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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088177/a-novel-quantitative-pcr-detects-babesia-infection-in-patients-not-identified-by-currently-available-non-nucleic-acid-amplification-tests
#1
Lavoisier Akoolo, Samantha Schlachter, Rasel Khan, Laura Alter, Albert D Rojtman, Kristine Gedroic, Purnima Bhanot, Nikhat Parveen
BACKGROUND: Ticks transmit Babesia microti, the causative agents of babesiosis in North America and Europe. Babesiosis is now endemic in Northeastern USA and affects people of all ages. Babesia species infect erythrocytes and can be transmitted through blood transfusion. Whole blood and blood products, which are not tested for Babesia, can cause transfusion-transmitted babesiosis (TTB) resulting in severe consequences in the immuno-compromised patients. The purpose of this study was epidemiological evaluation of babesiosis in a tick-infested state...
January 14, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086978/correlation-of-cytokine-level-with-the-severity-of-severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome
#2
Miao-Miao Liu, Xiao-Ying Lei, Hao Yu, Jian-Zhi Zhang, Xue-Jie Yu
BACKGROUND: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) was an emerging hemorrhagic fever that was caused by a tick-borne bunyavirus, SFTSV. Although SFTSV nonstructural protein can inhibit type I interferon (IFN-I) production Ex Vivo and IFN-I played key role in resistance SFTSV infection in animal model, the role of IFN-I in patients is not investigated. METHODS: We have assayed the concentration of IFN-α, a subtype of IFN-I as well as other cytokines in the sera of SFTS patients and the healthy population with CBA (Cytometric bead array) assay...
January 13, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086865/rnai-reveals-proteins-for-metabolism-and-protein-processing-associated-with-langat-virus-infection-in-ixodes-scapularis-black-legged-tick-ise6-cells
#3
Jeffrey M Grabowski, Monika Gulia-Nuss, Richard J Kuhn, Catherine A Hill
BACKGROUND: Tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFs) cause thousands of human cases of encephalitis worldwide each year, with some TBF infections progressing to hemorrhagic fever. TBFs are of medical and veterinary importance and strategies to reduce flavivirus transmission by the tick vector may have significant application. Analyses of the proteome of ISE6 cells derived from the black legged tick, Ixodes scapularis infected with the TBF, Langat virus (LGTV), have provided insights into proteins and cellular processes involved with LGTV infection...
January 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077444/protein-interactions-during-the-flavivirus-and-hepacivirus-life-cycle
#4
Gisa Gerold, Janina Bruening, Bettina Weigel, Thomas Pietschmann
Protein-protein interactions govern biological functions in cells, in the extracellular milieu and at the border between cells and extracellular space. Viruses are small intracellular parasites and thus rely on protein interactions to produce progeny inside host cells and to spread from cell to cell. Usage of host proteins by viruses can have severe consequences e.g. apoptosis, metabolic disequilibria or altered cell proliferation and mobility. Understanding protein interactions during virus infection can thus educate us on viral infection and pathogenesis mechanisms...
January 11, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077149/plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-co-infection-with-tick-borne-relapsing-fever-in-dakar
#5
Mamadou A Diallo, Baidy S Kane, Mouhamadou Ndiaye, Mouhamed Dieng, Khadim Diongue, Aida S Badiane, Mame Cheikh Seck, Daouda Ndiaye
BACKGROUND: West African tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) due to Borrelia crocidurae and malaria are co-endemics in Senegal. Although expected to be high, co-infections are rarely reported. A case of falciparum malaria and B. crocidurae co-infection in a patient from Velingara (South of Senegal) is discussed. CASE: A 28 year-old-male patient presented to Aristide Le Dantec Hospital for recurrent fever. He initially presented to a local post health of Pikine (sub-urban of Dakar) and was diagnosed for malaria on the basis of positive malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) specific to Plamodium falciparum...
