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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423196/melatonin-enhances-neural-stem-cell-differentiation-and-engraftment-by-increasing-mitochondrial-function
#1
Miguel Mendivil-Perez, Viviana Soto-Mercado, Ana Guerra-Librero, Beatriz I Fernandez-Gil, Javier Florido, Ying-Qiang Shen, Miguel A Tejada, Vivian Capilla-Gonzalez, Iryna Rusanova, José M Garcia-Verdugo, Darío Acuña-Castroviejo, Luis Carlos López, Carlos Velez-Pardo, Marlene Jimenez-Del-Rio, José M Ferrer, Germaine Escames
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are regarded as a promising therapeutic approach to protecting and restoring damaged neurons in neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease (PD and AD, respectively). However, new research suggests that NSC differentiation is required to make this strategy effective. Several studies have demonstrated that melatonin increases mature neuronal markers, which reflects NSC differentiation into neurons. Nevertheless, the possible involvement of mitochondria in the effects of melatonin during NSC differentiation has not yet been fully established...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414908/an-experimental-computational-study-of-carbon-nanotubes-effects-on-mitochondrial-respiration-in-silico-nano-qspr-machine-learning-models-based-on-new-raman-spectra-transform-with-markov-shannon-entropy-invariants
#2
Michael González-Durruthy, Luciane Carla Alberici, Zeki Naal, David T Atique-Sawazaki, Carlos Curti, José Manuel Vázquez-Naya, Humbert Gonzalez-Diaz, Cristian Robert Munteanu
The study of selective toxicity of carbon nanotubes (CNT) on mitochondria (CNT-mitotoxicity) is of major interest for future biomedical applications. In the current work, the mitochondrial oxygen consumption (E3) is measured under three experimental conditions by exposure to pristine and oxidized CNTs (hydroxylated and carboxylated). Respiratory functional assays showed that the information of the CNT-Raman spectroscopy could be useful to predict structural parameters of mitotoxicity induced by CNTs. The in vitro functional assays show that the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation by ATP-synthase (or state V3 of respiration) was not perturbed in isolated rat-liver mitochondria...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349944/discrimination-of-stem-cell-status-after-subjecting-cynomolgus-monkey-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-na%C3%A3-ve-conversion
#3
Arata Honda, Yoshihiro Kawano, Haruna Izu, Narantsog Choijookhuu, Kimiko Honsho, Tomonori Nakamura, Yukihiro Yabuta, Takuya Yamamoto, Yasuhiro Takashima, Michiko Hirose, Tadashi Sankai, Yoshitaka Hishikawa, Atsuo Ogura, Mitinori Saitou
Experimental animal models have played an indispensable role in the development of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) research. The derivation of high-quality (so-called "true naïve state") iPSCs of non-human primates enhances their application and safety for human regenerative medicine. Although several attempts have been made to convert human and non-human primate PSCs into a truly naïve state, it is unclear which evaluation methods can discriminate them as being truly naïve. Here we attempted to derive naïve cynomolgus monkey (Cm) (Macaca fascicularis) embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and iPSCs...
March 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286181/amplifying-mitochondrial-function-rescues-adult-neurogenesis-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Kevin Richetin, Manon Moulis, Aurélie Millet, Macarena S Arràzola, Trinovita Andraini, Jennifer Hua, Noélie Davezac, Laurent Roybon, Pascale Belenguer, Marie-Christine Miquel, Claire Rampon
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is strongly impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In several mouse models of AD, it was shown that adult-born neurons exhibit reduced survival and altered synaptic integration due to a severe lack of dendritic spines. In the present work, using the APPxPS1 mouse model of AD, we reveal that this reduced number of spines is concomitant of a marked deficit in their neuronal mitochondrial content. Remarkably, we show that targeting the overexpression of the pro-neural transcription factor Neurod1 into APPxPS1 adult-born neurons restores not only their dendritic spine density, but also their mitochondrial content and the proportion of spines associated with mitochondria...
