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Neural respiration

Codruţa Lencu, Teodora Alexescu, Mirela Petrulea, Monica Lencu
The control mechanisms of respiration as a vital function are complex: voluntary - cortical, and involuntary - metabolic, neural, emotional and endocrine. Hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides (that act as neurotrasmitters and neuromodulators in the central nervous system) play a role in the regulation of respiration and in bronchopulmonary morphology. This article presents respiratory manifestations in adult endocrine diseases that evolve with hormone deficit or hypersecretion. In hyperthyroidism, patients develop ventilation disorders, obstructive and central sleep apnea, and pleural collection...
2016: Clujul Medical (1957)
Mirjana M Platiša, Tijana Bojić, Siniša U Pavlović, Nikola N Radovanović, Aleksandar Kalauzi
Rearranged origin of heart rhythm in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) influences the regulation of the heart and consequently the respiratory rhythm, and the bidirectional interaction of these rhythms not documented. Hence, we examined coupling of the RR interval and the respiration (Resp) signal by coherence, Granger causality and the cross-sample entropy method of time series analysis in patients with AF and a healthy control group. In healthy subjects, the influence of respiration on cardiac rhythm was found as increased coherence at the breathing frequency (BF) range, significantly stronger interaction and synchrony from Resp to RR than from RR to Resp...
December 1, 2016: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
Zehava Ovadia-Blechman, Benjamin Gavish, Danit Levy-Aharoni, David Shashar, Vered Aharonson
Vasomotion (rhythmic changes in arteriolar diameter) is believed to enhance tissue perfusion at low oxygenation levels. We hypothesized that slow breathing and vasomotion may correlate temporally ("coupling"), especially at low oxygenation levels. We paced down spontaneous breathing to about 5 or 6breaths/min in 14 healthy subjects using device-guided breathing (DGB), and continuously monitored respiration, transcutaneous oxygen pressure ("oxygenation"), and skin capillary blood flow ("microflow") using a laser Doppler flowmeter...
November 2, 2016: Medical Engineering & Physics
Maamer Slimani, David Tod, Helmi Chaabene, Bianca Miarka, Karim Chamari
The aims of the present review were to (i) provide a critical overview of the current literature on the effects of mental imagery on muscular strength in healthy participants and patients with immobilization of the upper extremity (i.e., hand) and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), (ii) identify potential moderators and mediators of the "mental imagery-strength performance" relationship and (iii) determine the relative contribution of electromyography (EMG) and brain activities, neural and physiological adaptations in the mental imagery-strength performance relationship...
September 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Ruyi Huang, Serapio M Baca, Jason W Worrell, Xingquan Liu, Yeji Seo, James C Leiter, Daniel C Lu
Respiration is produced and controlled by well-characterized brain stem nuclei, but the contributions of spinal circuits to respiratory control and modulation remain under investigation. Many respiratory studies are conducted in in vitro preparations (e.g., brain stem slice) obtained from neonatal rodents. While informative, these studies do not fully recapitulate the complex afferent and efferent neural circuits that are likely to be involved in eupnea (i.e., quiet breathing). To begin to investigate spinal contributions to respiration, we electrically stimulated the cervical spinal cord during unassisted respiration in anesthetized, intact mice...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Estate M Sokhadze, Manuel F Casanova, Allan Tasman, Sally Brockett
Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder of childhood characterized by deficits in social interaction, language, and stereotyped behaviors along with a restricted range of interests. It is further marked by an inability to perceive and respond to social and emotional signals in a typical manner. This might due to the functional disconnectivity of networks important for specific aspects of social cognition and behavioral control resulting in deficits of sensory information integration. According to several recent theories sensory processing and integration abnormalities may play an important role in impairments of perception, cognition, and behavior in individuals with autism...
August 29, 2016: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
Kianoush Missaghi, Jean-Patrick Le Gal, Paul A Gray, Réjean Dubuc
This review focuses on past and recent findings that have contributed to characterize the neural networks controlling respiration in the lamprey, a basal vertebrate. As in other vertebrates, respiration in lampreys is generated centrally in the brainstem. It is characterized by the presence of a fast and a slow respiratory rhythm. The anatomical and the basic physiological properties of the neural networks underlying the generation of the fast rhythm have been more thoroughly investigated; less is known about the generation of the slow respiratory rhythm...
