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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466734/pharmacological-inhibition-of-necroptosis-protects-from-dopaminergic-neuronal-cell-death-in-parkinson-s-disease-models
#1
Angelo Iannielli, Simone Bido, Lucrezia Folladori, Alice Segnali, Cinzia Cancellieri, Alessandra Maresca, Luca Massimino, Alicia Rubio, Giuseppe Morabito, Leonardo Caporali, Francesca Tagliavini, Olimpia Musumeci, Giuliana Gregato, Erwan Bezard, Valerio Carelli, Valeria Tiranti, Vania Broccoli
Dysfunctions in mitochondrial dynamics and metabolism are common pathological processes associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). It was recently shown that an inherited form of PD and dementia is caused by mutations in the OPA1 gene, which encodes for a key player in mitochondrial fusion and structure. iPSC-derived neural cells from these patients exhibited severe mitochondrial fragmentation, respiration impairment, ATP deficits, and heightened oxidative stress. Reconstitution of normal levels of OPA1 in PD-derived neural cells normalized mitochondria morphology and function...
February 20, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462148/vocal-development-through-morphological-computation
#2
Yisi S Zhang, Asif A Ghazanfar
The vocal behavior of infants changes dramatically during early life. Whether or not such a change results from the growth of the body during development-as opposed to solely neural changes-has rarely been investigated. In this study of vocal development in marmoset monkeys, we tested the putative causal relationship between bodily growth and vocal development (without the need to invoke neural growth). During the first two months of life, the spontaneous vocalizations of marmosets undergo (1) a gradual disappearance of context-inappropriate call types and (2) an elongation in the duration of context-appropriate contact calls...
February 20, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457122/a-case-of-spinal-anesthesia-in-a-patient-with-progressive-supranuclear-palsy
#3
Momoka Tonan, Moritoki Egi, Nana Furushima, Satoshi Mizobuchi
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is one of the rare diseases. PSP is characterized by oculomotor dysfunction, postural instability, akinesia, dysarthria, and dysphagia. The major cause of death in patients with PSP is aspiration pneumonia. Considering these complications, spinal anesthesia is useful in patients with PSP. However, the potential harmful effects of spinal anesthesia including neurotoxicity of local anesthetics and neurologic complications for patients with PSP are unclear, because there has been no report...
2018: JA Clin Rep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443448/an-intraneural-electrode-for-bioelectronic-medicines-for-treatment-of-hypertension
#4
Cristian Sevcencu, Thomas N Nielsen, Johannes J Struijk
OBJECTIVES: As the left vagus nerve (LVN) mediates a baroreflex blood pressure (BP) decrease, LVN stimulation (LVNS) could be a therapy for hypertension. Moreover, LVNS could elegantly be adjusted to the patient's actual BP and physical activity by using the neural information about BP and respiration extractable from LVN. However, unselective LVNS will trigger undesirable side-effects and therefore we here investigated the feasibility of using an intraneural electrode for extracting BP and respiration markers from the LVN and for selective LVNS...
February 14, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378955/neuronal-control-of-astrocytic-respiration-through-a-variant-of-the-crabtree-effect
#5
Ignacio Fernández-Moncada, Iván Ruminot, Daniel Robles-Maldonado, Karin Alegría, Joachim W Deitmer, L Felipe Barros
Aerobic glycolysis is a phenomenon that in the long term contributes to synaptic formation and growth, is reduced by normal aging, and correlates with amyloid beta deposition. Aerobic glycolysis starts within seconds of neural activity and it is not obvious why energetic efficiency should be compromised precisely when energy demand is highest. Using genetically encoded FRET nanosensors and real-time oxygen measurements in culture and in hippocampal slices, we show here that astrocytes respond to physiological extracellular K+ with an acute rise in cytosolic ATP and a parallel inhibition of oxygen consumption, explained by glycolytic stimulation via the Na+-bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1...
January 29, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335031/respiration-pattern-variability-and-related-default-mode-network-connectivity-are-altered-in-remitted-depression
#6
Vera Eva Zamoscik, Stephanie Nicole Lyn Schmidt, Martin Fungisai Gerchen, Christos Samsouris, Christina Timm, Christine Kuehner, Peter Kirsch
BACKGROUND: Studies with healthy participants and patients with respiratory diseases suggest a relation between respiration and mood. The aim of the present analyses was to investigate whether emotionally challenged remitted depressed participants show higher respiration pattern variability (RPV) and whether this is related to mood, clinical outcome and increased default mode network connectivity. METHODS: To challenge participants, sad mood was induced with keywords of personal negative life events in individuals with remitted depression [recurrent major depressive disorder (rMDD), n = 30] and matched healthy controls (HCs, n = 30) during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
January 16, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314417/a-nestin-cdk5-drp1-axis-regulates-neural-stem-progenitor-cell-stemness-via-a-metabolic-shift
#7
Jiancheng Wang, Yinong Huang, Jianye Cai, Qiong Ke, Jiaqi Xiao, Weijun Huang, Hongyu Li, Yuan Qiu, Yi Wang, Bin Zhang, Haoxiang Wu, Yanan Zhang, Xin Sui, Adham Sameer A Bardeesi, Andy Peng Xiang
Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) transplantation provides an alternative approach for various central nervous system (CNS) diseases treatment, while the difficulties in NSPC acquisition and expansion limit their further application. Unveiling the mechanism of NSPC stemness regulation may contribute to its further application. Nestin, generally recognized as a marker of NSPCs, plays a crucial role in the CNS development and NSPC stemness maintenance. Here, we report that Nestin loss triggers mitochondrial network remodeling and enhances oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in NSPCs treated with Nestin RNA interference (RNAi)...
