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White fibers

Cornelius O Horgan, Jeremiah G Murphy
Fiber-reinforcement is a common feature of many soft biological tissues. Continuum mechanics modeling of the mechanical response of such tissues using transversely isotropic hyperelasticity is now well developed. The fundamental deformation of simple shear within this framework is examined here. It is well known that the normal stress effect characteristic of nonlinear elasticity plays a crucial role in maintaining a homogeneous deformation state in the bulk of the specimen. Here we consider the effect of anisotropy and fiber-orientation on the shear and normal stresses...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Adeoye A Oyefiade, Stephanie Ameis, Jason P Lerch, Conrad Rockel, Kamila U Szulc, Nadia Scantlebury, Alexandra Decker, Jaleel Jefferson, Simon Spichak, Donald J Mabbott
Neural communication is facilitated by intricate networks of white matter (WM) comprised of both long and short range connections. The maturation of long range WM connections has been extensively characterized, with projection, commissural, and association tracts showing unique trajectories with age. There, however, remains a limited understanding of age-related changes occurring within short range WM connections, or U-fibers. These connections are important for local connectivity within lobes and facilitate regional cortical function and greater network economy...
October 14, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
Vasiliki Kommata, Catherine R Dermon
Complex morphogenetic events, critical for the development of normal cerebellum foliation and layering, are known to involve type III intermediate filament protein such as vimentin expressed by Bergmann glia. The present study aimed to determine aspects of intermediate and late embryonic pattern of vimentin expression during the corticogenesis of chicken cerebellum at embryonic days 10 to 19 (E10-E19), using single and double immunohistochemistry/immunofluorescence. Vimentin expression showed partial co-localization with the glial markers GFAP and BLBP...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Pablo Ripollés, Davina Biel, Claudia Peñaloza, Jörn Kaufmann, Josep Marco-Pallarés, Toemme Noesselt, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells
Learning the associations between words and meanings is a fundamental human ability. Although the language network is cortically well defined, the role of the white matter pathways supporting novel word-to-meaning mappings remains unclear. Here, by using contextual and cross-situational word-learning, we tested whether learning the meaning of a new word is related to the integrity of the language-related white matter pathways in 40 adults (18 women). The arcuate, uncinate, inferior-fronto-occipital and inferior-longitudinal fasciculi were virtually dissected using manual and automatic deterministic fiber-tracking...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Kazushi Ueshima, Yoshihide Nakamura, Satoru Takeno, Toshiharu Miyake, Tsukasa Takemura
We report a case of a 7-year-old girl with atriofascicular Mahaim (AFM) pathway concomitant with Ebstein's anomaly. The QRS wave showed left bundle branch block pattern on electrocardiogram. Holter electrocardiogram showed prolongation of the PR interval and QRS morphological change during sinus tachycardia. An electrophysiological study demonstrated that the distal His potential appeared earlier than the proximal His potential, which suggested retrograde His conduction toward the atrioventricular node. Conduction from the Mahaim fiber to the His bundle was faster than that from the atrioventricular node towards the His bundle...
October 2017: Journal of Arrhythmia
Joseph Kuchling, Alexander U Brandt, Friedemann Paul, Michael Scheel
The afferent visual pathway represents the most frequently affected white matter pathway in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can reveal microstructural or non-overt brain tissue damage and quantify pathological processes. DTI facilitates the reconstruction of major white matter fiber tracts allowing for the assessment of structure-function and damage-dysfunction relationships. In this review, we outline DTI studies investigating the afferent visual pathway in idiopathic optic neuritis (ON), NMOSD, and MS...