August 22, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Shigefumi Yokota, Tatsuro Oka, Hirohiko Asano, Yukihiko Yasui
The neural pathways underlying the respiratory variation dependent on vigilance states remain unsettled. In the present study, we examined the orexinergic innervation of Kölliker-Fuse nucleus (KFN) neurons sending their axons to the rostral ventral respiratory group (rVRG) and phrenic nucleus (PhN) as well as to the hypoglossal nucleus (HGN) by using a combined retrograde tracing and immunohistochemistry. After injection of cholera toxin B subunit (CTb) into the KFN, CTb-labeled neurons that are also immunoreactive for orexin (ORX) were found prominently in the perifornical and medial regions and additionally in the lateral region of the hypothalamic ORX field...
October 1, 2016: Brain Research
Mariana Babo-Rebelo, Craig G Richter, Catherine Tallon-Baudry
UNLABELLED: The default network (DN) has been consistently associated with self-related cognition, but also to bodily state monitoring and autonomic regulation. We hypothesized that these two seemingly disparate functional roles of the DN are functionally coupled, in line with theories proposing that selfhood is grounded in the neural monitoring of internal organs, such as the heart. We measured with magnetoencephalograhy neural responses evoked by heartbeats while human participants freely mind-wandered...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Teng-Wei Huang, Mikhail Y Kochukov, Christopher S Ward, Jonathan Merritt, Kaitlin Thomas, Tiffani Nguyen, Benjamin R Arenkiel, Jeffrey L Neul
UNLABELLED: Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2). Severe breathing abnormalities are common in RTT and are reproduced in mouse models of RTT. Previously, we found that removing MeCP2 from the brainstem and spinal cord in mice caused early lethality and abnormal breathing. To determine whether loss of MeCP2 in functional components of the respiratory network causes specific breathing disorders, we used the Cre/LoxP system to differentially manipulate MeCP2 expression throughout the brainstem respiratory network, specifically within HoxA4-derived tissues, which include breathing control circuitry within the nucleus tractus solitarius and the caudal part of ventral respiratory column but do not include more rostral parts of the breathing control circuitry...
May 18, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Pierre-Emmanuel Leni, Rémy Laurent, Michel Salomon, Régine Gschwind, Libor Makovicka, Julien Henriet
Respiratory movement information is useful for radiation therapy, and is generally obtained using 4D scanners (4DCT). In the interest of patient safety, reducing the use of 4DCT could be a significant step in reducing radiation exposure, the effects of which are not well documented. The authors propose a customized 4D numerical phantom representing the organ contours. Firstly, breathing movement can be simulated and customized according to the patient's anthroporadiametric data. Using learning sets constituted by 4D scanners, artificial neural networks can be trained to interpolate the lung contours corresponding to an unknown patient, and then to simulate its respiration...
June 2016: Physica Medica: PM
Yan Tang, Binping Luo, Zhili Deng, Ben Wang, Fangfen Liu, Jinmao Li, Wei Shi, Hongfu Xie, Xingwang Hu, Ji Li
Background. Emerging research revealed the essential role of mitochondria in regulating stem/progenitor cell differentiation of neural progenitor cells, mesenchymal stem cells and other stem cells through reactive oxygen species (ROS), Notch or other signaling pathway. Inhibition of mitochondrial protein synthesis results in hair loss upon injury. However, alteration of mitochondrial morphology and metabolic function during hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) differentiation and how they affect hair regeneration has not been elaborated upon...
2016: PeerJ
Limin Zhu, Zhuoming Xu, Xiaolei Gong, Jinghao Zheng, Yanjun Sun, Liping Liu, Lu Han, Haibo Zhang, Zhiwei Xu, Jinfen Liu, Peter C Rimensberger
We evaluated the effects of different respiratory assist modes on cerebral blood flow (CBF) and arterial oxygenation in single-ventricle patients after bidirectional superior cavopulmonary anastomosis (BCPA). We hypothesized that preserved auto-regulation of respiration during neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) may have potential advantages for CBF and pulmonary blood flow regulation after the BCPA procedure. We enrolled 23 patients scheduled for BCPA, who underwent pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV), pressure support ventilation (PSV), and NAVA at two assist levels for all modes in a randomized order...
