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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221432/sex-and-ethnic-racial-specific-risk-factors-for-gallbladder-disease
#1
Jane C Figueiredo, Christopher Haiman, Jacqueline Porcel, James Buxbaum, Daniel Stram, Neal Tambe, Wendy Cozen, Lynne Wilkens, Loic Le Marchand, Veronica Wendy Setiawan
BACKGROUND: Gallbladder disease (GBD) is a highly prevalent condition; however, little is known about potential differences in risk factors by sex and ethnicity/race. Our aim was to evaluate dietary, reproductive and obesity-related factors and GBD in multiethnic populations. METHODS: We performed a prospective analysis from the Multiethnic Cohort study who self-identified as non-Hispanic White (n = 32,103), African American (n = 30,209), Japanese (n = 35,987), Native Hawaiian (n = 6942) and Latino (n = 39,168)...
December 8, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219028/ambulatory-pulse-pressure-brain-neuronal-fiber-integrity-and-cerebral-blood-flow-in-older-adults
#2
Takashi Tarumi, Binu P Thomas, Ciwen Wang, Li Zhang, Jie Liu, Marcel Turner, Jonathan Riley, Nikita Tangella, Kyle B Womack, Diana R Kerwin, C Munro Cullum, Hanzhang Lu, Wanpen Vongpatanasin, David C Zhu, Rong Zhang
Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) reflects the end-organ vascular stress in daily life; however, its influence on brain neuronal fiber integrity and cerebral blood flow (CBF) remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the associations among ABP, white matter (WM) neuronal fiber integrity, and CBF in older adults. We tested 144 participants via ABP monitoring and diffusion tensor imaging. The total level and pulsatile indices of CBF were measured by phase-contrast MRI and transcranial Doppler, respectively...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213254/blue-light-therapy-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-effects-on-white-matter-water-diffusion-in-the-brain
#3
Sahil Bajaj, John R Vanuk, Ryan Smith, Natalie S Dailey, William D S Killgore
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a common and often inconspicuous wound that is frequently associated with chronic low-grade symptoms and cognitive dysfunction. Previous evidence suggests that daily blue wavelength light therapy may be effective at reducing fatigue and improving sleep in patients recovering from mTBI. However, the effects of light therapy on recovering brain structure remain unexplored. In this study, we analyzed white matter diffusion properties, including generalized fractional anisotropy, and the quantity of water diffusion in isotropic (i...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212890/starring-or-supporting-role-satellite-cells-and-skeletal-muscle-fiber-size-regulation
#4
REVIEW
Kevin A Murach, Christopher S Fry, Tyler J Kirby, Janna R Jackson, Jonah D Lee, Sarah H White, Esther E Dupont-Versteegden, John J McCarthy, Charlotte A Peterson
Recent loss-of-function studies show that satellite cell depletion does not promote sarcopenia or unloading-induced atrophy, and does not prevent regrowth. Although overload-induced muscle fiber hypertrophy is normally associated with satellite cell-mediated myonuclear accretion, hypertrophic adaptation proceeds in the absence of satellite cells in fully grown adult mice, but not in young growing mice. Emerging evidence also indicates that satellite cells play an important role in remodeling the extracellular matrix during hypertrophy...
January 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210449/mixture-design-applied-to-the-development-of-chickpea-based-gluten-free-bread-with-attractive-technological-sensory-and-nutritional-quality
#5
Fernanda G Santos, Camilly Fratelli, Denise G Muniz, Vanessa D Capriles
The aim of the study was utilized chickpea to create appealing, nutritious, and palatable gluten-free bread (GFB). The performance of chickpea flour (CF) in single and composite GFB formulations was studied with a mixture design and response surface methodology. Six simplex-centroid designs for 3 ingredients were used to identify the ideal proportions of CF in various blends with cassava starch (CS), maize starch (MS), potato starch (PS), and rice flour (RF) achieving the best physical properties. For each design, 3 single, 3 binary, and 3 ternary formulations were prepared...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209586/diffusion-tensor-imaging-and-tractography-application-in-pre-operative-planning-of-intra-axial-brain-lesions
#6
Neetu Soni, Anant Mehrotra, Sanjay Behari, Sunil Kumar, Nishant Gupta
Gliomas are the most common brain tumors that diffusely infiltrate the surrounding white matter (WM) tracts. Conventional MRI is commonly used for tumor localization and characterization. However, this does not give precise information about the WM infiltration surrounding the tumor. Diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) is a non-invasive magnetic resonance (MR) technique that measures WM tissue integrity and tractography (fiber tracking) used to investigate the preferential directionality of diffusion. DTI allows visualization of WM tracts in the immediate vicinity of brain tumors that permit maximum tumor resection while also preserving the eloquent brain areas...