September 2017: EPMA Journal
Begum Erdogan, Mingfang Ao, Lauren M White, Anna L Means, Bryson M Brewer, Lijie Yang, M Kay Washington, Chanjuan Shi, Omar E Franco, Alissa M Weaver, Simon W Hayward, Deyu Li, Donna J Webb
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are major components of the carcinoma microenvironment that promote tumor progression. However, the mechanisms by which CAFs regulate cancer cell migration are poorly understood. In this study, we show that fibronectin (Fn) assembled by CAFs mediates CAF-cancer cell association and directional migration. Compared with normal fibroblasts, CAFs produce an Fn-rich extracellular matrix with anisotropic fiber orientation, which guides the cancer cells to migrate directionally...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
Yu Qin, Joanna Zajda, Elizabeth J Brisbois, Hang Ren, John Toomasian, Terry Major, Alvaro Rojas-Pena, Benjamin Carr, Thomas Johnson, Jonathan Haft, Robert H Bartlett, Andrew Hunt, Nicolai Lehnert, Mark E Meyerhoff
A new portable gas phase nitric oxide (NO) generator is described for potential applications in inhaled NO (INO) therapy and during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery. In this system, NO is produced at the surface of a large area mesh working electrode by electrochemical reduction of nitrite ions in the presence of a soluble copper(II)-ligand electron transfer mediator complex. The NO generated is then transported into gas phase by either direct purging with nitrogen or via circulating the electrolyte/nitrite solution through a gas extraction silicone fiber-based membrane-dialyzer assembly...
October 11, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Tanguy Duval, Victoria Smith, Nikola Stikov, Eric C Klawiter, Julien Cohen-Adad
PURPOSE: Recent MRI techniques have been introduced that can extract microstructural information in the white matter, such as the density or macromolecular content. Translating quantitative MRI to the clinic raises many challenges in terms of acquisition strategy, modeling of the MRI signal, artifact corrections, and metric extraction (template registration and partial volume effects). In this work, we investigated the scan-rescan repeatability of several quantitative MRI techniques in the human spinal cord...
October 10, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
S M Cruzen, L H Baumgard, N K Gabler, S C Pearce, S M Lonergan
Heat stress (HS) is an important topic in the swine industry, costing hundreds of millions of dollars in economic losses annually, figures that could easily rise in light of global climate change. Muscle biology during HS is particularly important given skeletal muscle's large proportion to the body and its ultimate conversion to meat. Here we report the proteomic changes that occur during acute HS (37°C and 40% relative humidity) lasting 2, 4, or 6 h in the muscle sarcoplasm of growing pigs in comparison with 6 h of thermal neutral (TN; 21°C and 70% relative humidity) conditions ( = 8 per treatment)...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
Jie Meng, Lei Hao, Dongtao Wei, Jiangzhou Sun, Yu Li, Jiang Qiu
Loneliness is a common experience. Susceptibility to loneliness is a stable trait and is heritable. Previous studies have suggested that loneliness may impact regional gray matter density and brain activation to social stimuli, but its relation to white matter structure and how it may interact with genetic factors remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether and how a common polymorphism (Val66Met) in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene modulated the association between loneliness and white matter microstructure in 162 young adults...
October 5, 2017: Biological Psychology
Enrico Vitolo, Mona Karina Tatu, Claudia Pignolo, Franco Cauda, Tommaso Costa, Agata Ando', Alessandro Zennaro
Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are the most implemented methodologies to detect alterations of both gray and white matter (WM). However, the role of WM in mental disorders is still not well defined. We aimed at clarifying the role of WM disruption in schizophrenia and at identifying the most frequently involved brain networks. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify VBM and DTI studies focusing on WM alterations in patients with schizophrenia compared to control subjects...
September 23, 2017: Psychiatry Research
Katarina P Lyra, Khallil T Chaim, Claudia C Leite, Eun J Park, Celi S Andrade, Valmir Passarelli, Rosa M F Valério, Carmen L Jorge, Luiz H M Castro, Maria C G Otaduy
OBJECTIVES: To detect by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) the extent of microstructural integrity changes of the corpus callosum (CC) in patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and to evaluate possible association with clinical characteristics. METHODS: Fourty-two patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and HS and 30 control subjects were studied with DTI. We grouped patients according to lesion side (left or right) HS. Mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), radial (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD) were extracted from five segments in CC midsagittal section obtained by automatic segmentation...
