a novel learning paradigm to assess the role of white matter plasticity for language acquisition...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798534/a-case-of-spontaneous-purulent-granulomatous-pericarditis-in-a-beagle
#11
Kyohei Kamio, Yutaka Nakanishi, Kenta Matsue, Minoru Sasaki
The present report describes a case of spontaneous purulent granulomatous pericarditis in a 16-month-old beagle. A gross necropsy revealed pericardial effusion and multiple nodules on the surface of the heart and around the aorta adjacent to the heart. The cut surface of these nodules was solid and white in color, containing partially yellowish white regions. Microscopically, granulomatous inflammation characterized by central necrotic cellular debris surrounded by neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, fibroblasts and collagen fibers was observed in the epicardium...
July 2017: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797059/general-theory-of-skin-reinforcement
#12
Ilja L Kruglikov, Philipp E Scherer
Macroscopic mechanical properties of human skin in vivo cannot be considered independent of adjacent subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT). The layered system skin/sWAT appears as the hierarchical structural composite in which single layers behave as fiber-reinforced structures. Effective macroscopic mechanical properties of such composites are mainly determined either by the properties of the skin or by those of the sWAT, dependent on the conditions of mechanical loading. Mechanical interactions between the skin and the adjacent sWAT associated with a mismatch in the mechanical moduli of these two layers can lead to production of the skin wrinkles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794981/a-test-retest-study-on-parkinson-s-ppmi-dataset-yields-statistically-significant-white-matter-fascicles
#13
Martin Cousineau, Pierre-Marc Jodoin, Félix C Morency, Verena Rozanski, Marilyn Grand'Maison, Barry J Bedell, Maxime Descoteaux
In this work, we propose a diffusion MRI protocol for mining Parkinson's disease diffusion MRI datasets and recover robust disease-specific biomarkers. Using advanced high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) crossing fiber modeling and tractography robust to partial volume effects, we automatically dissected 50 white matter (WM) fascicles. These fascicles connect deep nuclei (thalamus, putamen, pallidum) to different cortical functional areas (associative, motor, sensorimotor, limbic), basal forebrain and substantia nigra...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794323/development-of-an-attenuated-total-reflection-based-fiber-optic-sensor-for-real-time-sensing-of-biofilm-formation
#14
Tatsuya Orii, Takuya Okazaki, Noriko Hata, Kazuharu Sugawara, Faidz A Rahman, Hideki Kuramitz
A fiber-optic sensor capable of real-time monitoring of biofilm formation in water was developed. The sensor can be easily fabricated by removing the cladding of a multimode fiber optic to expose the core. The sensing action is based on the penetration of an evanescent wave through a biofilm formed on the surface of the exposed fiber core during total internal reflection. The proposed setup can be used to analyze the transmittance response over a wide wavelength range using a white-light source and a spectroscopy detector...
2017: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777754/methionine-sulfoxide-reductase-b3-msrb3-protein-associates-with-synaptic-vesicles-and-its-expression-changes-in-the-hippocampi-of-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#15
Stephanie L Adams, Laurent Benayoun, Kathy Tilton, Olivia R Chavez, Jayandra J Himali, Jan Krzysztof Blusztajn, Sudha Seshadri, Ivana Delalle
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified susceptibility loci associated with decreased hippocampal volume, and found hippocampal subfield-specific effects at MSRB3 (methionine sulfoxide reductase-B3). The MSRB3 locus was also linked to increased risk for late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we uncovered novel sites of MsrB3 expression in CA pyramidal layer and arteriolar walls by using automated immunohistochemistry on hippocampal sections from 23 individuals accompanied by neuropathology reports and clinical dementia rating scores...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775058/analysis-of-white-matter-damage-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-via-a-novel-in-vivo-mr-method-for-measuring-myelin-axons-and-g-ratio
#16
A Hagiwara, M Hori, K Yokoyama, M Nakazawa, R Ueda, M Horita, C Andica, O Abe, S Aoki
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Myelin and axon volume fractions can now be estimated via MR imaging in vivo, as can the g-ratio, which equals the ratio of the inner to the outer diameter of a nerve fiber. The purpose of this study was to evaluate WM damage in patients with MS via this novel MR imaging technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients with relapsing-remitting MS with a combined total of 149 chronic plaques were analyzed. Myelin volume fraction was calculated based on simultaneous tissue relaxometry...
August 3, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774363/-quantitative-evaluation-of-white-matter-development-in-fetus-with-growth-restriction-by-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#17
Hua-Wei Wang, Bing Wu, Jing Liu, Fang Liu, Xin-Huai Wu, Ming-Mei Ge
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether fetal growth restriction (FGR) has an adverse effect on white matter development. METHODS: A total of 28 full-term small for gestational age (SGA) infants were enrolled as study subjects and 15 full-term appropriate for gestational age infants were enrolled as control group. Conventional head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were performed for all infants. The white matter was divided into 122 regions...
August 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773150/effect-of-preservative-pretreatment-on-the-biological-durability-of-corn-straw-fiber-hdpe-composites
#18
Lihui Xuan, Dongxue Hui, Wanli Cheng, Andrew H H Wong, Guangping Han, Wei Khong Tan, Carlson A D Tawi
The effects of alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ) and zinc borate (ZB) on the resistance of corn stalk fiber (CSF)-reinforced high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composites to biodegradation were examined. Both biocides could inhibit termites, mold fungi, and wood-decay fungi, even at high CSF formulations (i.e., 60%). Additionally, ACQ enhanced the resistance of the composite materials to certain biotic stresses better than ZB. The CSF/HDPE composites treated with ACQ at the 3.0% level exhibited a superior performance against termites, white rot fungi, and brown rot fungi...
July 12, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772675/experimental-study-on-the-fire-properties-of-nitrocellulose-with-different-structures
#19
Ruichao Wei, Yaping He, Jiahao Liu, Yu He, Wenzhong Mi, Richard Yuen, Jian Wang
In order to ensure the safety of inflammable and explosive chemical substance such as nitrocellulose (NC) mixtures in the process of handing, storage, and usage, it is necessary to obtain the fire properties of NC with different exterior structures. In present study, fire properties of two commonly used nitrocelluloses with soft fiber structure and white chip structure were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the ISO 5660 cone calorimeter. Experimental findings revealed that the most important fire properties such as ignition time, mass loss rate and ash content exhibited significant differences between the two structures of NC...
March 20, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771940/reduced-cerebral-white-matter-integrity-assessed-by-dti-in-cognitively-normal-h63d-hfe-polymorphism-carriers
#20
Mark D Meadowcroft, Jianli Wang, Carson J Purnell, Paul J Eslinger, Elizabeth B Neely, Qing X Yang, James R Connor
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The H63D-HFE single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been associated with brain iron dysregulation; however, the emergent role of this missense variant in brain structure and function has yet to be determined. Previous work has demonstrated that HFE SNP carriers have reduced white matter magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) proton relaxation rates. The mechanism by which white matter alterations perturb MRI relaxation is unknown as is how these metrics are related to myelin integrity...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
keyword
keyword
72649
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"