October 3, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205635/cerebral-white-matter-maturation-patterns-in-preterm-infants-an-mri-t2-relaxation-anisotropy-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#7
Michael J Knight, Adam Smith-Collins, Sarah Newell, Mark Denbow, Risto A Kauppinen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Preterm birth is associated with worse neurodevelopmental outcome, but brain maturation in preterm infants is poorly characterized with standard methods. We evaluated white matter (WM) of infant brains at term-equivalent age, as a function of gestational age at birth, using multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Infants born very preterm (<32 weeks gestation) and late preterm (33-36 weeks gestation) were scanned at 3 T at term-equivalent age using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and T2 relaxometry...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203454/framework-for-shape-analysis-of-white-matter-fiber-bundles
#8
Tanya Glozman, Lisa Bruckert, Franco Pestilli, Derek W Yecies, Leonidas Guibas, Kristen Yeom
Diffusion imaging coupled with tractography algorithms allows researchers to image human white matter fiber bundles in-vivo. These bundles are three-dimensional structures with shapes that change over time during the course of development as well as in pathologic states. While most studies on white matter variability focus on analysis of tissue properties estimated from the diffusion data, e.g. fractional anisotropy, the shape variability of white matter fiber bundle is much less explored. In this paper, we present a set of tools for shape analysis of white matter fiber bundles, namely: (1) a concise geometric model of bundle shapes; (2) a method for bundle registration between subjects; (3) a method for deformation estimation...
December 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201279/mapping-age-effects-along-fiber-tracts-in-young-adults
#9
Emily L Dennis, Faisal Rashid, Josh Faskowitz, Yan Jin, Katie L McMahon, Greig I de Zubicaray, Nicholas G Martin, Ian B Hickie, Margaret J Wright, Neda Jahanshad, Paul M Thompson
Brain development is a protracted and dynamic process. Many studies have charted the trajectory of white matter development, but here we sought to map these effects in greater detail, based on a large set of fiber tracts automatically extracted from HARDI (high angular resolution diffusion imaging) at 4 tesla. We used autoMATE (automated multi-atlas tract extraction) to extract diffusivity measures along 18 of the brain's major fiber bundles in 667 young adults, aged 18-30. We examined linear and non-linear age effects on diffusivity measures, pointwise along tracts...
2017: Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: from Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199095/analysis-of-white-matter-characteristics-with-tract-based-spatial-statistics-according-to-diffusion-tensor-imaging-in-early-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Xiang-Rong Li, Yan-De Ren, Bo Cao, Xuan-Li Huang
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the microstructure of brain white matter according to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) based on tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) in early Parkinson's disease (PD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 31 age- and sex-matched early PD patients and 22 healthy volunteers were recruited in the present study. DTI was performed, and the data analyzed with fsl4.0 software. The fractional anisotropy (FA) was compared between both groups with an independent t test, and the differential area was analyzed...
November 30, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198286/what-do-language-disorders-reveal-about-brain-language-relationships-from-classic-models-to-network-approaches
#11
Nina F Dronkers, Maria V Ivanova, Juliana V Baldo
Studies of language disorders have shaped our understanding of brain-language relationships over the last two centuries. This article provides a review of this research and how our thinking has changed over the years regarding how the brain processes language. In the 19th century, a series of famous case studies linked distinct speech and language functions to specific portions of the left hemisphere of the brain, regions that later came to be known as Broca's and Wernicke's areas. One hundred years later, the emergence of new brain imaging tools allowed for the visualization of brain injuries in vivo that ushered in a new era of brain-behavior research and greatly expanded our understanding of the neural processes of language...
October 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191363/histopathological-proof-of-the-pathogenicity-of-a-rare-gfap-mutation-in-a-patient-with-flaccid-paraparesis
#12
Florian Brackmann, Roland Coras, Karl Rössler, Cornelia Kraus, Oliver Rompel, Regina Trollmann
Infantile Alexander disease is a rare progressive leukodystrophy caused by autosomal dominant mutations in the (GFAP) gene typically presenting with psychomotor retardation, progressive macrocephaly and refractory epilepsy. Neuroradiological hallmarks are extensive white matter lesions with frontal preponderance as well as signal intensity changes of basal ganglia and medulla oblongata with variable contrast enhancement. Here, we report an atypical manifestation in a 21-month-old boy presenting with flaccid paraparesis and areflexia...
November 27, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190575/dictionary-based-fiber-orientation-estimation-with-improved-spatial-consistency
#13
Chuyang Ye, Jerry L Prince
Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) has enabled in vivo investigation of white matter tracts. Fiber orientation (FO) estimation is a key step in tract reconstruction and has been a popular research topic in dMRI analysis. In particular, the sparsity assumption has been used in conjunction with a dictionary-based framework to achieve reliable FO estimation with a reduced number of gradient directions. Because image noise can have a deleterious effect on the accuracy of FO estimation, previous works have incorporated spatial consistency of FOs in the dictionary-based framework to improve the estimation...