June 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268431/exploratory-analysis-of-nonlinear-coupling-between-eeg-global-field-power-and-end-tidal-carbon-dioxide-in-free-breathing-and-breath-hold-tasks
#5
Maria Sole Morelli, Gaetano Valenza, Alberto Greco, Alberto Giannoni, Claudio Passino, Michele Emdin, Enzo Pasquale Scilingo, Nicola Vanello
Brain activations underlying control of breathing are not completely known. Furthermore, the coupling between neural and respiratory dynamics is usually estimated through linear correlation measures, thus totally disregarding possible underlying nonlinear interactions. To overcome these limitations, in this preliminary study we propose a nonlinear coupling analysis of simultaneous recordings of electroencephalographic (EEG) and respiratory signals at rest and after variation of carbon dioxide (CO2) level. Specifically, a CO2 increase was induced by a voluntary breath hold task...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238795/reversal-of-phenotypic-abnormalities-by-crispr-cas9-mediated-gene-correction-in-huntington-disease-patient-derived-induced-pluripotent-stem%C3%A2-cells
#6
Xiaohong Xu, Yilin Tay, Bernice Sim, Su-In Yoon, Yihui Huang, Jolene Ooi, Kagistia Hana Utami, Amin Ziaei, Bryan Ng, Carola Radulescu, Donovan Low, Alvin Yu Jin Ng, Marie Loh, Byrappa Venkatesh, Florent Ginhoux, George J Augustine, Mahmoud A Pouladi
Huntington disease (HD) is a dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in HTT. Here we report correction of HD human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) using a CRISPR-Cas9 and piggyBac transposon-based approach. We show that both HD and corrected isogenic hiPSCs can be differentiated into excitable, synaptically active forebrain neurons. We further demonstrate that phenotypic abnormalities in HD hiPSC-derived neural cells, including impaired neural rosette formation, increased susceptibility to growth factor withdrawal, and deficits in mitochondrial respiration, are rescued in isogenic controls...
March 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226601/exploratory-analysis-of-nonlinear-coupling-between-eeg-global-field-power-and-end-tidal-carbon-dioxide-in-free-breathing-and-breath-hold-tasks
#7
Maria Sole Morelli, Gaetano Valenza, Alberto Greco, Alberto Giannoni, Claudio Passino, Michele Emdin, Enzo Pasquale Scilingo, Nicola Vanello, Maria Sole Morelli, Gaetano Valenza, Alberto Greco, Alberto Giannoni, Claudio Passino, Michele Emdin, Enzo Pasquale Scilingo, Nicola Vanello, Maria Sole Morelli, Claudio Passino, Alberto Greco, Nicola Vanello, Gaetano Valenza, Alberto Giannoni, Michele Emdin, Enzo Pasquale Scilingo
Brain activations underlying control of breathing are not completely known. Furthermore, the coupling between neural and respiratory dynamics is usually estimated through linear correlation measures, thus totally disregarding possible underlying nonlinear interactions. To overcome these limitations, in this preliminary study we propose a nonlinear coupling analysis of simultaneous recordings of electroencephalographic (EEG) and respiratory signals at rest and after variation of carbon dioxide (CO2) level. Specifically, a CO2 increase was induced by a voluntary breath hold task...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139935/systemic-activation-of-toll-like-receptor-2-suppresses-mitochondrial-respiration-and-exacerbates-hypoxic-ischemic-injury-in-the-developing-brain
#8
Amin Mottahedin, Pernilla Svedin, Syam Nair, Carl-Johan Mohn, Xiaoyang Wang, Henrik Hagberg, Joakim Ek, Carina Mallard
Infection and inflammation are known risk factors for neonatal brain injury. Mycoplasma and Gram-positive bacteria, for which Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) plays a key role in recognition and inflammatory response, are among the most common pathogens in the perinatal period. Here, we report that systemic activation of TLR2 by Pam3CSK4 (P3C) increases neural tissue loss and demyelination induced by subsequent hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in neonatal mice. High-resolution respirometry of brain isolated mitochondria revealed that P3C suppresses ADP-induced oxidative phosphorylation, the main pathway of cellular energy production...