August 2016: Pediatric Cardiology
Yuya Goto, Shinshu Katayama, Atsuko Shono, Yosuke Mori, Yuya Miyazaki, Yoko Sato, Makoto Ozaki, Toru Kotani
BACKGROUND: Patient-ventilator asynchrony is a major cause of difficult weaning from mechanical ventilation. Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) is reported useful to improve the synchrony in patients with sustained low lung compliance. However, the role of NAVA has not been fully investigated. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient was a 63-year-old Japanese man with acute respiratory distress syndrome secondary to respiratory infection. He was treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for 7 days and survived...
2016: Journal of Intensive Care
Nima Noury, Joerg F Hipp, Markus Siegel
Transcranial electric stimulation (tES) is a promising tool to non-invasively manipulate neuronal activity in the human brain. Several studies have shown behavioral effects of tES, but stimulation artifacts complicate the simultaneous investigation of neural activity with EEG or MEG. Here, we first show for EEG and MEG, that contrary to previous assumptions, artifacts do not simply reflect stimulation currents, but that heartbeat and respiration non-linearly modulate stimulation artifacts. These modulations occur irrespective of the stimulation frequency, i...
October 15, 2016: NeuroImage
Bartholomew J Bacak, Joshua Segaran, Yaroslav I Molkov
There are many types of neurons that intrinsically generate rhythmic bursting activity, even when isolated, and these neurons underlie several specific motor behaviors. Rhythmic neurons that drive the inspiratory phase of respiration are located in the medullary pre-Bötzinger Complex (pre-BötC). However, it is not known if their rhythmic bursting is the result of intrinsic mechanisms or synaptic interactions. In many cases, for bursting to occur, the excitability of these neurons needs to be elevated. This excitation is provided in vitro (e...
April 2016: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
Freddy Jeanneteau, Margarita Arango-Lievano
The brain evolved cellular mechanisms for adapting synaptic function to energy supply. This is particularly evident when homeostasis is challenged by stress. Signaling loops between the mitochondria and synapses scale neuronal connectivity with bioenergetics capacity. A biphasic "inverted U shape" response to the stress hormone glucocorticoids is demonstrated in mitochondria and at synapses, modulating neural plasticity and physiological responses. Low dose enhances neurotransmission, synaptic growth, mitochondrial functions, learning, and memory whereas chronic, higher doses produce inhibition of these functions...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Brent Shell, Katelynn Faulk, J Thomas Cunningham
Sleep apnea (SA) is increasing in prevalence and is commonly comorbid with hypertension. Chronic intermittent hypoxia is used to model the arterial hypoxemia seen in SA, and through this paradigm, the mechanisms that underlie SA-induced hypertension are becoming clear. Cyclic hypoxic exposure during sleep chronically stimulates the carotid chemoreflexes, inducing sensory long-term facilitation, and drives sympathetic outflow from the hindbrain. The elevated sympathetic tone drives hypertension and renal sympathetic activity to the kidneys resulting in increased plasma renin activity and eventually angiotensin II (Ang II) peripherally...
March 2016: Current Hypertension Reports
Jean-Patrick Le Gal, Laurent Juvin, Laura Cardoit, Didier Morin
Neural networks that can generate rhythmic motor output in the absence of sensory feedback, commonly called central pattern generators (CPGs), are involved in many vital functions such as locomotion or respiration. In certain circumstances, these neural networks must interact to produce coordinated motor behavior adapted to environmental constraints and to satisfy the basic needs of an organism. In this context, we recently reported the existence of an ascending excitatory influence from lumbar locomotor CPG circuitry to the medullary respiratory networks that is able to depolarize neurons of the parafacial respiratory group during fictive locomotion and to subsequently induce an increased respiratory rhythmicity (Le Gal et al...
January 20, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Danny Cantin, Djamal Djeddi, Vincent Carrière, Nathalie Samson, Stéphanie Nault, Wan Lu Jia, Jennifer Beck, Jean-Paul Praud
Non-invasive intermittent positive pressure ventilation can lead to esophageal insufflations and in turn to gastric distension. The fact that the latter induces transient relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter implies that it may increase gastroesophageal refluxes. We previously reported that nasal Pressure Support Ventilation (nPSV), contrary to nasal Neurally-Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (nNAVA), triggers active inspiratory laryngeal closure. This suggests that esophageal insufflations are more frequent in nPSV than in nNAVA...
2016: PloS One
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