November 23, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189972/plasma-lipopolysaccharide-binding-protein-and-colorectal-cancer-risk-a-nested-case-control-study-in-the-multiethnic-cohort
#14
Jessica S Citronberg, Lynne R Wilkens, Loic Le Marchand, Unhee Lim, Kristine R Monroe, Meredith A J Hullar, Emily White, Polly A Newcomb, Johanna W Lampe
BACKGROUND: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an endotoxin found on the outer cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, increases inflammatory response signaling and may play a role in the pathogenesis of several adverse outcomes, including inflammatory bowel diseases, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. While LPS is hypothesized to be associated with colorectal carcinogenesis, there are relatively few human studies which have examined this association. METHODS: We examined the association between colorectal cancer (CRC) and plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), a marker of LPS, in 1,638 participants (819 CRC cases and 819 controls) matched on multiple factors, including age, sex, and race/ethnicity, from the Multiethnic Cohort study...
November 30, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189944/the-ultrastructural-alterations-in-the-lens-capsule-and-epithelium-in-eyes-with-traumatic-white-cataract
#15
Merve Inanc, Kemal Tekin, Yasemin Ozdamar Erol, Mustafa Fevzi Sargon, Mustafa Koc, Ozlem Budakoglu, Pelin Yılmazbas
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the morphological and physiological characteristics of lens epithelial cells (LECs) in patients with traumatic cataract using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to further understand penetrating ocular injury-induced cataract morphology and epithelial repair mechanisms involved at a cellular level. METHODS: This is a prospective international study. Sixteen eyes of 16 consecutive patients who were diagnosed as traumatic white cataracts following the anterior lens capsule perforation and 13 eyes of 13 patients with idiopathic posterior subcapsular cataract were included to the study...
November 30, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188879/racial-differences-in-eating-patterns-and-food-purchasing-behaviors-among-urban-older-women
#16
W Li, G Youssef, E Procter-Gray, B Olendzki, T Cornish, R Hayes, L Churchill, K Kane, K Brown, M F Magee
OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in diet and food purchasing behaviors between Black and White older women living in urban neighborhoods. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. SETTING: Urban neighborhoods in Washington, DC, USA. PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling White and Black women of age 65 and older. MEASUREMENTS: Participants were queried on diet via 24-hour recalls, food purchasing habits, their use of neighborhood resources and local travel patterns...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188166/tractography-for-optic-radiation-preservation-in-transcortical-approaches-to-intracerebral-lesions
#17
Vijay Agarwal, James G Malcolm, Gustavo Pradilla, Daniel L Barrow
We present a case of intraventricular meningioma resected via a transcortical approach using tractography for optic radiation and arcuate fasciculus preservation. We include a review of the literature. A 54-year-old woman with a history of breast cancer presented with gait imbalance. Workup revealed a mass in the atrium of the left lateral ventricle consistent with a meningioma. Whole brain automated diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to plan a transcortical resection while sparing the optic radiations and arcuate fasciculus...
September 28, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186931/mixture-toxicity-of-bensulfuron-methyl-and-acetochlor-to-red-swamp-crayfish-procambarus-clarkii-behavioral-morphological-and-histological-effects
#18
Jixin Yu, Elvis Genbo Xu, Yan Ren, Shiyu Jin, Tanglin Zhang, Jiashou Liu, Zhongjie Li
The mixture of bensulfuron-methyl and acetochlor (MBA) has been widely applied as a rice herbicide in China, but the mixture toxicity of MBA to aquatic organisms is largely unknown. The current study aims to investigate the acute effects of MBA to juvenile red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii. Firstly, a 96 h semi-static exposure was conducted to determine the Lethal Concentration 50 (LC50) values at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, as well as to assess the behavioral and morphological effects. A second 96 h exposure was conducted at an MBA concentration of 50% of the 96 h LC50 (72...
November 27, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183282/bilateral-muscle-fiber-and-nerve-influences-by-tnf-alpha-in-response-to-unilateral-muscle-overuse-studies-on-tnf-receptor-expressions
#19
Lina Renström, Per Stål, Yafeng Song, Sture Forsgren
BACKGROUND: TNF-alpha is suggested to be involved in muscle damage and muscle inflammation (myositis). In order to evaluate whether TNF-alpha is involved in the myositis that occurs in response to muscle overuse, the aim was to examine the expression patterns of TNF receptors in this condition. METHODS: A rabbit muscle overuse model leading to myositis in the soleus muscle was used. The expression patterns of the two TNF receptors Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor type 1 (TNFR1) and Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor type 2 (TNFR2) were investigated...
November 28, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180959/family-income-cumulative-risk-exposure-and-white-matter-structure-in-middle-childhood
#20
Alexander J Dufford, Pilyoung Kim
Family income is associated with gray matter morphometry in children, but little is known about the relationship between family income and white matter structure. In this paper, using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics, a whole brain, voxel-wise approach, we examined the relationship between family income (assessed by income-to-needs ratio) and white matter organization in middle childhood (N = 27, M = 8.66 years). Results from a non-parametric, voxel-wise, multiple regression (threshold-free cluster enhancement, p < 0...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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