September 20, 2017: Epilepsy Research
Robin R White, Mary Beth Hall, Jeffrey L Firkins, Paul J Kononoff
The objective of this work was to leverage equations derived in a meta-analysis into an ensemble modeling system for estimating dietary physical and chemical characteristics required to maintain desired rumen conditions in lactating dairy cattle. Given the availability of data, responsiveness of ruminal pH to animal behaviors, and the chemical composition and physical form of the diet, mean ruminal pH was chosen as the primary rumen environment indicator. Physically effective fiber (peNDF) is defined as the fraction of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) that stimulates chewing activity and contributes to the floating mat of large particles in the rumen...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Robin R White, Mary Beth Hall, Jeffrey L Firkins, Paul J Kononoff
Physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) is the fraction of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) that stimulates chewing activity and contributes to the floating mat of large particles in the rumen. Multiplying dietary NDF by particle size has been used as an estimate of peNDF. In re-evaluating the concept of peNDF, we compared the use of peNDF as dietary NDF × particle size with the use of individual NDF and particle size descriptors (physically adjusted NDF; paNDF) when used with other physical and chemical diet descriptors to predict dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), rumination time, and ruminal pH in lactating dairy cows...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Maria J Molnar, Gabor G Kovacs
Mitochondrial disorders represent a major challenge in medicine. Most of the mitochondrial proteins are encoded by the nuclear DNA (nDNA), whereas a very small fraction is encoded by the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Mutations in mtDNA or mitochondria-related nDNA genes can result in mitochondrial dysfunction. The disease usually affects multiple organs in varying locations and severity; however, there are some forms which affect a single organ. The diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders is based on clinical examination, biochemical and histopathologic examinations, functional studies, and molecular genetic testing...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Marta Gawłowska-Sawosz, Agnieszka Pawełczyk, Piotr Gębski, Tomasz Pawełczyk, Dominik Strzelecki, Jolanta Rabe-Jabłońska
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the project was to assess the differences in the white matter (WM) fiber structure between patients with early onset schizophrenia (EOS), their first degree relatives and controls using Fractional Anisotropy (FA), and an independent evaluation of the severity of working memory disturbances in the study groups. METHODS: The study included 20 patients diagnosed with paranoid EOS (diagnosed before the age of 18), a group of 20 parents of patients, matched for gender, and 18 healthy controls...
August 29, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
Chen-Chang Lee, Shih-Wei Hsu, Chi-Wei Huang, Wen-Neng Chang, Sz-Fan Chen, Ming-Kung Wu, Chiung-Chih Chang, Lain-Chyr Hwang, Po-Chou Chen
BACKGROUND: The clinical features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are related to brain network degeneration, and hyperhomocysteinemia is related to greater white matter hyperintensities. We investigated the changes in four diffusion tensor imaging parameters in the white matter of patients with early stage AD, examined their associations with homocysteine level, and tested the clinical significance of the diffusion tensor imaging parameters and homocysteine level in correlation analysis with cognitive test scores...
October 6, 2017: BMC Neurology
Naomi J Goodrich-Hunsaker, Tracy J Abildskov, Garrett Black, Erin D Bigler, Daniel M Cohen, Leslie K Mihalov, Barbara A Bangert, H Gerry Taylor, Keith O Yeates
Although there are several techniques to analyze diffusion-weighted imaging, any technique must be sufficiently sensitive to detect clinical abnormalities. This is especially critical in disorders like mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), where pathology is likely to be subtle. mTBI represents a major public health concern, especially for youth under 15 years of age. However, the developmental period from birth to 18 years is also a time of tremendous brain changes. Therefore, it is important to establish the degree of age- and sex-related differences...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Hongjie Feng, Yonglin Yang, Shichao Sun, Yanjun Li, Lin Zhang, Jingkui Tian, Qianhao Zhu, Zili Feng, Heqin Zhu, Jie Sun, Qiao Zhao
The pigment components in green cotton fibers were isolated and identified as 22-O-caffeoyl-22-hydroxymonodocosanoin and 22-O-caffeoyl-22-hydroxydocosanoic acid. The concentration of 22-O-caffeoyl-22-hydroxymonodocosanoin correlated positively with the degree of colour in the green fibers, indicating a role for caffeoyl derivatives in the pigmentation of green cotton fibers. Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) contains four genes, Gh4CL1-Gh4CL4, encoding 4-coumarate:CoA ligases (4CLs), key enzymes in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
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