April 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103744/strategies-to-enhance-implantation-and-survival-of-stem-cells-after-their-injection-in-ischemic-neural-tissue
#9
Ioanna Sandvig, Ivana Gadjanski, Marija Vlaski-Lafarge, Leonora Buzanska, Darija Loncaric, Ana Sarnowska, Laura Rodriguez, Axel Sandvig, Zoran Ivanovic
High post-transplantation cell mortality is the main limitation of various approaches that are aimed at improving regeneration of injured neural tissue by an injection of neural stem cells (NSCs) and mesenchymal stromal cells (MStroCs) in and/or around the lesion. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to identify efficient ways to increase cell transplant viability. We have previously proposed the "evolutionary stem cell paradigm," which explains the association between stem cell anaerobic/microaerophilic metabolic set-up and stem cell self-renewal and inhibition of differentiation...
April 15, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095617/probing-forebrain-to-hindbrain-circuit-functions-in-xenopus
#10
REVIEW
Darcy B Kelley, Taffeta M Elliott, Ben J Evans, Ian C Hall, Elizabeth C Leininger, Heather J Rhodes, Ayako Yamaguchi, Erik Zornik
The vertebrate hindbrain includes neural circuits that govern essential functions including breathing, blood pressure and heart rate. Hindbrain circuits also participate in generating rhythmic motor patterns for vocalization. In most tetrapods, sound production is powered by expiration and the circuitry underlying vocalization and respiration must be linked. Perception and arousal are also linked; acoustic features of social communication sounds-for example, a baby's cry-can drive autonomic responses. The close links between autonomic functions that are essential for life and vocal expression have been a major in vivo experimental challenge...
January 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089918/cardiovascular-and-respiratory-activity-of-pk20-opioid-and-neurotensin-hybrid-peptide-in-anesthetized-and-awake-rats
#11
Katarzyna Kaczyńska, Piotr Wojciechowski, Monika Jampolska, Andrzej W Lipkowski, Patrycja Kleczkowska
AIM: Chimeric compound - PK20 despite its therapeutic activity on nociceptive and inflammatory processes may affect respiration and blood pressure. Our objective was to evaluate influence of the hybrid composed of endomorphin-2 and neurotensin fragments on ventilation, heart rate and blood pressure in anesthetized and awake rats. METHODS: The effects of PK20 (1mg/kg) were studied either after its intravenous administration in anesthetized rats or intraperitoneal injection in awake state...
February 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066829/the-multifaceted-role-of-nrf2-in-mitochondrial-function
#12
REVIEW
Kira M Holmström, Rumen V Kostov, Albena T Dinkova-Kostova
The transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is the master regulator of the cellular redox homeostasis. Nrf2 target genes comprise of a large network of antioxidant enzymes, proteins involved in xenobiotic detoxification, repair and removal of damaged proteins, inhibition of inflammation, as well as other transcription factors. In recent years it has emerged that as part of its role as a regulator of cytoprotective gene expression, Nrf2 impacts mitochondrial function. Increased Nrf2 activity defends against mitochondrial toxins...
December 2016: Curr Opin Toxicol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046376/su-f-e-09-respiratory-signal-prediction-based-on-multi-layer-perceptron-neural-network-using-adjustable-training-samples
#13
W Sun, M Jiang, F Yin
PURPOSE: Dynamic tracking of moving organs, such as lung and liver tumors, under radiation therapy requires prediction of organ motions prior to delivery. The shift of moving organ may change a lot due to huge transform of respiration at different periods. This study aims to reduce the influence of that changes using adjustable training signals and multi-layer perceptron neural network (ASMLP). METHODS: Respiratory signals obtained using a Real-time Position Management(RPM) device were used for this study...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857512/respiratory-manifestations-in-endocrine-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Codruţa Lencu, Teodora Alexescu, Mirela Petrulea, Monica Lencu
The control mechanisms of respiration as a vital function are complex: voluntary - cortical, and involuntary - metabolic, neural, emotional and endocrine. Hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides (that act as neurotrasmitters and neuromodulators in the central nervous system) play a role in the regulation of respiration and in bronchopulmonary morphology. This article presents respiratory manifestations in adult endocrine diseases that evolve with hormone deficit or hypersecretion. In hyperthyroidism, patients develop ventilation disorders, obstructive and central sleep apnea, and pleural collection...