January 3, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212921/bold-temporal-variability-differentiates-wakefulness-from-anesthesia-induced-unconsciousness
#8
Alex T Baria, Maria Virginia Centeno, Mariam E Ghantous, Pei-Ching Chang, Daniele Procissi, A Vania Apkarian
Even though a number of findings, based on information content or information integration, are shown to define neural underpinnings characteristic of a conscious experience, the neurophysiological mechanism of consciousness is still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the brain activity and functional connectivity changes that occur in the isoflurane anesthetized unconscious state in contrast to the awake-state in rats (awake and/or anesthetized n=68 rats). We examined nine information measures previously shown to distinguish between conscious states; BOLD variability, functional connectivity strength, modularity, weighted modularity, efficiency, clustering coefficient, small-worldness, and spatial and temporal Lempel-Ziv complexity measure...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203032/detection-and-prediction-of-driver-drowsiness-using-artificial-neural-network-models
#9
Charlotte Jacobé de Naurois, Christophe Bourdin, Anca Stratulat, Emmanuelle Diaz, Jean-Louis Vercher
Not just detecting but also predicting impairment of a car driver's operational state is a challenge. This study aims to determine whether the standard sources of information used to detect drowsiness can also be used to predict when a given drowsiness level will be reached. Moreover, we explore whether adding data such as driving time and participant information improves the accuracy of detection and prediction of drowsiness. Twenty-one participants drove a car simulator for 110min under conditions optimized to induce drowsiness...
December 1, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191863/exposure-to-co2-influences-metabolism-calcification-and-gene-expression-of-the-thecosome-pteropod-limacina-retroversa
#10
Amy E Maas, Gareth L Lawson, Alexander J Bergan, Ann M Tarrant
Thecosomatous pteropods, a group of aragonite shell-bearing zooplankton, are becoming an important sentinel organism for understanding the influence of ocean acidification on pelagic organisms. These animals show vulnerability to changing carbonate chemistry conditions, are geographically widespread, and are both biogeochemically and trophically important. The objective of this study was to determine how increasing duration and severity of CO2 treatment influence the physiology of the thecosome Limacina retroversa, integrating both gene expression and organism-level (respiration and calcification) metrics...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182746/experiences-of-persons-with-parkinson-s-disease-engaged-in-group-therapeutic-singing
#11
Elizabeth L Stegemöller, Tera R Hurt, Margaret C O'Connor, Randie D Camp, Chrishelda W Green, Jenna C Pattee, Ebony K Williams
Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that leads to altered neural control of movement, including the control of voice, respiration, and swallowing. There is a prevalent need to provide therapy for voice, respiration, and swallowing difficulties because current pharmacological and surgical treatments do not effectively treat these impairments. Previous research has demonstrated that singing may be a treatment option to target voice, respiratory, and swallowing impairments, as well as quality of life...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Music Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180355/photoreceptor-glucose-metabolism-determines-normal-retinal-vascular-growth
#12
Zhongjie Fu, Chatarina A Löfqvist, Raffael Liegl, Zhongxiao Wang, Ye Sun, Yan Gong, Chi-Hsiu Liu, Steven S Meng, Samuel B Burnim, Ivana Arellano, My T Chouinard, Rubi Duran, Alexander Poblete, Steve S Cho, James D Akula, Michael Kinter, David Ley, Ingrid Hansen Pupp, Saswata Talukdar, Ann Hellström, Lois Eh Smith
The neural cells and factors determining normal vascular growth are not well defined even though vision-threatening neovessel growth, a major cause of blindness in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) (and diabetic retinopathy), is driven by delayed normal vascular growth. We here examined whether hyperglycemia and low adiponectin (APN) levels delayed normal retinal vascularization, driven primarily by dysregulated photoreceptor metabolism. In premature infants, low APN levels correlated with hyperglycemia and delayed retinal vascular formation...
November 27, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158992/hrv-derived-data-similarity-and-distribution-index-based-on-ensemble-neural-network-for-measuring-depth-of-anaesthesia
#13
Quan Liu, Li Ma, Ren-Chun Chiu, Shou-Zen Fan, Maysam F Abbod, Jiann-Shing Shieh
Evaluation of depth of anaesthesia (DoA) is critical in clinical surgery. Indices derived from electroencephalogram (EEG) are currently widely used to quantify DoA. However, there are known to be inaccurate under certain conditions; therefore, experienced anaesthesiologists rely on the monitoring of vital signs such as body temperature, pulse rate, respiration rate, and blood pressure to control the procedure. Because of the lack of an ideal approach for quantifying level of consciousness, studies have been conducted to develop improved methods of measuring DoA...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155079/analyzing-eeg-and-meg-signals-recorded-during-tes-a-reply
#14
Nima Noury, Markus Siegel
Transcranial Electric Stimulation (tES) is a widely used non-invasive brain stimulation technique. However, strong stimulation artifacts complicate the investigation of neural activity with EEG or MEG during tES. Thus, studying brain signals during tES requires detailed knowledge about the properties of these artifacts. Recently, we characterized the phase- and amplitude-relationship between tES stimulation currents and tES artifacts in EEG and MEG and provided a mathematical model of these artifacts (Noury and Siegel, 2017, and Noury et al...