January 11, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074976/utility-of-urinary-markers-in-the-assessment-of-renal-dysfunction-in-canine-babesiosis
#6
Dagmara Winiarczyk, Łukasz Adaszek, Michał Bartnicki, Beata Abramowicz, Paweł Łyp, Jacek Madany, Stanisław Winiarczyk
OBJECTIVE: Canine babesiosis is a common and clinically significant tick-borne disease caused by haemoprotozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. Acute renal failure is considered to be one of the most prevalent complications of canine babesiosis. This complication leads to a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate and in consequence causes azotemia and uremia. The objective of this study was to assess the localization and extent of renal damage in dogs infected with Babesia canis using an urinary marker for glomerular (urinary immunoglobulin G, uIgG), proximal tubular dysfunction (urinary retinol binding protein, uRBP) and distal tubular dysfunction (urinary Tamm-Horsfal protein, uTHP)...
January 11, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073909/the-detection-of-spotted-fever-group-rickettsia-dna-in-tick-samples-from-pastoral-communities-in-kenya
#7
Hellen Koka, Rosemary Sang, Helen Lydia Kutima, Lillian Musila
In this study, ticks from pastoral communities in Kenya were tested for Rickettsia spp. infections in geographical regions where the presence of tick-borne arboviruses had previously been reported. Rickettsial and arbovirus infections have similar clinical features which makes differential diagnosis challenging when both diseases occur. The tick samples were tested for Rickettsia spp. by conventional PCR using three primer sets targeting the gltA, ompA, and ompB genes followed by amplicon sequencing. Of the tick pools screened, 25% (95/380) were positive for Rickettsia spp...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073402/deep-sequencing-analysis-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-from-questing-ticks-at-natural-foci-reveals-similarities-between-quasispecies-pools-of-the-virus
#8
Naveed Asghar, John H-O Pettersson, Patrik Dinnetz, Åshild Andreassen, Magnus Johansson
Every year, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes severe central nervous system infection in 10,000 to 15,000 people in Europe and Asia. TBEV is maintained in the environment by an enzootic cycle that requires a tick vector and a vertebrate host, and the adaptation of TBEV to vertebrate and invertebrate environments is essential for TBEV persistence in nature. This adaptation is facilitated by the error-prone nature of the virus' RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that generates genetically distinct virus variants called quasispecies...
January 10, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072517/arthropod-innate-immune-systems-and-vector-borne-diseases
#9
Richard H G Baxter, Alicia Contet, Kathryn Krueger
Arthropods, especially ticks and mosquitoes, are the vectors for a number of parasitic and viral human diseases including malaria, sleeping sickness, Dengue and Zika. Yet arthropods show tremendous individual variation in their capacity to transmit disease. A key factor in this capacity is genetically encoded immune factors that counteract infection by the pathogen. Arthropod-specific pattern recognition receptors and protease cascades detect and respond to infection. Proteins such as antimicrobial peptides, thioester-containing proteins, and transglutaminases effect responses such as lysis, phagocytosis, melanization and agglutination...
January 10, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069471/an-unexpected-fatal-cchf-case-and-management-of-exposed-health-care-workers
#10
Goksel Guven, Leyla Talan, Neriman Defne Altintaş, Kemal Osman Memikoglu, Fugen Yoruk, Alpay Azap
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick borne viral disease which can also be transmitted by direct contact with blood or tissue specimens of infected animals or humans. We present a fatal case of CCHF, who was diagnosed after death, and describe the post-exposure management plan for the health care workers (HCWs) involved in her care. In total of 52 HCWs were involved in the patient's care and they were stratified into risk groups. Overall, 20 HCWs were grouped in high and intermediate risk groups, including the HCW with needle stick injury...
January 6, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069059/molecular-detection-of-rickettsia-species-in-ticks-collected-from-the-southwestern-provinces-of-the-republic-of-korea
#11
Yoontae Noh, Yeong Seon Lee, Heung-Chul Kim, Sung-Tae Chong, Terry A Klein, Ju Jiang, Allen L Richards, Hae Kyeong Lee, Su Yeon Kim
BACKGROUND: Rickettsiae constitute a group of arthropod-borne, Gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria that are the causative agents of diseases ranging from mild to life threatening that impact on medical and veterinary health worldwide. METHODS: A total of 6,484 ticks were collected by tick drag from June-October 2013 in the southwestern provinces of the Republic of Korea (ROK) (Jeollanam, n = 3,995; Jeollabuk, n = 680; Chungcheongnam, n = 1,478; and Chungcheongbuk, n = 331)...