2016: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824611/uncoupling-of-cardiac-and-respiratory-rhythm-in-atrial-fibrillation
#15
Mirjana M Platiša, Tijana Bojić, Siniša U Pavlović, Nikola N Radovanović, Aleksandar Kalauzi
Rearranged origin of heart rhythm in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) influences the regulation of the heart and consequently the respiratory rhythm, and the bidirectional interaction of these rhythms not documented. Hence, we examined coupling of the RR interval and the respiration (Resp) signal by coherence, Granger causality and the cross-sample entropy method of time series analysis in patients with AF and a healthy control group. In healthy subjects, the influence of respiration on cardiac rhythm was found as increased coherence at the breathing frequency (BF) range, significantly stronger interaction and synchrony from Resp to RR than from RR to Resp...
December 1, 2016: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816391/the-coupling-between-peripheral-microcirculation-and-slow-breathing
#16
Zehava Ovadia-Blechman, Benjamin Gavish, Danit Levy-Aharoni, David Shashar, Vered Aharonson
Vasomotion (rhythmic changes in arteriolar diameter) is believed to enhance tissue perfusion at low oxygenation levels. We hypothesized that slow breathing and vasomotion may correlate temporally ("coupling"), especially at low oxygenation levels. We paced down spontaneous breathing to about 5 or 6breaths/min in 14 healthy subjects using device-guided breathing (DGB), and continuously monitored respiration, transcutaneous oxygen pressure ("oxygenation"), and skin capillary blood flow ("microflow") using a laser Doppler flowmeter...
January 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803622/effects-of-mental-imagery-on-muscular-strength-in-healthy-and-patient-participants-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Maamer Slimani, David Tod, Helmi Chaabene, Bianca Miarka, Karim Chamari
The aims of the present review were to (i) provide a critical overview of the current literature on the effects of mental imagery on muscular strength in healthy participants and patients with immobilization of the upper extremity (i.e., hand) and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), (ii) identify potential moderators and mediators of the "mental imagery-strength performance" relationship and (iii) determine the relative contribution of electromyography (EMG) and brain activities, neural and physiological adaptations in the mental imagery-strength performance relationship...
September 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763875/modulation-of-respiratory-output-by-cervical-epidural-stimulation-in-the-anesthetized-mouse
#18
Ruyi Huang, Serapio M Baca, Jason W Worrell, Xingquan Liu, Yeji Seo, James C Leiter, Daniel C Lu
Respiration is produced and controlled by well-characterized brain stem nuclei, but the contributions of spinal circuits to respiratory control and modulation remain under investigation. Many respiratory studies are conducted in in vitro preparations (e.g., brain stem slice) obtained from neonatal rodents. While informative, these studies do not fully recapitulate the complex afferent and efferent neural circuits that are likely to be involved in eupnea (i.e., quiet breathing). To begin to investigate spinal contributions to respiration, we electrically stimulated the cervical spinal cord during unassisted respiration in anesthetized, intact mice...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573986/electrophysiological-and-behavioral-outcomes-of-berard-auditory-integration-training-ait-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Estate M Sokhadze, Manuel F Casanova, Allan Tasman, Sally Brockett
Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder of childhood characterized by deficits in social interaction, language, and stereotyped behaviors along with a restricted range of interests. It is further marked by an inability to perceive and respond to social and emotional signals in a typical manner. This might due to the functional disconnectivity of networks important for specific aspects of social cognition and behavioral control resulting in deficits of sensory information integration. According to several recent theories sensory processing and integration abnormalities may play an important role in impairments of perception, cognition, and behavior in individuals with autism...
August 29, 2016: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562521/the-neural-control-of-respiration-in-lampreys
#20
Kianoush Missaghi, Jean-Patrick Le Gal, Paul A Gray, Réjean Dubuc
This review focuses on past and recent findings that have contributed to characterize the neural networks controlling respiration in the lamprey, a basal vertebrate. As in other vertebrates, respiration in lampreys is generated centrally in the brainstem. It is characterized by the presence of a fast and a slow respiratory rhythm. The anatomical and the basic physiological properties of the neural networks underlying the generation of the fast rhythm have been more thoroughly investigated; less is known about the generation of the slow respiratory rhythm...
August 22, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
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