November 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133427/phasic-inhibition-as-a-mechanism-for-generation-of-rapid-respiratory-rhythms
#15
Jared M Cregg, Kevin A Chu, Thomas E Dick, Lynn T Landmesser, Jerry Silver
Central neural networks operate continuously throughout life to control respiration, yet mechanisms regulating ventilatory frequency are poorly understood. Inspiration is generated by the pre-Bötzinger complex of the ventrolateral medulla, where it is thought that excitation increases inspiratory frequency and inhibition causes apnea. To test this model, we used an in vitro optogenetic approach to stimulate select populations of hindbrain neurons and characterize how they modulate frequency. Unexpectedly, we found that inhibition was required for increases in frequency caused by stimulation of Phox2b-lineage, putative CO2-chemosensitive neurons...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107300/adult-neural-stem-cell-fate-is-determined-by-thyroid-hormone-activation-of-mitochondrial-metabolism
#16
J D Gothié, A Sébillot, C Luongo, M Legendre, C Nguyen Van, K Le Blay, M Perret-Jeanneret, S Remaud, B A Demeneix
OBJECTIVE: In the adult brain, neural stem cells (NSCs) located in the subventricular zone (SVZ) produce both neuronal and glial cells. Thyroid hormones (THs) regulate adult NSC differentiation towards a neuronal phenotype, but also have major roles in mitochondrial metabolism. As NSC metabolism relies mainly on glycolysis, whereas mature cells preferentially use oxidative phosphorylation, we studied how THs and mitochondrial metabolism interact on NSC fate determination. METHODS: We used a mitochondrial membrane potential marker in vivo to analyze mitochondrial activity in the different cell types in the SVZ of euthyroid and hypothyroid mice...
November 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099662/local-oxygen-homeostasis-during-various-neuronal-network-activity-states-in-the-mouse-hippocampus
#17
Justus Schneider, Nikolaus Berndt, Ismini E Papageorgiou, Jana Maurer, Sascha Bulik, Martin Both, Andreas Draguhn, Hermann-Georg Holzhütter, Oliver Kann
Cortical information processing comprises various activity states emerging from timed synaptic excitation and inhibition. However, the underlying energy metabolism is widely unknown. We determined the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) along a tissue depth of <0.3 mm in the hippocampal CA3 region during various network activities, including gamma oscillations and sharp wave-ripples that occur during wakefulness and sleep. These physiological states associate with sensory perception and memory formation, and critically depend on perisomatic GABA inhibition...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080027/the-onset-of-the-fetal-respiratory-rhythm-an-emergent-property-triggered-by-chemosensory-drive
#18
Sebastián Beltrán-Castillo, Consuelo Morgado-Valle, Jaime Eugenín
The mechanisms responsible for the onset of respiratory activity during fetal life are unknown. The onset of respiratory rhythm may be a consequence of the genetic program of each of the constituents of the respiratory network, so they start to interact and generate respiratory cycles when reaching a certain degree of maturation. Alternatively, generation of cycles might require the contribution of recently formed sensory inputs that will trigger oscillatory activity in the nascent respiratory neural network...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074702/respiratory-consequences-of-targeted-losses-of-hoxa5-gene-function-in-mice
#19
Kim Landry-Truchon, Stéphanie Fournier, Nicolas Houde, Jean-Philippe Rousseau, Lucie Jeannotte, Richard Kinkead
Fetal development of the respiratory tract and diaphragm requires strict coordination between genetically controlled signals and mechanical forces produced by the neural network that generates breathing. Being expressed in the mesenchyme of trachea, lung and diaphragm, and in phrenic motoneurons HOXA5 is a key transcription factor regulating lung development and function. Consequently, most Hoxa5(-/-) mutants die at birth from respiratory failure. However, the extensive effect of the null mutation makes it difficult to identify the origins of respiratory dysfunction in newborns...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073509/rhythms-of-the-body-rhythms-of-the-brain-respiration-neural-oscillations-and-embodied-cognition
#20
Somogy Varga, Detlef H Heck
In spite of its importance as a life-defining rhythmic movement and its constant rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the body, respiration has not received attention in Embodied Cognition (EC) literature. Our paper aims to show that (1) respiration exerts significant and unexpected influence on cognitive processes, and (2) it does so by modulating neural synchronization that underlies specific cognitive processes. Then, (3) we suggest that the particular example of respiration may function as a model for a general mechanism through which the body influences cognitive functioning...
October 23, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
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