January 10, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063832/the-risk-of-exposure-to-rickettsial-infections-and-human-granulocytic-anaplasmosis-associated-with-ixodes-ricinus-tick-bites-in-humans-in-romania-a-multiannual-study
#12
Ioana Adriana Matei, Zsuzsa Kalmár, Mihaela Lupşe, Gianluca D'Amico, Angela Monica Ionică, Mirabela Oana Dumitrache, Călin Mircea Gherman, Andrei Daniel Mihalca
Anaplasma phagocytophilum and spotted fever group Rickettsia are obligate intracellular Gram-negative tick-borne bacteria, among which several may cause clinical infections in humans. Several Rickettsia spp. and A. phagocytophilum are transmitted in Europe by Ixodes ricinus, the most common tick species feeding on humans in this area. The aim of this study was to evaluate the annual prevalence of Rickettsia spp. and A. phagocytophilum in I. ricinus collected from humans during three consecutive years. The mean prevalences of the infection with the investigated pathogens in I...
December 29, 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060928/synanthropic-mammals-as-potential-hosts-of-tick-borne-pathogens-in-panama
#13
Sergio E Bermúdez, Nicole Gottdenker, Aparna Krishnvajhala, Amy Fox, Hannah K Wilder, Kadir González, Diorene Smith, Marielena López, Milixa Perea, Chystrie Rigg, Santiago Montilla, José E Calzada, Azael Saldaña, Carlos M Caballero, Job E Lopez
Synanthropic wild mammals can be important hosts for many vector-borne zoonotic pathogens. The aim of this study was determine the exposure of synanthropic mammals to two types of tick-borne pathogens in Panama, spotted fever group Rickettsia (SFGR) and Borrelia relapsing fever (RF) spirochetes. One hundred and thirty-one wild mammals were evaluated, including two gray foxes, two crab-eating foxes (from zoos), four coyotes, 62 opossum and 63 spiny rats captured close to rural towns. To evaluate exposure to SFGR, serum samples from the animals were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using Rickettsia rickettsii and Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii antigen...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060823/the-antiviral-rnai-response-in-vector-and-non-vector-cells-against-orthobunyaviruses
#14
Isabelle Dietrich, Xiaohong Shi, Melanie McFarlane, Mick Watson, Anne-Lie Blomström, Jessica K Skelton, Alain Kohl, Richard M Elliott, Esther Schnettler
BACKGROUND: Vector arthropods control arbovirus replication and spread through antiviral innate immune responses including RNA interference (RNAi) pathways. Arbovirus infections have been shown to induce the exogenous small interfering RNA (siRNA) and Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathways, but direct antiviral activity by these host responses in mosquito cells has only been demonstrated against a limited number of positive-strand RNA arboviruses. For bunyaviruses in general, the relative contribution of small RNA pathways in antiviral defences is unknown...
January 6, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058113/transmission-bottlenecks-and-rnai-collectively-influence-tick-borne-flavivirus-evolution
#15
Nathan D Grubaugh, Claudia Rückert, Philip M Armstrong, Angela Bransfield, John F Anderson, Gregory D Ebel, Doug E Brackney
Arthropod-borne RNA viruses exist within hosts as heterogeneous populations of viral variants and, as a result, possess great genetic plasticity. Understanding the micro-evolutionary forces shaping these viruses can provide insights into how they emerge, adapt, and persist in new and changing ecological niches. While considerable attention has been directed toward studying the population dynamics of mosquito-borne viruses, little is known about tick-borne virus populations. Therefore, using a mouse and Ixodes scapularis tick transmission model, we examined Powassan virus (POWV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) populations in and between both the vertebrate host and arthropod vector...
July 2016: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057731/extremely-low-genomic-diversity-of-rickettsia-japonica-distributed-in-japan
#16
Arzuba Akter, Tadasuke Ooka, Yasuhiro Gotoh, Seigo Yamamoto, Hiromi Fujita, Fumio Terasoma, Kouji Kida, Masakatsu Taira, Fumiko Nakadouzono, Mutsuyo Gokuden, Manabu Hirano, Mamoru Miyashiro, Kouichi Inari, Yukie Shimazu, Kenji Tabara, Atsushi Toyoda, Dai Yoshimura, Takehiko Itoh, Tomokazu Kitano, Mitsuhiko P Sato, Keisuke Katsura, Shakhinur Islam Mondal, Yoshitoshi Ogura, Shuji Ando, Tetsuya Hayashi
Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that have small genomes as a result of reductive evolution. Many Rickettsia species of the spotted fever group (SFG) cause tick-borne diseases known as "spotted fevers." The life cycle of SFG rickettsiae is closely associated with that of the tick, which is generally thought to act as a bacterial vector and reservoir that maintains the bacterium through transstadial and transovarial transmission. Each SFG member is thought to have adapted to a specific tick species, thus restricting the bacterial distribution to a relatively limited geographic region...
January 4, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057067/lyme-disease-risk-in-southern-california-abiotic-and-environmental-drivers-of-ixodes-pacificus-acari-ixodidae-density-and-infection-prevalence-with-borrelia-burgdorferi
#17
Andrew J MacDonald, David W Hyon, John B Brewington, Kerry E O'Connor, Andrea Swei, Cheryl J Briggs
BACKGROUND: Tick-borne diseases, particularly Lyme disease, are emerging across the northern hemisphere. In order to manage emerging diseases and predict where emergence will likely occur, it is necessary to understand the factors influencing the distribution, abundance and infection prevalence of vector species. In North America, Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease and is transmitted by blacklegged ticks. This study aimed to explore the abiotic and environmental drivers of density and infection prevalence of western blacklegged ticks (Ixodes pacificus) in southern California, an understudied and densely populated region of North America...
January 5, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055579/guidelines-for-the-direct-detection-of-anaplasma-spp-in-diagnosis-and-epidemiological-studies
#18
Cornelia Silaghi, Ana Sofia Santos, Jacinto Gomes, Iva Christova, Ioana Adriana Matei, Gernot Walder, Ana Domingos, Lesley Bell-Sakyi, Hein Sprong, Friederike D von Loewenich, José A Oteo, José de la Fuente, J Stephen Dumler
The genus Anaplasma (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) comprises obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteria that are mainly transmitted by ticks, and currently includes six species: Anaplasma bovis, Anaplasma centrale, Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, and Anaplasma ovis. These have long been known as etiological agents of veterinary diseases that affect domestic and wild animals worldwide. A zoonotic role has been recognized for A. phagocytophilum, but other species can also be pathogenic for humans...
January 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055518/rocky-mountain-spotted-fever
#19
Jennan Phillips
The tick-borne disease Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) can have deadly outcomes unless treated appropriately, yet nonspecific flu-like symptoms complicate diagnosis. Occupational health nurses must have a high index of suspicion with symptomatic workers and recognize that recent recreational or occupational activities with potential tick exposure may suggest RMSF.
January 2017: Workplace Health & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054584/inefficient-co-feeding-transmission-of-borrelia-afzelii-in-two-common-european-songbirds
#20
Dieter J A Heylen, Hein Sprong, Aleksandra Krawczyk, Natalie Van Houtte, Dolores Genné, Andrea Gomez-Chamorro, Kees van Oers, Maarten J Voordouw
The spirochete bacterium Borrelia afzelii is the most common cause of Lyme borreliosis in Europe. This tick-borne pathogen can establish systemic infections in rodents but not in birds. However, several field studies have recovered larval Ixodes ricinus ticks infected with B. afzelii from songbirds suggesting successful transmission of B. afzelii. We reviewed the literature to determine which songbird species were the most frequent carriers of B. afzelii-infected I. ricinus larvae and nymphs. We tested experimentally whether B...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
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